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The formation of Riau Islands as Indonesia's thirty-second province in 2004 can be seen as part of a broader trend that saw the creation of new subnational government entities—seven provinces and 112 districts in total—throughout the country after the end of the New Order era (Tirtosudarmo 2008; Kimura 2013). This can be considered as a rational response from the peripheries against decades of centralization of wealth and power in Jakarta that culminated in the late 1990s (Emmerson 2000; Mietzner 2014; Malley 1999).
At the same time, the desire to form a separate Province of the Riau Islands (henceforth PRI) can also be understood through local cultural and historical circumstances that are unique to the region. These include a shared history of being torchbearers of the great Malay civilization and maritime empires that dominated the local seas before the arrival of European explorers and colonizers (Trocki 2007; Killingray, Lincoln and Rigby 2004; Long 2013).
This combination of both rational interests and cultural sentiments was argued to have motivated numerous subnational separatist movements in South Asia, such as in Assam, Kashmir, and Punjab (Mitra 1995). In Indonesia, some subnational movements were indeed separatist in nature, as in the cases of Aceh, Papua, (mainland) Riau, and East Timor.2 In contrast to these, however, the goal of subnationalism in the Riau Islands was not separatism, but broad autonomy in the context of decentralization. Still, in line with Mitra's (1995) thesis, this chapter argues that both rational interests and cultural sentiments were the main motivations for establishing PRI in 2002 and are still relevant for understanding much of the political dynamics taking place in the province in 2019.
This chapter describes state formation and capacity in the Riau Islands Province. We acknowledge the definition of the state as adopted by Ruggie (1993), namely an institution with legitimacy to exercise power over territorial space. But in this case, we also refer to the state as an autonomous government entity that may not be necessarily independent, such as a state in a federal country, or a province in decentralized Indonesia.
As the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to occur in small outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, we aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and intended practices of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic and compare worry levels with previous findings during the MERS-CoV outbreak in 2015. We sent an adapted version of our previously published MERS-CoV questionnaire to the same cohort of HCWs at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. About 40% of our sample had previous experience with confirmed or suspected MERS-CoV patients, and those had a significantly higher knowledge score (13.16 ± 2.02 vs. 12.58 ± 2.27, P = 0.002) and higher adherence to protective hygienic practices (2.95 ± 0.80 vs. 2.74 ± 0.92, P = 0.003). The knowledge scores on COVID-19 were higher in the current cohort than the previous MERS-CoV outbreak cohort (68% vs. 79.7%, P < 0.001). HCWs from the current cohort who felt greater anxiety from COVID-19 compared to MERS-CoV were less likely to have been exposed to MERS-CoV infected/suspected cases (odds ratio (OR) = 0.646, P = 0.042) and were less likely to have attended the hospital awareness campaign on COVID-19 (OR = 0.654, P = 0.035). We concluded that previous experience with MERS-CoV was associated with increased knowledge and adherence to protective hygienic practices, and reduction of anxiety towards COVID-19.
Prior to the third wave of democratisation, regimes considered to be democratic were a minority in the world stage; fast-forward five decades, and more than 50 per cent of today's states are considered democratic (Coppedge et al. 2019). Experience with democratic transition has not been smooth, however. During periods of democratic transition and consolidation, political and economic reforms often stagnate, breeding widespread disappointment. Even where democratic transitions appear relatively successful, the threat of backsliding often remains: the past decade has seen a global decline in the health of democracy (Bermeo 2016; Mounk 2019). Increasingly, democratic regimes have deteriorated under the stewardship of democratically elected leaders—in Hungary, Turkey and the Philippines, to name a few—rather than falling to the types of authoritarian takeover so readily conjured in the popular imagination (Aspinall and Berenschot 2019; Bermeo 2016). As this book demonstrates, Indonesia is quickly catching up to this global trend as it backslides into an increasingly illiberal form of democracy.
Among the many theories that explain why some democracies consolidate while others regress, economic arguments—and especially variants of modernisation theory—have been especially influential. Przeworski et al. (2000), for example, contend that income per capita is the strongest predictor of whether democracy or dictatorship prevails. Indeed, a cursory glance around the world suggests that many authoritarian countries are poorer than the wealthy democracies of Europe and North America. Within democracies, a lack of economic progress can also reduce public satisfaction with the political and institutional status quo. For example, a 2018 poll by Pew Research Center conducted in 24 countries, including Indonesia, revealed that respondents with negative views of the economy are on average 36 per cent points more likely to be dissatisfied with democracy, compared to those with favourable views of the economy (Wike et al. 2019). A large body of research also suggests that a high level of inequality has negative implications for democratic participation and support (e.g. Solt 2008).
This chapter explores the economic dimensions of Indonesia's democratic quality. Our main goal is to analyse how economic conditions—specifically, income per capita, income inequality and unemployment—correlate to variations in democratic quality in Indonesia over the past decade.
