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This study investigated whether the association between modifiable dementia risk and rate of cognitive decline differs across socioeconomic status (SES) strata.
Design, setting and participants:
Data were used from Maastricht Aging Study, a prospective cohort study with a 12-year follow-up. The baseline sample consisted of 1023 adults over 40 years old.
The “LIfestyle for BRAin health” (LIBRA) index was used to assess modifiable dementia risk. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 years, and measured in the domains of information processing speed, executive functioning and verbal memory function. An SES score was calculated from equivalent income and educational level (tertiles). Linear mixed models were used to study the association between LIBRA, SES and their interaction on the rate of cognitive decline.
Participants in the lowest SES tertile displayed more decline in information processing speed (vs. middle SES: X2 = 7.08, P = 0.029; vs. high SES: X2 = 9.49, P = 0.009) and verbal memory (vs. middle SES: X2 = 9.28, P < 0.001; vs. high SES: X2 = 16.68, P < 0.001) over 6 years compared to their middle- and high-SES counterparts. Higher (unhealthier) LIBRA scores were associated with more decline in information processing speed (X2 = 12.66, P = 0.002) over 12 years and verbal memory (X2 = 4.63, P = 0.032) over 6 years. No consistent effect modification by SES on the association between LIBRA and cognition was found.
Results suggest that lifestyle is an important determinant of cognitive decline across SES groups. Yet, people with low SES had a more unfavorable modifiable risk score suggesting more potential for lifestyle-based interventions.
The purpose of this study is to determine if healthier neighbourhood food environments are associated with healthier diet quality.
This was a cross-sectional study using linear regression models to analyse data from the Maastricht Study. Diet quality was assessed using data collected with a FFQ to calculate the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD). A buffer zone encompassing a 1000 m radius was created around each participant home address. The Food Environment Healthiness Index (FEHI) was calculated using a Kernel density analysis within the buffers of available food outlets. The association between the FEHI and the DHD score was analysed and adjusted for socio-economic variables.
The region of Maastricht including the surrounding food retailers in the Netherlands.
7367 subjects aged 40–75 years in the south of the Netherlands.
No relationship was identified between either the FEHI (B = 0·62; 95 % CI = –2·54, 3·78) or individual food outlets, such as fast food (B = –0·07; 95 % CI = –0·20, 0·07) and diet quality. Similar null findings using the FEHI were identified at the 500 m (B = 0·95; 95 % CI = –0·85, 2·75) and 1500 m (B = 1·57; 95 % CI = –3·30, 6·44) buffer. There was also no association between the food environment and individual items of the DHD including fruits, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages.
The food environment in the Maastricht area appeared marginally unhealthy, but the differences in the food environment were not related to the quality of food that participants reported as intake.
We investigate the diversity in the sizes and average surface densities of the neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) gas discs in $\sim$280 nearby galaxies detected by the Widefield ASKAP L-band Legacy All-sky Blind Survey (WALLABY). We combine the uniformly observed, interferometric H i data from pilot observations of the Hydra cluster and NGC 4636 group fields with photometry measured from ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared imaging surveys to investigate the interplay between stellar structure, star formation, and H i structural parameters. We quantify the H i structure by the size of the H i relative to the optical disc and the average H i surface density measured using effective and isodensity radii. For galaxies resolved by $>$$1.3$ beams, we find that galaxies with higher stellar masses and stellar surface densities tend to have less extended H i discs and lower H i surface densities: the isodensity H i structural parameters show a weak negative dependence on stellar mass and stellar mass surface density. These trends strengthen when we limit our sample to galaxies resolved by $>$2 beams. We find that galaxies with higher H i surface densities and more extended H i discs tend to be more star forming: the isodensity H i structural parameters have stronger correlations with star formation. Normalising the H i disc size by the optical effective radius (instead of the isophotal radius) produces positive correlations with stellar masses and stellar surface densities and removes the correlations with star formation. This is due to the effective and isodensity H i radii increasing with mass at similar rates while, in the optical, the effective radius increases slower than the isophotal radius. Our results are in qualitative agreement with previous studies and demonstrate that with WALLABY we can begin to bridge the gap between small galaxy samples with high spatial resolution H i data and large, statistical studies using spatially unresolved, single-dish data.
