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Attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder is a common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, and Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line therapeutic option for treating ADHD.However, how brain connectivity changes with methylphenidate treatment have yet to be studied.
This study investigates how the MPH treatment affects the connectivity in the brain of children with ADHD by coherence-based qEEG analysis during rest.
During eyes-open resting, EEG signals were recorded from 25 boys with ADHD-combined type before MPH administration and at the end of the 1st month of the treatment. Mutual Information (MI),Coherence Function (COH) and Phase Locking Value (PLV) were used to analyse the changes in brain connectivity.
A statistically significant increase in connectivity level was found with MPH treatment between the F3-F4 channels, P3-P4 channels, F7-F8 channels and T5-T6 channels according to PLV, COH and MI analysis (p<0.001).
This is the first study to investigate how MPH treatment affects the connectivity of the brain of children with ADHD. Coherence-based qEEG analysis may be a new method that can be used in diagnostic, clinical and prognostic predictions in ADHD.
Other markers investigated in this population have gained importance in the diagnosis of the disease since the course of COVID-19 disease is atypical in the paediatric population and PCR may be misleading. The leukocyte profile is one of these biochemical tests. Children did not have lymphopenia in hemogram count, whereas relatively neutropenia and monocytosis were detected, unlike the adult population. The reason why children do not have lymphopenia is thought to be due to the fact that the thymus is more active in the first years of life.
Two-hundred and four patients operated in our paediatric cardiac surgery clinic from 11March, 2020 to 1 April, 2021 were retrospectively examined and 11 patients with preoperative asymptomatic and PCR (−), but with PCR (+) in the post-operative period (patients with incubation period or false PCR negativity) were included in our study. Patients requiring emergency operation and operated from PCR (+) patients in the preoperative period were excluded from the study.
The neutrophil ratio in the lymphocytic series of 7 patients out of 11 patients was slightly below the normal range in the preoperative period, the lymphocyte ratio of 3 patients was slightly above the normal range, and the relative monocyte ratio of 10 patients was slightly above the normal range.
We think that evaluating the leukocyte profile combined with RT-PCR will give more accurate results in the diagnosis of incubation period and false RT-PCR negative patients. In addition, we believe that the algorithms for non-complex paediatric cardiac surgery procedures and timing in the paediatric population with a better course of COVID-19 disease with a positive post-operative course.
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is one of an atypical parkinsonian syndromes characterized by extrapyramidal features as well as cortical involvement signs. A variety of factors may lead to delirium in older adults with chronic progressive life-limiting neurological illnesses like CBS. Ogilvie's syndrome (OS) is an acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in which abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, and constipation can be seen. We report a case of OS identified as the underlying possible cause of delirium in an 80-year-old woman with CBS. We also discuss the importance of holistic approach which is essential to manage the underlying cause and to preserve the quality of life in particular for the frail geriatric population who potentially needs palliative care or already benefits from palliative care.
An older patient with CBS presented with symptoms similar to that of acute colonic obstruction and subsequently developed delirium. The patient was found to have colonic pseudo-obstruction (OS).
Neostigmin infusion was therefore given to treat it and delirium was resolved.
Significance of results
To the best of our knowledge, clinical manifestation of delirium as OS in a patient with CBS has not been previously reported. OS may be superimposed to CBS in older patients, and OS in such patients may play a role as a precipitating factor for the development of delirium. Given the fact that CBS is progressive and rare neurodegenerative disease and almost all of these patients need palliative care, eventually, health-care professionals, especially in palliative care, should be aware of distinctive challenges of life-limiting chronic neurological illnesses, such as conditions that may lead to the development of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction because the rapid treatment of them prevents the use of potentially harmful drugs, surgical procedures, or inappropriate interventions.
The purpose of this study is to determine the relation between the internet addiction levels of secondary school students and the perceived family support.
The study was conducted in the cross-sectional and descriptive design, and the data were collected from 3391 students who were studying at 5th and 7th grades at 23 secondary schools in the city of Burdur and its central villages. The Personal Information Form, the Internet Addiction Scale, and the Social Support Received from the Family Scale were used to collect the data. The data were collected between the dates 15.11.2013 and 15.01.2014. After the necessary explanations were made to the students, the informed consent form were sent to their parents/legal guardians, and the students who returned these forms were included in the study. The numbers, percentages, average values, and standard deviation, which are among the descriptive statistical methods, were used in evaluating the data. The Pearson correlation and regression analysis were applied between the continuous variables of the study.