Although research into the pharmacologic treatments of MDD has expanded significantly in the past several years, Less than half of older adults achieve remission with antidepressant medications.
Addition of another medication to the antidepressant regimen of patients with MDD not responding adequately to their treatment has become a common intervention. We hypothesized that addition of zinc with its multiple pharmacological effects to the antidepressants may modulate and enhance their efficacy. The present study investigated the behavioral changes of acute and sub-acute interaction of zinc with Paroxtine in the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Mice were injected with either Paroxtine (20 mg/kg); zinc sulfate (40 mg/kg) or Paroxtine in combination with zinc for one day and one week (once daily). Results showed a significant antidepressant activity of Paroxtine or zinc alone as has been shown in a decrease of immobility and increase of swimming behavior. Also, results showed a significant decrease in the immobility time and increase in the swimming behavior time of the animals treated with zinc in combination with Paroxtine as compared with animals treated with either Paroxtine or zinc alone. There was no significant difference in the animals' behavior between acute and sub-acute treatment with Zinc or even upon its addition to paroxetine. Moreover, none of the treatment regimens have shown any significant changes in the animals' motor activities. This combination may have a significant clinical application in psychiatric patients particularly in geriatric patients or other population where zinc level has shown dramatic decrease.
The borderline personality disorder is a part of the «Impulse spectrum disorders». At the borderlines patients, the impulsiveness expresses itself clinically on two plans: acting out violent and the conducts of dependence.
We propose in this work:
– To study the impulsiveness and its consequences at the patients presenting a borderline personality.
– And to raise factors correlated in a stronger impulsiveness among these subjects.
It is about a transverse study which took place over a period of 1year. It concerned 50 patients to which the diagnosis of borderline personality was retained according to the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR and having been hospitalized at least once.
We used a semi structured questionnaire managed by an investigator and specific scales of measure.
Our patients with a borderline personality disorder showed important rates of impulsiveness in its three subcategories motricity, non-plannig and cognitive.
This impulsiveness was at the origin of multiple violent acting out. The violence often shows itself from verbal way, then, it can degenerate and take other forms.
Factors correlated at the important rates of impulsiveness at our borderlines patients are: the young age (p = 0,047), the male gender (p = 0,033), personal antecedent of sexual or physical early abuse (p = 0,05 and p = 0,09) and the addictives conducts (p = 0,034).
The reduction of the impulsiveness constitutes an important stage in the coverage of these subjects and in the prevention of this aggressive behavior.
The steady advances in computer performance and in programming raise the concern that the ability of computers would overtake that of the human brain, an occurrence termed ‘the Singularity’. While comparing the size of the human brain and the advance in computer capacity, the Singularity has been estimated to occur within a few decades although the capacity of conventional computers may reach its limits in the near future. However, in the last few years, there have been rapid advances in artificial intelligence. There are already programs that carry out pattern recognition and self-learning which, at least in limited fields such as chess and other games, are superior to the best human players. Furthermore, the quantum computing revolution, which is expected to vastly increase computer capacities, is already on our doorstep. It now seems inevitable that the Singularity will arrive within the foreseeable future. Biological life, on Earth and on extraterrestrial planets and their satellites, may continue as before, but humanity could be ‘replaced’ by computers. Older and more advanced intelligent life forms, possibly evolved elsewhere in the Universe, may have passed their Singularity a long time ago. Post Singularity life would probably be based not on biochemical reactions but on electronics. Their communication may use effects such as quantum entanglement and be undetectable to us. This may explain the Fermi paradox or at least the ‘Big Silence’ problem in SETI.
The recent detection of Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of Proxima Centauri, Trappist-1, and many other nearby M-type stars (which consist some 75% of the stars) has led to speculations, whether liquid water and life actually exist on these planets. Defining the bio-habitable zone, where liquid water and complex organic molecules can survive on at least part of the planetary surface, we suggest that planets orbiting M-type stars may have life-supporting conditions for a wide range of atmospheric properties (Wandel2018). We extend this analysis to synchronously orbiting planets of K- and G-type stars and discuss the implications for the evolution and sustaining of life on planets of M- to G-type stars, in analogy to Earth.
The formation of Riau Islands as Indonesia's 32nd province in 2002 should be seen as part of a broader trend that saw the creation of new subnational government entities — seven provinces and 112 districts in total — throughout the country after the end of the New Order era (Tirtosudarmo 2008; Kimura 2013). This can be considered as a rational response from the peripheries against decades of centralization of wealth and power in Jakarta that culminated in the late 1990s (Emmerson 2000; Mietzner 2014; Malley 1999). At the same time, the desire to form a separate Riau Islands Province (henceforth RIP) should also be understood through local cultural and historical circumstances that are unique to the region. These include a shared history of being torchbearers of the great Malay maritime empires and civilization that dominated the local seas before the arrival of European explorers and colonizers (Trocki 2007; Killingray, Lincoln and Rigby 2004; Long 2013).