We present the Widefield ASKAP L-band Legacy All-sky Blind surveY (WALLABY) Pilot Phase I Hi kinematic models. This first data release consists of Hi observations of three fields in the direction of the Hydra and Norma clusters, and the NGC 4636 galaxy group. In this paper, we describe how we generate and publicly release flat-disk tilted-ring kinematic models for 109/592 unique Hi detections in these fields. The modelling method adopted here—which we call the WALLABY Kinematic Analysis Proto-Pipeline (WKAPP) and for which the corresponding scripts are also publicly available—consists of combining results from the homogeneous application of the FAT and 3DBarolo algorithms to the subset of 209 detections with sufficient resolution and
in order to generate optimised model parameters and uncertainties. The 109 models presented here tend to be gas rich detections resolved by at least 3–4 synthesised beams across their major axes, but there is no obvious environmental bias in the modelling. The data release described here is the first step towards the derivation of similar products for thousands of spatially resolved WALLABY detections via a dedicated kinematic pipeline. Such a large publicly available and homogeneously analysed dataset will be a powerful legacy product that that will enable a wide range of scientific studies.
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are risk factors for the development of psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia, particularly if associated with distress. As PLEs have been related to alterations in both white matter and cognition, we investigated whether cognition (g-factor and processing speed) mediates the relationship between white matter and PLEs.
We investigated two independent samples (6170 and 19 891) from the UK Biobank, through path analysis. For both samples, measures of whole-brain fractional anisotropy (gFA) and mean diffusivity (gMD), as indications of white matter microstructure, were derived from probabilistic tractography. For the smaller sample, variables whole-brain white matter network efficiency and microstructure were also derived from structural connectome data.
The mediation of cognition on the relationships between white matter properties and PLEs was non-significant. However, lower gFA was associated with having PLEs in combination with distress in the full available sample (standardized β = −0.053, p = 0.011). Additionally, lower gFA/higher gMD was associated with lower g-factor (standardized β = 0.049, p < 0.001; standardized β = −0.027, p = 0.003), and partially mediated by processing speed with a proportion mediated of 7% (p = < 0.001) for gFA and 11% (p < 0.001) for gMD.
We show that lower global white matter microstructure is associated with having PLEs in combination with distress, which suggests a direction of future research that could help clarify how and why individuals progress from subclinical to clinical psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, we replicated that processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter microstructure and g-factor.
Many books have been written about the incorporation of the Caribbean region, South Asia, Africa and Latin America into the global economy. Remarkably, few have dealt with Island Southeast Asia or Maritime Southeast Asia as a macro-region. For the Caribbean nations, it has been amply discussed how the legacies of the plantation economies consisted of meagre economic growth and massive unemployment. Conversely, scant attention has been given to the question how societies in Island Southeast Asia were turned into providers of cheap commodities and how this impacted their long-term development prospects. This silence is even more remarkable considering some striking parallels with Caribbean socio-economic trajectories. Today, emigration of millions is the fate of Island Southeast Asia, as it is for the Caribbean region. To break the silence and to invite further discussion I wrote The Making of a Periphery: How Island Southeast Asia Became a Mass Exporter. After reading the review by Dr Aguilar on this book in a previous issue of this journal, I felt that it could be worthwhile to highlight some of the main points of my argument about the peripheral integration of Island Southeast Asia in the global economy. I am grateful to the editors of the International Journal of Asian Studies for granting me the opportunity to do so.
At least half of the local galaxies reside in galaxy groups, which indicates that the group is the common environment where galaxies evolve. Therefore, it is important to probe how significantly galaxies are affected by group environmental processes, in order to obtain a better understanding of galaxy evolution. We carried out a new CO imaging survey for 31 galaxies in the IC 1459 and NGC 4636 groups, using the Atacama Compact Array, to study the effect of the group environment on the molecular gas properties and the star formation activity. With our resolved CO data, combined with high-resolution H i images, we find asymmetric CO and H i distributions in the group galaxies. Compared to isolated galaxies, group members have relatively low molecular gas fraction and low star formation rate. These results suggest that the group environment can change the properties of cold gas components and star formation in group galaxies.
