To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The association between early reproductive events and health status in later life has always been of interest across disciplines. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between the number of children born in the early years of elderly women and their depression in later life based on a sample of older women aged 65 years and above with at least one child in rural China. Data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2018, this study used the ordinary least square method to conduct empirical research. This study has found a significant correlation between an increase in the number of children and depression in older rural women. When considering the sex of the child, the number of daughters had a greater and more significant impact on depression. Number of children may exacerbate depression of older women through declining self-rated health and reduced social activity, while increased inter-generational support alleviated depression. The association between number of children born and depression also existed in urban older women, though not significant. Therefore, it is suggested to accelerate the improvement of supporting policies related to childbirth, developing a healthy and scientific fertility culture, and improving rural maternal and child health services. Women should be assisted in balancing their roles in the family and in society, and in particular in sharing the burden of caring for children. Targeted efforts to increase old-age protection for older people.
Nutritional impairment during adolescence may result in adverse physical and reproductive health outcomes. We investigated the prevalence and determined the factors associated with underweight and overweight/obesity among ever-married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. We used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys data conducted in 2004, 2007, 2011, 2014, and 2017. A total of 7040 ever-married adolescent girls aged 15–19 years were included in this analysis. Prevalence of underweight (body mass index [BMI]<18.5 kg/m2) significantly decreased from 39.53% (95% CI = 36.71, 42.43) to 23.62% (95% CI = 21.35, 26.05) during 2004–2017 (p < 0.001). However, prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) significantly increased from 5.9% (95% CI = 4.67, 7.43) to 22.71% (95% CI = 20.39, 25.20) during the same period (p < 0.001). The girls with higher age (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90, 0.99, p = 0.023), higher level of education (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.83, p = 0.002), and richest wealth quintile (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.98, p = 0.035) had significantly lower risk of being underweight. Adolescent girls having more than one child (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.73, p = 0.001) were more likely to be underweight. Elderly adolescents with better economic status were more at risk of being overweight/obese (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.86, 3.55, p < 0.001). Girls married to skilled/unskilled workers (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.44, 0.77, p < 0.001) and persons involved in small businesses (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.89, p = 0.007) had lower risk of having a high BMI. Using contraceptive (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.94, p = 0.006) was negatively associated with overweight/obese. Although prevalence of undernutrition among ever-married adolescent girls is declining, the proportion of being overweight/obese is increasing in Bangladesh warranting effective strategies to improve adolescent nutrition.
Adolescence is a unique transitional stage of physical and psychological development. As preferences and behavioural choices adopted in adolescence influence lifelong physical activity habits and health outcomes in adulthood, rural transformation in low- and middle-income countries has the potential to significantly change traditional roles and shape the next generation. By using a mixed-method approach that integrates energy expenditure estimates from accelerometer devices with 24-hour recall time-use data from adolescent boys and girls and qualitative interviews with adolescents and their caregivers, this study sheds light on the patterns of quantity and quality of physical activity of 395 adolescents in Khammam and Mahbubnagar districts of rural Telangana, India. The study shows that energy expenditure and time use are highest for educational-related activities followed by leisure in both adolescent boys and girls. However, notwithstanding the process of rural transformation and the educational infrastructure and economic opportunities provided to adolescent boys and girls, social and cultural norms allow boys, especially in late adolescence to spend more time and energy in activities outside the home such as pursuing economic work, sports and socialising, while girls spend more time and energy at home doing domestic work. The quantitative and qualitative exploration of physical activity and time use among adolescents, as expounded in this study cutting across age groups and gender, highlights the need for changes in gendered norms and renewed government strategies and investments in that direction.
The aim of this study was to understand the perspectives of female residents of Spain from West Africa in terms of the factors that condition their lives. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory and the model of intersectionality formed the framework we used to qualitatively analyse the life stories of these women, which was complemented with life lines. The results showed us that traditional practices such as female genital mutilation and forced marriage are part of the social habitus of this group and they relate to each other through the several types of violence that occurs throughout their lives. In addition, in reference to the African community, these women were no longer African, while in terms of the Spanish community, they did not seem Spanish. At a health, political, and social level, this knowledge can help us to understand this group and to create personalised targeted interventions for them.
