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The association between alcohol intake and the risk of glioma has been widely studied, but these results have yielded conflicting findings. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and updated meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the association between alcohol intake and the risk of glioma. A systematic literature search of relevant articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wan fang databases up to December 2021 was conducted. Pooled estimated of relative risk(RR) and 95% confidence interval(CI) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of eight articles with three case-control studies involving 2706 glioma cases and 2189927 participants were included in this meta-analysis.A reduced risk of glioma was shown for the low-moderate alcohol drinking versus non-drinking(RR=0.87; 95%CI: 0.78, 0.97; P=0.014). In addition, there was no evidence of an increased risk of glioma in the heavy alcohol drinking compared with non-drinking (RR=0.89; 95%CI: 0.67, 1.18; P=0.404). The findings suggest an inverse association between low-moderate alcohol drinking and the risk of glioma, in the absence, however, of a dose-response relationship. More prospective studies are needed to provide further insight into the association between alcohol drinking and glioma risk.
Prior to 2009, it had been generally accepted that Captain Crozier was born in September 1796 and most likely on the 17th of that month. Further research, published in this Journal, then suggested that upon a fresh scrutiny of the evidence the alternative date of 16 August 1796 was more probable. This note proposes that whilst the date of 16 August was of significance to Captain Crozier, that significance was other than natal and furthermore that alternative evidence, namely a letter dated 20 March 1810 from his father to the 3rd Marquess of Downshire, records his date of birth as being 17 October 1796.
The sequential occurrence of three layers of smooth muscle layers (SML) in human embryos and fetus is not known. Here, we investigated the process of gut SML development in human embryos and fetuses and compared the morphology of SML in fetuses and neonates. The H&E, Masson trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemistry were conducted on 6–12 gestation week human embryos and fetuses and on normal neonatal intestine. We showed that no lumen was seen in 6–7th gestation week embryonic gut, neither gut wall nor SML was developed in this period. In 8–9th gestation week embryonic and fetal gut, primitive inner circular SML (IC-SML) was identified in a narrow and discontinuous gut lumen with some vacuoles. In 10th gestation week fetal gut, the outer longitudinal SML (OL-SML) in gut wall was clearly identifiable, both the inner and outer SML expressed α-SMA. In 11–12th gestation week fetal gut, in addition to the IC-SML and OL-SML, the muscularis mucosae started to develop as revealed by α-SMA immune-reactivity beneath the developing mucosal epithelial layer. Comparing with the gut of fetuses of 11–12th week of gestation, the muscularis mucosae, IC-SML, and OL-SML of neonatal intestine displayed different morphology, including branching into glands of lamina propria in mucosa and increased thickness. In conclusions, in the human developing gut between week-8 to week-12 of gestation, the IC-SML develops and forms at week-8, followed by the formation of OL-SML at week-10, and the muscularis mucosae develops and forms last at week-12.
Based on self-consistent modelling of the radio-frequency sheath parameters, such as the ion and electron densities and the ion velocity, the dust particle charging process in an RF sheath is investigated by employing the kappa $(\kappa )$ distribution for the electrons. It is shown that the charge number of the dust particle decreases near the sheath–wall interface while it shows the opposite tendency near the plasma-sheath edge, as the $\kappa$ value is decreased. The fluctuation of the dust particle charge modified by the $\kappa$ value depends on the dust particle radius. With an increases in the $\kappa$ value, the fluctuation of the dust particle charge has a slight increase for a small dust particle, and it shows a significant increase for a large dust particle. In addition, as the $\kappa$ value is decreased, the charge number of the dust particle obtained from the time-averaged plasma parameters deviates from the results obtained from the instantaneous plasma parameters. Moreover, a smaller deviation can be found for a large dust particle under the same $\kappa$ value conditions.
Marine bioprospecting is the examination of marine genetic material of plants, animals and microorganisms for features that may be of value for commercial purposes. These features may include chemical compounds, genes and their products, or, in some cases, the physical properties of the material in question. One of the principal attributes of bioprospection is the commercialization of the research or the intellectual property derived from the research on marine genetic resources (MGRs). This chapter explores the key challenges for an international treaty under UNCLOS governing access and use of MGRs in areas beyond national jurisdiction, including the deposit of material in biorepositories and mechanisms for sharing of knowledge from research on MGRs, such as a clearing house, and legal requirements for sharing data including gene sequence data and greater participation of researchers from developing countries. Reference is made to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and the 2010 Nagoya Protocol.