Over the past 600 years, commodity frontiers – processes and sites of the incorporation of resources into the expanding capitalist world economy – have absorbed ever more land, ever more labour and ever more natural assets. In this paper, we claim that studying the global history of capitalism through the lens of commodity frontiers and using commodity regimes as an analytical framework is crucial to understanding the origins and nature of capitalism, and thus the modern world. We argue that commodity frontiers identify capitalism as a process rooted in a profound restructuring of the countryside and nature. They connect processes of extraction and exchange with degradation, adaptation and resistance in rural peripheries. To account for the enormous variety of actors and places involved in this history is a critical challenge in the social sciences, and one to which global history can contribute crucial insights.
This rejoinder is part of the round table discussion on the book The Making of a Periphery: How Island Southeast Asia Became a Mass Exporter of Labor. It pays tribute to the development economist and Nobel Prize winner Arthur W. Lewis, who studied the predicaments of plantation societies. The rejoinder addresses critical observations made about the above-mentioned book by Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, Pim de Zwart, Corey Ross, and Alberto Alonso-Fradejas. It underscores the importance of the role of demography and long histories of labour coercion to explain processes of peripheralization and mass emigration. It also points out the limits of classical development economics, namely a relative neglect of the ecological damage attending plantation exploitation. The commodity frontier approach is suggested as a way to address this shortcoming.
La stimulation magnétique transcrânienne répétitive (SMTr) appliquée sur le cortex préfrontal dorso-latéral (CPFDL) a prouvé son efficacité dans le traitement de la dépression résistante . En plus d’une amélioration sur la symptomatologie, des études rapportent des effets positifs sur le fonctionnement cognitif , dont la mémoire de travail. Cependant, cet effet ne semble pas être retrouvé chez des sujets sains  lors d’une tâche de N-back sans leurre. L’objectif de notre étude est donc d’évaluer l’impact de la SMTr sur le CPFDL, région plus sensible à une tâche de N-back avec leurre .
Une étude randomisée en double insu a été menée chez 30 participants sains. Une stimulation de type iTBS (intermittent theta burst stimulation) a été effectuée pendant 5 jours à raison de 2 séances/jour appliquée au niveau du CPFDL gauche ciblé par neuro-navigation sur les coordonnées MNI (X, Y, Z = –50,30,36). Nous avons observé l’impact de la SMTr sur le comportement des participants durant la tâche de N-back. Pour cela, les participants ont effectué cette tâche, composée de blocs de 0-back, 3-back et 3-back contenant des leurres, lors de deux sessions d’IRMf (une avant et une après la semaine de stimulation active ou placebo). La performance, le temps de réaction ainsi que les données d’imageries ont été recueillis.
Les 2 groupes ne montrent pas de différence au niveau de l’âge ou du genre. Au niveau comportemental, les premières analyses sur la performance ainsi que sur le temps de réaction ne montrent pas d’effet d’interaction Groupe (actif/placebo) * Temps (avant/après SMTr). Au niveau des données de neuro-imagerie, une analyse d’interaction Groupe * Temps en prenant en compte la condition leurre nous permettra de mieux comprendre l’impact de la SMTr sur la mémoire de travail impliquant le CPFDL.