It was observed in the study that 4.6% of the students had internet addiction at pathological level. The factors that influenced the internet addiction were determined as the social support received from the family, being male, low school success, weekly allowance being high, studying at senior grades, and going online frequently.
When the study results are analyzed it is observed that the internet addiction in secondary school students in our country is at a rate that has to be taken seriously.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is a limited amount of data regarding the relationship between epilepsy and psychiatric symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in children and adolescents.
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of depression, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children and adolescents with epilepsy.
The sample consisted of 75 children with epilepsy and 50 healthy controls aged 8–18 years. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the psychiatric status and HRQL of the patients.
Patients had lower child-rated psychosocial and total area HRQL scores, and lower parent-rated psychosocial, physical and total area HRQL scores than the controls did. Inattention scores of the epilepsy group were significantly higher compared to controls. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in terms of anxiety and depression scores. Regarding determinants of HRQL, severity of depression and anxiety had a decreasing effect on child-rated HRQL total scores; and severity of anxiety had a decreasing effect on parent-rated HRQL total scores.
Epilepsy is associated with poor QoL in childhood and severity of depression and anxiety are among the determinants of QoL. Clinicians should be more aware of accompanying psychiatric symptoms in epileptic patients and take the necessary precautions in the early period of the illness in an effort to improve QoL.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We introduce a notion of complexity of diagrams (and, in particular, of objects and morphisms) in an arbitrary category, as well as a notion of complexity of functors between categories equipped with complexity functions. We discuss several examples of this new definition in categories of wide common interest such as finite sets, Boolean functions, topological spaces, vector spaces, semilinear and semialgebraic sets, graded algebras, affine and projective varieties and schemes, and modules over polynomial rings. We show that on one hand categorical complexity recovers in several settings classical notions of nonuniform computational complexity (such as circuit complexity), while on the other hand it has features that make it mathematically more natural. We also postulate that studying functor complexity is the categorical analog of classical questions in complexity theory about separating different complexity classes.
In 2012, construction works at the traditional olive market at Tarsus, in Eski Ömerli district, revealed large-scale architectural remains of the Roman period; the construction works were halted and a salvage excavation was initiated by Tarsus Museum. The remains that appeared at the first stage of the excavations were interpreted as those of a reservoir from the Roman Imperial period, stretching along a N–S axis. On the E side, a structure projects from the E wall of the reservoir, containing a pool that collects water flowing from drainage pipes set in the reservoir’s façade. The pool was extended in two stages in late antiquity.1 Two metres north of this pool and 3 m from the E wall of the reservoir, the excavations revealed a mosaic pavement (9.73 x 5.05 m), apparently forming part of the floor of a building running parallel to the reservoir’s wall (fig. 1).
Surface flux transport (SFT) models have been successful in reproducing how magnetic flux at the solar photosphere evolves on large scales. SFT modelling proved to be useful in reconstructing secular irradiance variations of the Sun, and it can be potentially used in forward modelling of brightness variations of Sun-like stars. We outline our current understanding of solar and stellar SFT processes, and suggest that nesting of activity can play an important role in shaping large-scale patterns of magnetic fields and brightness variability.
There is still a need for short, practical, and daily-appropriate scales to distinguish between normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia for patients with memory complaints. This study aimed to determine validity and reliability of AD8 (Dementia Screening Interview) to detect both MCI and dementia in Turkish geriatric outpatients.
Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed in 334 patients, who attended with their informants to the geriatric outpatient clinic for memory complaints. In addition to the AD8, they were screened using Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and Mini-Mental State Examination. The diagnosis of dementia and MCI was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria.
The mean age of the patients was 74.5±8.5. Of them, 156 were considered as non-cognitive impairment, 60 as MCI, and 118 as dementia. Cronbach's α value of the AD8 was 0.928. The total AD8 scores were found to be negatively correlated with the MMSE scores (r = −0.801), and positively correlated with CDR score (r = 0.879) (p < 0.001, for each). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.979 for cognitive impairment, and 0.999 for dementia. We found that AD8 can show dementia and MCI when the cut-off values are ≥5 and 3–4, respectively, with a sensitivity of 100% and 81.67% and specificity of 96.3% and 93.59%.
AD8 is one of the fast, simple, and sensitive screening methods for detecting both minor and major cognitive impairments. With regard to these features, it can be used in older adults attending the primary care settings with memory complaints.