This combination of both rational interests and cultural sentiments was argued to have motivated numerous subnational separatist movements in South Asia, such as in Assam, Kashmir, and Punjab (Mitra 1995). In Indonesia, some subnational movements were indeed separatist in nature, as in the cases of Aceh, Papua, (mainland) Riau, and East Timor. In contrast to these, however, the goal of subnationalism in Riau Islands was not separatism but broad autonomy under the context of decentralization. Still, in line with Mitra's (1995) thesis, we argue that both rational interest and cultural sentiments were the main motivations for establishing RIP in 2002 and these are still relevant for understanding much of the political dynamics taking place in the province fifteen years later.
This Trends describes “state formation” in RIP. We acknowledge the definition of the state as adopted by Ruggie (1993), which is essentially that it is an institution with legitimacy to exercise power over territorial space. But in this case, we also refer to the state as an autonomous government entity that may not be necessarily independent, such as a state in a federal country, or a province in decentralized Indonesia. Following Costantini (2015, p. 24) we define state formation as “the process by which a state forms and evolves as a result of agents engaging in a struggle for power that leads to the creation and transformation of the sites of authority”.
• The formation of the Riau Islands Province (RIP) in 2002 is argued to be part of a broader trend of pemekaran (blossoming) that saw the creation of seven new provinces and more than 100 new districts throughout Indonesia after the fall of the New Order.
• This article argues that the main motivation for these subnational movements was a combination of rational interests and cultural sentiments.
• In the case of RIP, rational interests involved struggles over unfair distribution of power and resources, including the way development under the control of (mainland) Riau Province had been detrimental to the peripheral and archipelagic people of Riau Islands.
• Cultural sentiments also played an important role, as the people of the Riau Islands considered themselves as “archipelagic Malays” and heirs of the great Malay-maritime empires of the past, as opposed to “mainland Malays” who were mostly farmers.
• Since becoming its own province, RIP has been performing well and has surpassed Riau, the “parent” province, in multiple aspects including human development, poverty alleviation, and government administration.
• Ultimately, the formation of RIP is argued to be a natural process in a large, diverse, and decentralizing country like Indonesia, where cultural identities are being reasserted and local autonomies re-negotiated.
• Despite the usual hiccups such as capacity gaps and corruption, the formation of the Province has been positive in achieving a balance between keeping the country intact while allowing local stakeholders a substantial level of autonomy.
The formation of the Riau Islands Province (RIP) in 2002 is argued to be part of a broader trend of pemekaran (blossoming) that saw the creation of seven new provinces and more than 100 new districts throughout Indonesia after the fall of the New Order. This article argues that the main motivation for these subnational movements was a combination of rational interests and cultural sentiments. In the case of RIP, rational interests involved struggles over unfair distribution of power and resources, including the way development under the control of (mainland) Riau Province had been detrimental to the peripheral and archipelagic people of Riau Islands. Cultural sentiments also played an important role, as the people of the Riau Islands considered themselves as “archipelagic Malays” and heirs of the great Malay-maritime empires of the past, as opposed to “mainland Malays” who were mostly farmers. Since becoming its own province, RIP has been performing well and has surpassed Riau, the “parent” province, in multiple aspects including human development, poverty alleviation, and government administration. Ultimately, the formation of RIP is argued to be a natural process in a large, diverse, and decentralizing country like Indonesia, where cultural identities are being reasserted and local autonomies re-negotiated. Despite the usual hiccups such as capacity gaps and corruption, the formation of the Province has been positive in achieving a balance between keeping the country intact while allowing local stakeholders a substantial level of autonomy.
Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is one of the most important cereal crops in the Mediterranean region; however, its cultivation suffers from low yield due to environmental constrains. The main objectives of this study were to (i) assess genotype × environment (GE) interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat and to (ii) analyse the relationships of GE interaction with genotypic/meteorological variables by the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. Grain yield and some related traits were evaluated in 25 durum wheat genotypes (landrace, breeding line, old and new varieties) in 12 rainfed environments differing in winter air temperature. The AMMI analysis of variance indicated that the environment had highest contribution (84.3% of total variation) to the variation in grain yield. The first interaction principal component axis (IPCA1) explained 77.5% of GE interaction sum of squares (SS), and its effect was 5.5 times greater than the genotype effect, indicating that the IPCA1 contributed remarkably to the total GE interaction. Large GE interaction for grain yield was detected, indicating specific adaptation of genotypes. While the postdictive success method indicated AMMI-4 as the best model, the predictive success one suggested AMMI-1. The AMMI biplot analysis confirmed a rank change interaction among the locations, indicating the presence of strong and unpredictable rank-change location-by-year interactions for locations. In contrast to landraces and old varieties, the breeding lines with high yield performance had high phenotypic plasticity under varying environmental conditions. Results indicated that the GE interaction was associated with the interaction of heading date, plant height, rainfall, air temperature and freezing days.