In Colombia, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent years due to changes in dietary and nutritional patterns. While previous studies have focussed on describing obesity and its associated factors, they have mainly used a cross-sectional methodology. Accordingly, this study aims to conduct a descriptive quasi-cohort analysis to capture age-specific cohort trends in body mass index (BMI) according to sex and ethnicity (indigenous, Afro-Colombian, and the remaining population). The study utilised data from the National Survey of the Nutritional Situation in Colombia (ENSIN) conducted in 2005, 2010, and 2015 that included 214,136 individuals aged 20–64 years after screening. Data on ethnicity were only available from the 2010 and 2015 surveys. Overall, the prevalence of obesity increased by 6.1 percentage points (from 15.2% to 21.3%) between 2005 and 2015 (men from 10.4% to 15.7%; women from 18.2% to 25.7%). Among Afro-Colombians, obesity rose 6.6 percentage points (from 19.4% to 26.0%), again more so in women than in men (2015: 35.2% versus 17.8%). Among indigenous people, the proportion increased by 5.3 percentage points (from 13.5% to 18.8%), with women reporting highest rates (2015: 23.7% against 12.6% in men). Age- and cohort-specific results also indicate that recent adult cohorts are experiencing sharp increases in BMI, for example, while 25–29-year-old males born in 1975–1979 had a BMI of 24.2 kg/m2, among 40–44-year-olds of the same cohort, this equalled 26.8 kg/m2. In the case of women, these age differences in BMI among the same cohort are even greater (24.4 and 28.0 kg/m2). In summary, the results of this study indicate that Colombia is still in the early stages of the obesity transition, urging the need to monitor obesity trends in Colombia from both an age and cohort perspective. To achieve this, longitudinal surveys or repeated cross-sectional surveys like the ENSIN could be utilised.
This paper presents the first evidence of the causal relationship between adult children’s schooling and changes in parental health in the short and long term. By using supply-side variation in schooling as an instrument for adult children’s education and a representative dataset for rural China, we find that adult children’ education has a positive influence on the long-term changes in parental health, with limited evidence of any short-term effect. Our results remain consistent after a variety of sensitivity tests. The heterogeneous analyses show differences in socio-economic status and gender, with low-educated parents and mothers being the primary beneficiaries of children’s schooling. Potential mechanisms for the long-term effects of adult children’s education on changes in parental health include better chronic disease management, improved access to health, sanitation, and clean fuel facilities, improved psychological well-being, and reduced smoking behaviours.
Unmet need for family planning is a valuable concept to indicate the discrepancy between women’s fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Unmet need may lead to unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. These may result in health deterioration and reduced employment opportunities for women. The 2018 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey report indicated that the estimated unmet need for family planning doubled from 2013 to 2018, returning to the high levels of the late 1990s. Considering this unfavourable change, this study aims to investigate the determinants of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age in Turkey by using the 2018 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey data. Logit model estimations revealed that women who were at older ages, more educated, wealthier, and had more than one child were less likely to have unmet need for family planning. Employment statuses of women and their spouses and place of residence were significantly associated with unmet need. Results emphasised that training and counselling to enhance the use of family planning methods should effectively target young, less educated, and poor women.
Functional health is arguably one of the most important health indicators for older adults, because it assesses physical, cognitive and social functions in combination. However, life-course circumstances may impact this multidimensional construct. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between life-course socio-economic status (SES) and different dimensions of functional health in older adults. Data on 821 Portuguese adults aged 50 years and over in 2013–2015 were analysed. Life-course SES was computed using participants’ paternal occupation (non-manual (nm); manual (m)) and own occupation (nm; m), resulting in four patterns: stable high (nm + nm), upward (m + nm), downward (nm + m) and stable low (m + m). Functional health included physical and mental functioning, cognitive function, handgrip strength, and walking speed. Linear (beta coefficients) and logistic regressions (odds ratios) were used to estimate the association between life-course SES and functional health.