Hope is a contextual concept that has significant effects on human well-being. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Herth Hope Index (P-HHI) among Iranian patients with cancer.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 patients with cancer from September to December 2020. After translating the HHI into Persian, content, convergent and discriminant, construct validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), and reliability of the P-HHI were assessed.
The results of exploratory factor analysis showed that the P-HHI was composed of two factors: Life Expectancy and Thinking Positive, which explained 55.20% of the total variance.
Significance of results
The research revealed that the P-HHI has acceptable validity and reliability, which can be used to measure the hope concept among Iranian patients with cancer.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the cryopreservation duration (up to 160 months) on the clinical and neonatal outcomes of slow-frozen early-cleavage human embryos. Clinical data collected between February 2013 and August 2017 were included in this retrospective study. Cases were classified into five groups by the duration of cryopreservation: Group 1, 6–12 months; Group 2, 13–36 months; Group 3, 37–60 months; Group 4, 61–84 months; and Group 5, >84 months. The embryo survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, newborn sex ratio, singleton gestational age, singleton birth weight and malformation rate were compared between the groups. The cryopreservation duration did not significantly affect the rates of clinical pregnancy (P = 0.119) and live birth (P = 0.354), the newborn sex ratio (P = 0.614) or the singleton gestational age (P = 0.212) and birthweight (P = 0.212). Although decreases in the embryo survival and implantation rates were observed in groups 4 and 5 compared with those in groups 1–3, these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.329, P = 0.279, respectively). Long-term cryopreservation does not appear to adversely affect the clinical and neonatal outcomes of slow-frozen early-cleavage human embryos.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is an important pest of fruit trees in a large area of Asia. The adults mainly depend on olfaction to communicate with the environment, but the olfactory mechanism has not been well known. Odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) are important olfactory proteins, which inactivate and degrade odorants to free odorant receptors for maintaining olfactory sensitivity. Carboxylesterases (CXEs) are considered to be a major group of moth ODEs. In this study, four candidate CXEs (CsasCXE1 ~ CsasCXE4) were identified by using head transcriptomic data from C. sasakii adult females and males. Sequence alignment showed conserved amino acid residues and their variations in C. sasakii CXEs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the CXEs with the variations cluster well, and each C. sasakii CXE clusters in a clade with some of the other lepidopteran CXEs, with a high enough bootstrap value. Gene expression analysis revealed that CsasCXE2 and CsasCXE3 have similar tissue and sex expression patterns in C. sasakii adults. The two CXEs have relatively high expression levels in the heads and are expressed more abundantly in the female heads than male heads. CsasCXE1 and CsasCXE4 are expressed at higher levels in the male heads than female heads, but not dominantly expressed in the heads among the different tissues. Whether these CXEs function as ODEs remains to be further researched. This study laid the foundation for exploring functions of C. sasakii CXEs.
Resistant starch (RS) has received increased attention due to its potential health benefits. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary corn RS on immunological characteristics of broilers. A total of 320 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments: normal corn–soyabean (NC) diet group, corn starch diet group, 4 %, 8 % and 12 % RS diet groups. This trial lasted for 42 d. The relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa, the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and IL-4 in plasma at 21 d of age, as well as the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in plasma at 21 and 42 d of age showed positive linear responses (P < 0·05) to the increasing dietary RS level. Meanwhile, compared with the birds from the NC group at 21 d of age, birds fed 4 % RS, 8 % RS and 12 % RS diets exhibited higher (P < 0·05) relative weight of bursa and concentrations of NO and interferon-γ in plasma. Birds fed 4 % RS and 8 % RS diets showed higher (P < 0·05) number of IgA-producing cells in the jejunum. While compared with birds from the NC group at 42 d of age, birds fed 12 % RS diet showed higher (P < 0·05) relative weight of spleen and activities of TNOS and iNOS in plasma. These findings suggested that dietary corn RS supplementation can improve immune function in broilers.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.