Currently, 25-30% of Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients are considered to be resistant to conventional therapies (cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications including selective inhibitors of reuptake of serotonin and clomipramine). Among alternative therapeutic strategies for theses refractory patients, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed (Greenberg et al., 1997). Few regions were choice for OCD patients and one of them could be a promising target: the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA). The aim of this project focuses on evaluate the SMA as a promising region to treat OCD patients. Forty patients were include in this double blind study, each received 20 session of rTMS (1 session / day) for 4 weeks with active or sham coil. rTMS parameters consisted of 1500 pulses/d, at 1 Hz, 5 trains of 5 min with an interval inter- stimulus of 2 min and 100% of motor threshold. To localize the SMA, neuronavigation was based on anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using Brainsight software. The therapeutic effect of rTMS will be assessed through a psychological evaluation and a task performed in functional MRI, before and after therapeutic: The Eriksen’s task. Its objective is to evaluate cerebral metabolism’s modifications during a simple task likely to recruit the error detection system implicating the Anterior Cingulate Cortex without inducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This modification were correlated with clinical and cognitive assessment and behavioral results of the Eriksen task
The geographical term “Southeast Asia” dates from the 1930s, and came to denote a topic for academic studies in the early days of the Cold War. As such, it includes Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indochina, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Brunei, and the Philippines. Southeast Asia has become thoroughly incorporated in the global economy over the past 150 years; first, as a producer of commodities, and later, as a supplier of cheap garments and electronic components. Under Dutch colonialism and British hegemony—the latter established by the conquest of Burma and the imposition of free trade on Siam and the Philippines in the 1850s—Southeast Asia was turned into a key provider of commodities for the industrializing countries. During high colonialism, from 1870 to 1930, the region became increasingly intertwined, via Singapore as the central port and through the role of mainland Southeast Asia as the rice basket for the plantations of maritime Southeast Asia. After the Second World War, the region was the world's most violent frontier of containment for communist expansion. In recent decades, Southeast Asia has become integrated in global commodity chains as a producer of cheap industrial goods, often as a subcontractor for more advanced economies, such as those of Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, and later on, Southeast China.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
We investigate how the properties of spiral arms relate to other fundamental galaxy properties. To this end, we use previously published measurements of those properties, and our own measurements of arm-interarm luminosity contrasts for a large sample of galaxies, using 3.6μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Flocculent galaxies are clearly distinguished from other spiral arm classes, especially by their lower stellar mass and surface density. Multi-armed and grand-design galaxies are similar in most of their fundamental parameters, excluding some bar properties and the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio. Based on these results, we discuss dense, classical bulges as a necessary condition for standing spiral wave modes in grand-design galaxies. We further find a strong correlation between bulge-to-total ratio and bar contrast, and a weaker correlation between arm and bar contrasts.
Previous research has shown that in a minority–majority language context, the quantity of language input at home is more important for the development of the minority language than for the development of the majority language. In the current study, we examined whether the same holds true for the frequency of specific language activities at home. In a group of five- and six-year-old Frisian–Dutch bilingual children (n = 120), we investigated to what extent vocabulary and morphology knowledge were predicted by reading activities, watching TV, and story-telling activities in both languages. The results showed that reading in Frisian predicted both Frisian vocabulary and morphology, while reading in Dutch only predicted Dutch vocabulary. This shows that reading at home is most important for the development of the minority language. This especially holds true for the acquisition of Frisian morphology, a domain that is known to be vulnerable in language acquisition.
Nils Christie's legendary article on the ideal victim is firmly placed within the victimological canon. Christie drew our attention to the mechanisms underlying the extent to which we grant individuals victim status. As Daly (2014: 378) summarised: ‘A victim status is not fixed, but socially constructed, mobilized and malleable’.
However, what factors influence this construction? Christie (1986) assumed that the most important reasons for perceiving a victim as legitimate and blameless are the specific character traits of the victim and of the relation between victim and offender. Substantiation on the reasons for this had no place in his brief chapter, but has only occurred in subsequent research and theorising. The first aim of this chapter is to expand on these two arguments using more contemporary theories that are important in (experimental and critical) victimology, namely, the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) (Fiske et al, 2002) and the Moral Typecasting Theory (MTT) (Gray and Wegner, 2009). The SCM can expand our insights into Christie's criteria of weakness, blamelessness and femaleness, while the MTT can shed more light on the big and bad offender and the (non-)relationship between offender and victim. These two theories provide more insight into the role of stereotypes in the perception of the victim and the dynamics of the relation between victim and offender.
They not only further Christie's (1986: 18) argument that ‘being a victim is not a thing, an objective phenomenon’, but also, in combination with the second half of our chapter, emphasise the redundancy of absolute victim(isation) characteristics as a factor in societal or individual constructions of the victim status. Indeed, where the first half of our chapter provides retrospective theoretical support of Christie's views, the second half adopts a more critical stance. Again, we confront Christie's perspective with more recent bodies of (theoretical) literature that go beyond the specific character traits of the victim and the relation between victim and offender, this time by emphasising the role of the observers of the victim, both individually and collectively, in determining whether the victim is seen as legitimate and blameless. We do this, first, through an analysis of the ideal victim against the backdrop of the work on the justice motive (Lerner, 1980; Hafer and Bègue, 2005).