Overall, those who accumulated social disadvantage during life-course presented worse functional health than those with stable high SES (stable low – SF-36 physical functioning: β = −9.75; 95% CI: −14.34; −5.15; SF-36 mental health: β = −7.33; 95% CI: −11.55; −3.11; handgrip strength: β = −1.60; 95% CI: −2.86; −0.35; walking time, highest tertile: OR = 5.28; 95% CI: 3.07; 9.09). Those with an upward SES were not statistically different from those in the stable high SES for most of the health outcomes; however, those with an upward SES trajectory tended to have higher odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 0.96; 3.19). A downward SES trajectory increased the odds of slower walking speed (OR = 4.62; 95% CI: 1.78; 11.95). A disadvantaged life-course SES impacts older adults’ physical and mental functioning. For some outcomes, this was attenuated by a favourable adulthood SES but those with a stable low SES consistently presented worse functional health.
Substantial intergenerational transmission of diabetes mellitus (DM) risk exists. However, less is known regarding whether parental DM and DM among extended family members relate to adult offspring’s body mass index (BMI), and whether any of these associations vary by sex. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), we assess the sex-specific relationship between DM present in first-degree parents and second-degree relatives and BMI among the parents’ young adult offspring.
Multivariate regressions reveal a positive relationship between parental DM and young adults’ BMI for both daughters and sons, and the magnitude of coefficients is somewhat larger for the same-sex parent. Further, we observe that the link between parental DM and young adults’ BMI is strongest when both parents have diagnosed diabetes. In contrast, the relationship between second-degree relatives with DM and the respondent’s BMI is weaker and appears to be sex-specific, through same-sex parent and respondent. Logistic regressions show the association is especially strong when assessing how parental DM status relates to young adults’ obesity risk. These results generally persist when controlling for parental BMI. The findings of this study point to the need to better distinguish the role of shared family environments (e.g., eating and physical activity patterns) from shared genes in order to understand factors that may influence young adults’ BMI. Young adult offspring of parents with diabetes should be targeted for obesity prevention efforts in order to reduce their risks of obesity and perhaps diabetes.
There is a demonstrated link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and pregnancy termination, and this association has received much attention in developed settings. Despite the high prevalence of IPV in Papua New Guinea (PNG), little is known about the association between these experiences and pregnancy termination. This study examined the association between IPV and pregnancy termination in PNG. The present study used population-based data from the PNG’s first Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 2016–2018. The analysis involved women aged 15–49 years who were in intimate unions (married or co-habiting). We used binary logistic regression modelling to analyse the association between IPV and pregnancy termination. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 6.3% of women involved in this study had ever terminated a pregnancy, and 6 in 10 women (61.5%) reported having experienced IPV in the last 12 months preceding the survey. Of those women who experienced IPV, 7.4% had ever terminated a pregnancy. Women who had experienced IPV had a 1.75 higher odds of reporting pregnancy termination (cOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.29–2.37) than women who did not experience IPV. After controlling for theoretically and empirically relevant socio-demographic and economic factors, IPV remained a strong and significant determinant of pregnancy termination (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.22–2.30). The strong association between IPV and pregnancy termination among women in intimate unions in PNG calls for targeted policies and interventions that address the high prevalence of IPV. The provision of comprehensive sexual reproductive health, public education, and awareness creation on the consequences of IPV, regular assessment, and referral to appropriate services for IPV may reduce the incidence of pregnancy termination in PNG.
