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A two-year field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of intercropping sweet corn with summer savory on weed growth and crop productivity. Five cropping patterns were set up: sweet corn alone (16 seeds m-2: in rows, 75cm apart), summer savory alone (40 seeds m-2; broadcasted), and three intercropping ratios of 75% sweet corn, 25% summer savory (75%C: 25%S), 50%C: 50%S and 25%C: 75%S, of plant densities used in respective monocultures. When intercropping, weed biomass decreased as the proportion of summer savory increased with a reduction of 48%, 61% and 70 % in 75%C: 25%S, 50%C: 50%S and 25%C: 75%S, respectively, compared to sweet corn alone. In parallel, sweet corn yield was higher under intercropping compared to its monoculture, and increased as the proportion of summer savory decreased with yield increases compared to corn monoculture of 38%, 32% and 15% in the first year and 48%, 23% and 14 % in the second year in 75%C: 25%S, 50%C: 50%S and 25%C: 75%S, respectively. However, the intercropping pattern had the opposite effect on summer savory yield with a significant reduction in yield with an increasing ratio of sweet corn. Our results indicate that intercropping sweet corn with summer savory can increase both weed suppression and yield of sweet corn compared to crop monoculture.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe condition that is associated with trauma-related guilt. We aimed at providing a comprehensive quantitative systematic review on the relationship between trauma-related guilt and adult PTSD. Database searches in Medline, PsycINFO, PTSDpubs and Web of Knowledge resulted in the inclusion of 163 eligible studies with a total of 35 020 trauma survivors. The studies reported on 157 cross-sectional and 19 longitudinal data points. Overall, we included 135 studies not included in previous meta-analyses. Random-effect models yielded a moderate cross-sectional correlation (r = 0.38, 95% CI 0.35–0.42, p < 0.001, I2 = 90.3%) and a small to moderate predictive correlation (r = 0.21, 95% CI 0.13–0.29, p < 0.001, I2 = 66.7%). The association appeared to be stable over time and was robust to sensitivity analyses. All symptom clusters significantly correlated with guilt. No effects were found for military v. civilian populations or clinical v. non-clinical samples. Effects were smaller for high-quality studies and larger for instruments based on DSM-5. Further significant moderators were type of guilt measure and trauma type. The largest association was found among participants reporting war-related trauma (r = 0.44, 95% CI 0.36–0.51) and the smallest among survivors of motor-vehicle accidents (r = 0.18, 95% CI 0.02–0.33). The results underpin the role of trauma-related guilt in the onset and maintenance of PTSD symptoms, which have important clinical implications. Future studies should further explore the change interactions of guilt and PTSD symptoms.
In recent years, populist radical right parties (PRRPs) have continued to establish themselves in parliaments across Europe. However, there is little research on party responses in parliaments. This article explores how mainstream parties have dealt with the Alternative for Germany (AfD) in state parliaments. Its contribution is twofold: theoretically, it links the existing literature on party responses to the parliamentary arena and proposes a comprehensive framework for analyzing party responses in parliament, distinguishing between the formal and the policy level. Moreover, it tries to understand the variation of responses by emphasizing three important factors: party ideology, the government–opposition divide, and the federal structure of parties. Empirically, the article explores the crucial variation of response patterns toward the AfD at the subnational level, which is often neglected in the study of PRRPs. The results show that party responses reflect an ongoing learning process with no ‘magic formula’ in sight. Overall, the article underlines the importance of party responses in the initial phase for the PRRPs’ impact and offers substantial theoretical and empirical impetus for future research.
Aberrant brain connectivity during emotional processing, especially within the fronto-limbic pathway, is one of the hallmarks of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the methodological heterogeneity of previous studies made it difficult to determine the functional and etiological implications of specific alterations in brain connectivity. We previously reported alterations in psychophysiological interaction measures during emotional face processing, distinguishing depressive pathology from at-risk/resilient and healthy states. Here, we extended these findings by effective connectivity analyses in the same sample to establish a refined neural model of emotion processing in depression.