We analyze the fluctuations in the X-ray flux of 20 AGN (mainly Seyfert 1 galaxies) monitored by RXTE and XMM-Newton with a sampling frequency ranging from hours to years, using structure function (SF) analysis. We derive SFs over four orders of magnitude in the time domain (0.03-300 days). Most objects show a characteristic time scale, where the SF flattens or changes slope. For 10 objects with published power-spectral density (PSD) the break time scales in the SF and PSD are similar and show a good correlation. We also find a significant correlation between the SF timescale and the mass of the central black hole, determined for most objects by reverberation mapping.
This chapter describes the political and institutional setting of the Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau), Indonesia's province that forms part of the Singapore-Johor-Riau (SIJORI) Cross-Border Region. More focus will be given to three parts of the Riau Islands Province (henceforth PRI) which are closest to Singapore: Batam, Bintan, and Karimun (henceforth BBK). Special attention will be directed towards Batam, the industrial hub and population centre of the province.
Batam holds a unique position in Indonesia's political-economic history because of its special privileges as an area exempt from some taxes and duties. Batam's economic development model — as well as the fact that it is only 20 kilometres away from Singapore — has attracted large amounts of foreign and domestic investments, provided jobs and other opportunities for many Indonesians, and turned the island from a sleepy village of 6,000 people in 1971 (Tim Peneliti Hubungan Internasional 2001) to a bustling city of 1,065,000 people in 2012 (BPS Kepulauan Riau 2013).
Batam's development model has been expanded to the neighbouring islands of Bintan and Karimun, and has inspired Indonesia to revise its laws governing foreign investment and free trade zones in 2007 and adopt a new law governing special economic zones in 2009. Batam has also endured various political changes which have taken place in Indonesia: from the top-down era of President Soeharto to the local autonomy era since 2000. Many of these political changes were beyond Batam's or even PRI's sphere of influence but nevertheless had to be endured.
This chapter is made up of six sections. The first section provides a quick overview of PRI's geography, demography, and economy, leading to a justification as to why attention will be given to BBK. The second section provides a brief overview of the Indonesian political system as a background of PRI's institutional setting. In the third section, BBK but especially Batam is explored in more detail as a case study in the political history of free trade zones in Indonesia. This is intended to provide readers with an understanding of Batam's developmental trajectory from an institutional point of view, the debates that it has triggered, and the regulatory changes that followed suit. The fourth section explains the rapid growth that took place in Batam from the 1990s onwards and its social and environmental consequences.
We review the latest findings on extra-solar planets and their potential of having environmental conditions that could support Earth-like life. Focusing on planets orbiting red dwarf (RD) stars, the most abundant stellar type in the Milky Way, we show that including RDs as potential life supporting host stars could increase the probability of finding biotic planets by a factor of up to a thousand, and reduce the estimate of the distance to our nearest biotic neighbour by up to 10. We argue that binary and multiple star systems need to be taken into account when discussing habitability and the abundance of biotic exoplanets, in particular RDs in such systems. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their habitable zones would be so close to the host star as to make planets tidally locked. This was thought to cause an erratic climate and expose life forms to flares of ionizing radiation. Recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally thought. It has also been argued that the lesser photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RDs would not suffice for oxygenic photosynthesis (OP) and other related energy expending reactions. Numerous authors suggest that OP on RD planets may evolve to utilize photons in the infrared. We however argue, by analogy to the evolution of OP and the environmental physiology and distribution of land-based vegetation on Earth, that the evolutionary pressure to utilize infrared radiation would be small. This is because vegetation on RD planets could enjoy continuous illumination of moderate intensity, containing a significant component of photosynthetic 400–700 nm radiation. We conclude that conditions for OP could exist on RD planets and consequently the evolution of complex life might be possible. Furthermore, the huge number and the long lifetime of RDs make it more likely to find planets with photosynthesis and life around RDs than around Solar type stars.
This paper presents the behavior of three iterations of a coplanar waveguide fed CANTOR Set fractal antenna. This kind of antennas allows having a broadband behavior and important gains. Also, the setup of slots allows having more lower resonant frequencies and therefore designing miniaturized antennas with good performances. The proposed antennas are suitable for 2.5/3.3/5/5.5 GHz worldwide interoperability for microwave access and for 2.4–2.5/4.9–5.9 GHz wireless local area networks applications. The simulations were performed in FEKO 6.3. The measurements were performed with Vector Network Analyzer HP 8719C.