Induced abortion is closely associated with maternal morbidity, mortality, and reproductive rights of women and thus continues to draw research interest. This study assesses the reasons for abortion and their predictors using India’s National Family Health Survey-5 (2019–21) data. The sample of women aged 15–49 who had terminated their last pregnancy by induced abortion in the five years preceding the survey (n=5835) was considered for analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to check the adjusted effects of the socioeconomic predictors on the reasons for abortion. Stata (v16.0) was used for the data analysis. Women were more likely to abort their pregnancy at home/other than in the public health sector if unintended pregnancies (RR: 2.79; CI: 2.15–3.61) and sex-selective abortions (RR: 2.43; CI: 1.67–3.55) rather than life risk. The study found unintended pregnancy as the primary contributor to induced abortion. However, some women undergo the procedure due to medical reasons and the undesired gender of the unborn child. Unintended pregnancies that end in abortion are strongly correlated with gestational age, method of abortion, place of abortion, number of surviving children, religion, place of residence, and region. Again, there is a strong association between the sex-selective reason for abortion and the gestational age, method of abortion, place of abortion, number of surviving children, proper knowledge of the ovulatory cycle, religion, wealth quintile, and region. Women had abortions mainly due to unintended pregnancies, and there was socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variation in the reasons for abortion in India. Sex-selective abortions continue to exist, especially among women of higher parity, poorest households and from the central, eastern, and north-eastern regions. The key to reducing unintended pregnancies and abortions is raising the understanding of contraception and empowering women in reproductive decisions. Reducing unintended pregnancies will contribute to lower induced abortion and thus improve women’s health.
An extensive body of demographic literature has described Jews as ‘long-lifers’. From the mid-nineteenth century onwards, this pattern affected all age groups and was particularly well expressed among Jewish males but was also present among Jewish females. It held good independently of the Jews’ socio-economic position. This became known as ‘Jewish pattern of mortality’. This paper has two aims. The first aim is to show the impact of COVID-19 on Jewish mortality. This is a study of a global pandemic in the Jewish population which is, to the best of our knowledge, unique in its scope and quality. The second aim is to settle the finding of relatively high mortality from COVID-19 in certain Jewish communities (‘Jewish penalty’ in relation to COVID-19) with the notion of ‘Jewish pattern of mortality’. The author proceeds to show that the status of Jews as a low mortality group under a Western epidemiological regime, when mortality and morbidity are dominated by non-communicable diseases, does not stand in contradiction to a higher vulnerability among Jews to coronavirus. Thus, the paper further develops understanding of mortality of Jews and serves as a contribution to ethnic and religious demography and epidemiology.
In the U.S., approximately 11% of infants are born small for gestational age (SGA). While there are many known behavioral risk factors for SGA births, there are still many factors yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the maternal early menarche (< 12 years old)- SGA birth association. Data were retrieved from the 2011-2017 National Survey of Family Growth, and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association. Approximately 4% of mothers reported having an SGA infant and 24% of mothers reported early age at menarche. After controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, and annual household income, early menarche was associated with 3% increased odds of SGA, although this finding was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.53). Additional research is needed on the long-term birth outcomes and health consequences of early menarche.
The effect of health insurance coverage on sexual and reproductive health, especially unintended pregnancy, has scantly been researched. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the study examined the links between women’s health insurance enrolment on unintended pregnancy in Ghana.
The sample consisted of 9,396 women aged 15-49 years, but the analysis was limited to the 4,544 women who were pregnant in the two years preceding the survey. The effects of health insurance enrolment on unintended pregnancy was examined with the propensity score matching. The health insurance enrolment was the treatment variable and unintended pregnancy as the outcome variable.
This study showed that 66.0% of all women surveyed had health insurance coverage and 31.8% of all women of childbearing age who were currently or had previously been pregnant reported having at least one unintended pregnancy. Thirty percent of insured women had an unintended pregnancy, compared to 37% of uninsured women. The results showed that education, household wealth index, religion, and type of marital union were significant predictor of health insurance coverage among Ghanaian women. The PSM split the women based on their health insurance status. After matching, the difference between the insured and uninsured women reduces significantly. Results demonstrated that, the probability of unintended pregnancy was 0.312 among insured women and 0.351 among those not insured in Ghana. This implies that having health insurance coverage will help in reducing the likelihood of women experiencing unintended pregnancy.
Results highlight the importance of the target of universal health coverage under the sustainable development goal 3 and demonstrate that expanding existing health insurance schemes within Ghana could contribute to reducing the number unintended pregnancies experienced each year.
