The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (1CRISAT) genebank in India holds the world's largest collection of 21,594 pearl millet germplasm accessions from 50 countries including 6529 landraces from ten Asian countries. Gap analysis using passport and characterization data and geographical information system tools revealed 134 distinct districts of 14 provinces in India and 12 districts of Punjab province in Pakistan as the major geographical gaps. Different methods of identifying geographical gaps used in the study indicated Chittoor, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Prakasam and Warangal in Andhra Pradesh; Raigarh in Chattisgarh; Dewas and Rewa in Madhya Pradesh; Buldana and Hingoli in Maharashtra; Malkangiri, Nabarangapur, Naupada and Sundergarh in Orissa; Bhilwara, Chittaurgarh and Kota in Rajasthan; Thiruvallur and Vellore in Tamil Nadu; and Auraiya, Chandauli, Chitrakoot, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Hamirpur, Kushinagar, Mau, Shrawasti and Sonbhadra in Uttar Pradesh as common geographical gaps in India. A total of 208 distinct districts in 12 provinces were identified as gaps in diversity for one or more traits. Among all districts, Beed, Latur and Osmanabad in Maharashtra, India, for all traits; Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Multan and Lodhran for panicle length and Chakwal and Sargodha for panicle width in Pakistan; and southern parts of North Yemen and Lahiz provinces in Yemen were identified as gaps in the diversity. In India, Warangal in Andhra Pradesh; Rewa in Madhya Pradesh; Hingoli in Maharashtra; Vellore in Tamil Nadu; and Auraiya, Chandauli, Chitrakut, Gorakhpur and Mau in Uttar Pradesh were identified as gaps in diversity for one or more traits and found common to geographical gaps identified. In Pakistan, Lodhran, Multan and Muzaffargarh were identified as gaps common to probability and diversity methods. Area for exploration should be decided prior to launch of the collection mission in consultation with local government officials and extension officers, who are known to have knowledge in pearl millet cultivation in the identified districts. It is suggested to collect the complete passport data including georeference information while collecting the germplasm.