We read with interest the comment by Williamson and Larner on our recent study titled “Attended With and Head-Turning Sign can be clinical markers of cognitive impairment in older adults” (Soysal et al., 2017). After the authors read the study, they re-examined their data according to the presence of Attended With (AW) and Head-Turning Sign (HTS), and compared their results with ours (Larner, 2014). Then, they found that while the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AW in detecting cognitive impairment were similar to ours, HTS had lower sensitivity (80.95% vs. 65.0%) and higher specificity (64.7% vs. 95.0%) than our results (Larner, 2014; Soysal et al., 2017). We think that some methodological and cultural differences may explain these discrepancies between the two.
The detection of organic molecules that are indicative of past or present biological activity within the Solar System bodies and beyond is a key research area in astrobiology. Mars is of particular interest in this regard because of evidence of a (perhaps transient) warm and wet climate in its past. To date, space missions to Mars have primarily used pyrolysis technique to extract organic compounds from the Martian regolith, but it has not enabled a clear detection of unaltered native Martian organics. The elevated temperatures required for pyrolysis extraction can cause native Martian organics to react with perchlorate salts in the regolith, possibly resulting in the chlorohydrocarbons that have been detected by mass spectrometry, a commonly used in situ technique for space applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction technique is a powerful alternative to pyrolysis that may be capable of extracting and delivering unaltered native organic species to an analyser. In this study, we report the SCCO2 extraction of unaltered amino acids (AAs) with simple laboratory analyses of extracts by capillary electrophoresis laser-induced fluorescence (CE/LIF) and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) techniques. The extraction efficiencies of several representative AAs using SCCO2 with small amounts of pure water (~1–5%) as a co-solvent were determined. Glass beads were used as a model substrate to examine the effects of several experimental parameters and Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mars-1A Martian regolith simulant was used to study the effect of complex matrix on extraction efficiencies. With optimized experimental conditions (75C and 5% of water), extraction efficiencies from doped JSC Mars-1A were found to be ~40% for glycine, alanine and serine and ~10% for lysine. Extraction of native organics from undoped JSC Mars-1A suggests that SCCO2/water solvent system can extract both organics extractable with pure SCCO2 and those extractable with pure water. Additionally, species not extracted by either pure SCCO2 or pure water were extracted with SCCO2/water solvent. Despite the preliminary nature of this work, it paves the path for more comprehensive extraction studies of astrobiologically relevant samples with thorough analyses of resulting extracts.
Depression is a common and serious healthcare problem for older adults. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of GDS-4 and GDS-5 in Turkish, and to establish a new short-form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for our population, and also determine the superiority of each short scale to another.
A total of 437 outpatients were enrolled in the study. A researcher evaluated all participants according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, and then another researcher applied GDS-15 to all participants. We obtained the answers of short GDS forms, examined in this study, from GDS-15 forms. After Cohen's κ analysis, we compared the diagnostic value of each question for geriatric depression according to their κ values, and developed three (TGDS-3), four (TGDS-4), five (TGDS-5), and six (TGDS-6) question scales to screen geriatric depression in Turkish population.
A total of 437 participants were assessed. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 72.95 years (7.37).Cronbach's α values of GDS-4 and GDS-5 were <0.70. Cronbach's α values of TGDS-3, TGDS-4, TGDS-5, and TGDS-6 were >0.70. The best cut-off values were ≥5 for GDS-15 and GDS-5, and ≥1 for others.
GDS-15 is the most powerful screening scale for geriatric depression. GDS-4 and GDS-5 are not eligible for depression screening in Turkish older adults. All new short scales are valid and reliable, and TGDS-4 is a practical, less time-consuming option for daily practice.
The tilt angle of a sunspot group is a critical quantity in the surface transport of magnetic flux and the solar dynamo. To contribute long-term databases of the tilt angle, we developed an IDL routine, which allows the user to interactively select and measure sunspot positions and areas on the solar disc. We measured the tilt angles of sunspot groups for solar cycles 19-24 (1954.6-2017.8), using the sunspot drawing database of Kandilli Observatory. The method is similar to that used in the discontinued Mt. Wilson and Kodaikanal databases, with the exception that sunspot groups were identified manually, which has improved the accuracy of the resulting tilt angles. We obtained cycle averages of the tilt angle and compared them with the values from other datasets, keeping the same group selection criteria. We conclude that the previously reported anti-correlation with the cycle strength needs further investigation.