Blood pressure (BP) control is a key intervention to decrease cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the main cause of death in low and middle-income countries (MIC). Scarce data on the determinants of BP control in Latin America are available. Our objective is to explore the role of gender, age, education, and income as social determinants of BP control in Argentina, a MIC with a universal health care system. We evaluated 1184 persons in two hospitals. Blood pressure was measured using automatic oscillometric devices. We selected those patients treated for hypertension. The average BP of less than 140/90 mmHg was considered a controlled BP. We found 638 hypertensive individuals, of whom 477 (75%) were receiving antihypertensive drugs, and of those, 248 (52%) had controlled BP. The prevalence of low education was more frequent in uncontrolled patients (25.3% vs. 16.1%; P < .01). We did not find association between household income, gender, and BP control. Older patients had less BP control (44% of those older than 75 years vs. 60.9% of those younger than 40; test for trend P < .05). Multivariate regression indicates low education (OR 1.71 95% CI [1.05, 2.79]; P = .03) and older age (OR 1.01; 95% IC [1.00, 1.03]) as independent predictors of the lack of BP control. We conclude that rates of BP control are low in Argentina. In a MIC with a universal health care system low education and old age but not household income are independent predictors of the lack of BP control.
The ‘livestock revolution’ has seen the lives and livelihoods of peri-urban peoples increasingly intertwine with pigs and poultry across Africa in response to a rising demand for meat protein. This ‘revolution’ heralds the potential to address both poverty and nutritional needs. However, the intensification of farming has sparked concern, including for antibiotic misuse and its consequences for antimicrobial resistance (AMR). These changes reflect a micro-biopolitical conundrum where the agendas of microbes, farmers, publics, authorities and transnational agencies are in tension. To understand this requires close attention to the practices, principles and potentials held between these actors. Ethnographic research took place in a peri-urban district, Wakiso, in Uganda between May 2018 and March 2021. This included a medicine survey at 115 small- and medium-scale pig and poultry farms, 18 weeks of participant observation at six farms, 34 in-depth interviews with farmers and others in the local livestock sector, four group discussions with 38 farmers and 7 veterinary officers, and analysis of archival, media and policy documents. Wide-scale adoption of quick farming was found, an entrepreneurial phenomenon that sees Ugandans raising ‘exotic’ livestock with imported methods and measures for production, including antibiotics for immediate therapy, prevention of infections and to promote production and protection of livelihoods. This assemblage – a promissory assemblage of the peri-urban – reinforced precarity against which antibiotics formed a potential layer of protection. The paper argues that to address antibiotic use as a driver of AMR is to address precarity as a driver of antibiotic use. Reduced reliance on antibiotics required a level of biosecurity and economies of scale in purchasing insurance that appeared affordable only by larger-scale commercial producers. This study illustrates the risks – to finances, development and health – of expanding an entrepreneurial model of protein production in populations vulnerable to climate, infection and market dynamics.
The emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in childhood poses a serious risk to a healthy adult life. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of NCDs among children and adolescents in slums and non-slums areas of four metropolitan cities of India, and in rural areas of the respective states The study further, investigated the effect of the place residence as slum vs. non-slum and other risk factors of the NCDs. Nationally representative data from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS) was used.. Estimates were based on children (5-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) for whom biomarkers predicting diabetes, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides and hypertension were determined. Weight, height and age data were used to calculate z-scores of the body mass index. Overweight and obesity was higher in urban areas than in rural areas among children and adolescents. Regional differences in the prevalence of diseases were observed; children in Delhi and Chennai had a higher likelihood of being diabetic while children in Kolkata were at a greater risk of high total cholesterol and high triglycerides. The risk of hypertension was strikingly high among non-slum children in Delhi. Children from slums were at a higher risk of diabetes compared to the children from non-slums, while children and adolecents from non-slums were at a greater risk of high triglycerides and hypertension respectively than their counterparts from slums. Male children and adolecents had a higher risk of diabetes and high cholesterol. Screening of children for early detection of NCDs should be integrated with the already existing child and adolescent development schemes in schools and the community can help in prevention and control of NCDs in childhood.