Thirty-seven patients with MDD, 45 first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 97 healthy controls performed a face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used dynamic causal modeling to estimate task-dependent effective connectivity at the subject level. Parametric empirical Bayes was performed to quantify group differences in effective connectivity.
MDD patients showed decreased effective connectivity from the left amygdala and left lateral prefrontal cortex to the fusiform gyrus compared to relatives and controls, whereas patients and relatives showed decreased connectivity from the right orbitofrontal cortex to the left insula and from the left orbitofrontal cortex to the right fusiform gyrus compared to controls. Relatives showed increased connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to patients and controls.
Our results suggest that the depressive state alters top-down control of higher visual regions during face processing. Alterations in connectivity within the cognitive control network present potential risk or resilience mechanisms.
Thomas Roberts Malthus is typically considered a ‘classical’ economist together with Adam Smith and David Ricardo. However, in important respects his view differed fundamentally from theirs, as Keynes emphasised in his biographical essay on Malthus. Most importantly, Malthus vehemently opposed Ricardo’s doctrine that it was impossible for effective aggregate demand to be deficient. Keynes, who also insisted on the possibility of effective demand failures, therefore considered Malthus to have been a precursor of his own view. The chapter discusses the following themes. What was the classical conception of ‘Say’s law’ and what were the reasons why Ricardo endorsed and Malthus rejected it? What were the main lines of reasoning in the ‘general glut’ controversy between Malthus and Ricardo? Was Keynes justified in considering Malthus’s doctrine to foreshadow his own doctrine, and if not, why not? What are the reasons why according to Pasinetti the classical (Ricardo-Sraffa) approach to the theory of relative prices and income distribution is compatible with Keynes’s principle of effective demand?
Within the criminal justice system, the presence or absence of discretion is one of the most important determinants of whether or not the system secures justice for all parties and participants. The question is where justice lies on the spectrum running between criminal law by rules and criminal law by decision. Prosecutors in German and Anglo-American criminal law occupy distinctive roles, as decision-makers, due to both the institutional and normative framework, and the presence of both role duality and role ambiguity. Since prosecutorial discretion in the context of an investigation cannot be separated from police discretion, this chapter covers all discretionary decisions during the proceedings by prosecutors and the police. The chapter thus only deals with discretionary decisions of other agents (such as judicial discretion) from a conceptual perspective since the particular, constitutionally protected position of judges affects their discretion considerably. In the words of the German Constitutional Court: ‘Police forces and public prosecutors do not enjoy independence and cannot be expected – with regard to their investigatory powers and duties – to show the same strict neutrality as judges do.’
Criminal law and criminal justice are becoming increasingly globalised. In open societies, the era in which individual jurisdictions developed their own codes, statutes and systems of justice with no regard to other systems and countries is long over. There is a growing desire to develop common approaches to common problems and to learn from the diversity of current practice in different countries. This development has been reinforced by the internationalisation of criminal justice in international and mixed criminal tribunals. However, attempts at trans-jurisdictional discourse are often hampered by mutual misunderstandings. Some problems are linguistic: although English is the new lingua franca of international and comparative criminal law, not all foundational concepts of criminal law and justice originate in the English-speaking world; some of them are rooted in civil law jurisdictions, such as France, Germany and Italy. The translation of these concepts into English is subject to ambiguity and potential error: the same term may assume different meanings in different legal contexts.
The trans-jurisdictional discourse on criminal justice is often hampered by mutual misunderstandings. The translation of legal concepts from English into other languages and vice versa is subject to ambiguity and potential error: the same term may assume different meanings in different legal contexts. More importantly, legal systems may choose differing theoretical or policy approaches to resolving the same issues, which sometimes – but not always – lead to similar outcomes. This book is the second volume of a series in which eminent scholars from German-speaking and Anglo-American jurisdictions work together on comparative essays that explore foundational concepts of criminal law and procedure. Each topic is illuminated from German and Anglo-American perspectives, and differences and similarities are analysed.