To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented worldwide crisis affecting several sectors, including health, social care, economy and society at large. The World Health Organisation has emphasized that mental health care should be considered as one of the core sectors within the overall COVID-19 health response. By March 2020, recommendations for the organization of mental health services across Europe have been developed by several national and international mental health professional associations.
The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) surveyed a large European sample of psychiatrists, namely the “EPA Ambassadors”, on their clinical experience of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the treatment of psychiatric patients during the month of April 2020 in order to: a) identify and report the views and experiences of European psychiatrists; and b) represent and share these results with mental health policy makers at European level. Based on the recommendations issued by national psychiatric associations and on the results of our survey, we identified important organisational aspects of mental health care during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19.
While most of the recommendations followed the same principles, significant differences between countries emerged in service delivery, mainly relating to referrals to outpatients and for inpatient admission, assessments and treatment for people with mental disorders. Compared to previous months, the mean number of patients treated by psychiatrists in outpatient settings halved in April 2020. In the same period, the number of mentally ill patients tested for, or developing, COVID-19 was low. In most of countries, traditional face-to-face visits were replaced by online remote consultations.
Based on our findings we recommend: 1) to implement professional guidelines into practice and harmonize psychiatric clinical practice across Europe; 2) to monitor the treatment outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing mental disorders; 3) to keep psychiatric services active by using all available options (for example telepsychiatry); 4) to increase communication and cooperation between different health care providers.
Cet article interroge l’héritage, la mission et l’avenir des Annales en se concentrant sur les dix dernières années de la revue. Pour ce faire, il reprend quelques-uns des choix éditoriaux, des thèmes et des articles récents afin d’explorer la façon dont ceux-ci servent à se libérer des modèles et des méthodes associés au passé des Annales, tout en analysant la manière dont certains des aspects de ce passé sont conservés. Les Annales se sont longtemps caractérisées par leur(s) approche(s) méthodologique(s) plutôt que par un sujet ou un thème spécifique. La force de ce paradigme réside dans ses aspirations interdisciplinaires, qui ont rassemblé des historiens issus d’horizons divers dans le but partagé de remettre en question le statu quo. Cet accent mis sur la méthode a toutefois un revers : conduire à la promotion, sinon d’un style, du moins d’une approche propre aux Annales, quitte à ossifier le paradigme et lui faire perdre sa nature protéiforme. L’article tente ainsi d’expliquer non seulement les promesses et les pièges, mais aussi les nouvelles directions que la revue pourrait prendre à l’avenir.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
The study focuses on the point prevalence of major depressive episode in the Estonian population in 2006 and assesses the relationship of sociodemographic factors, health status indicators, alcohol use, and previous depressive episodes to major depression.
The present major depressive episode was assessed within the nationally representative, cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey (EHIS 2006), in which non-institutionalized individuals aged 18–84 years (n = 6105) were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
The point prevalence of major depressive episode in the Estonian population was 5.6%. Depression was higher among females, in the non-Estonian ethnic group, among people older than 40 years, and in the lower-income group.
The point prevalence of major depressive episodes was comparable with the results of other population surveys, being a little higher than the average. Age, income, ethnicity, health status, self-rated health, and previous depressive episode were independent associates of depression.