The state of pregnancy and child birth is a stretch of intense vulnerability and incurs reproductive cost, which is governed within a specific socio-ecological context. We asked in our research whether the obstetric morbidities at three stages: antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum, and their concomitants differed significantly between sedente and migrant populations. 403 Oraon indigenous women [203 sedente and 200 migrants] living in Eastern India were selected. Data on socio-demographic, reproductive, maternal health care services and obstetric morbidities were collected using semi structured schedules. We applied Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CATPCA) on the first three variables; PC1 and PC4 were loaded with “socio-demographic and maternal health care services” and PC2 and PC3 loaded with “socio-demographic and reproductive” variables. We applied Poisson regression to examine the determinants of obstetric morbidities. Bivariate analyses showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) sedente-migrant differences in variables related to socio-demographic, reproductive, maternal health care and obstetric morbidities. Poisson regression showed migrants were more likely (p ≤ 0.001) to experience ante and intrapartum morbidities than the sedentes, after controlling the confounders. PC1, PC2 and PC3 could significantly (p ≤ 0.05) predict ante and intrapartum morbidities. For postpartum morbidities, barring the variables related to availing of maternal health care services at the time of child delivery and post delivery, neither migration status nor any of the PCs was a significant predictor. For example, participants who delivered their child in health institutions and had episiotomy and/or caesarean delivery (p ≤ 0.01); and those who availed first PNC within the 24 hours of delivery, stayed under medical supervision after delivery for more than 48 hours and received higher coverage of PNCs were more and less likely respectively (p ≤ 0.05) to have experienced postpartum morbidities. We conclude that the maternal obstetric morbidities and their concomitants differed between sedente and migrant Oraon populations owing to their living in differential socio-ecological contexts.
Sexual violence against women is commonly justified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite international commitments to halt it. This study investigated the association between healthcare decision-making capacity and the justification of sexual violence among women in SSA. We used current datasets of 30 sub-Saharan African countries published between January 2010 and December 2018. The sample included 259,885 women who were in sexual unions. We extracted and analysed the data with Stata version 14. Chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Results for the regression analysis were presented as adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results showed that women who decided on their healthcare alone had lower odds [AOR=0.93; CI=0.91–0.96] of justifying sexual violence compared to those who were not deciding alone. We also found that women aged 45-49 [AOR=0.85; CI=0.82-0.89], those with higher education [AOR=0.26; CI=0.24-0.29], cohabiting women (AOR=0.82, CI=0.80-0.85], richest women [AOR= 0.58; CI=0.56-0.60], women living in urban areas [AOR=0.74; CI=0.73-0.76], and Christians [AOR=0.52; CI=0.51-0.54] had lower odds of justifying wife beating if a woman refuses to have sex with her partner. On the contrary, women who engaged in agriculture had higher odds of justifying sexual violence than those who were not working [AOR=1.07; CI=1.04-1.09]. Groups that should be prioritised with anti-sexual violence initiatives are the poor, rural residents, and young women. It is also vital to institute policies and interventions focused on educating men about women’s right to make decisions, and why partner violence is unjust and intolerable.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (UNAIDS) has risen as the serious public health problem across the world. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS is the cornerstone for prevention and treatment. Research is needed to explore the attitude and the effect of different demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic and media exposure factors on males knowledge about HIV in Pakistan. In this study, latest secondary data are used from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Sample results show that the majority of the respondents (70%) have knowledge about AIDS. Regression Modeling reveals that man’s knowledge about HIV/AIDS is associated with age, place of residence, educational level, wealth index, ethnicity and media exposure factors. Males of age group 35-39, with higher education, belonging to Pukthon ethnicity, having exposure to mass media on a daily basis and belonging to richest wealth quintile has high Knowledge of HIV/AIDS. For example, the regression model predicts that men between the ages of 35 and 39 from Islamabad who live in urban areas, have higher education, are of Pukhtoon ethnicity, are the head of the household, belong to the richest quintile, work in professional occupations, and use media exposure factors on a daily basis would have probability of 97% of having knowledge of HIV/AIDS. But there is still need to focus to increase the men’s knowledge of HIV/AIDS.