To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chronic inflammation has been considered as the main cause of chronic diseases. Zn has anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the expression of inflammatory markers. The present systematic review and meta-analysis study aims to evaluate the impact of Zn supplementation on inflammation. PubMed (Medline), Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched up to 10 December 2020. Controlled trials which have investigated the effects of Zn supplementation on serum/plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in subjects aged >15 years were included. A pooled meta-analysis was performed using a random effect model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the robustness of the observed effect sizes. A total of twelve studies was included in meta-analysis. Zn could decrease IL-6 levels (standardised mean difference (SMD) = −0·76 pg/ml; 95 % CI −1·28, −0·24; P = 0·004). There was no significant change in TNF-α (SMD = 0·42 pg/ml; 95 % CI −0·31, 1·16; P = 0·257) and IL-2 levels (SMD = 1·64 pg/ml; 95 % CI −1·31, 4·59; P = 0·277) following Zn supplementation. However, Zn could increase IL-2 significantly after the deletion of one arm in sensitivity analysis (SMD = 2·96 pg/ml; 95 % CI 2·03, 3·88; P < 0·05). Conclusively, Zn supplementation can decrease the IL-6 level. Zn increased IL-2 level after the sensitivity analysis. Zn supplementation has not ameliorative effects on TNF-α.
Chronic foot ulcers are associated with a high risk of osteomyelitis, poor quality of life, amputations and disability. Few strategies improve their healing, and amputation rates in high-risk foot services are usually over 30 %. We conducted a randomised, inactive-placebo controlled, double-blind trial of 500 mg of slow-release vitamin C in sixteen people with foot ulcers in the Foot Wound Clinic at Westmead Hospital. Nine were randomised to control and seven to vitamin C. When serum vitamin C results become available at 4 weeks, all people with deficiency were offered both vitamin C and glucosamine tablets for the next 4 weeks. Patients without baseline deficiency continued their original assigned treatment. The primary outcome was percentage ulcer healing (reduction in ulcer size) at 8 weeks. Fifty percentage of subjects had baseline vitamin C deficiency, half having undetectable levels. Healing at 8 weeks was significantly better in the vitamin C group (median 100 v. –14 %, P = 0·041). Healing without amputation occurred in all patients in the vitamin C group. In contrast, 44 % of controls had not healed their ulcer at the end of the study period. Vitamin C improved healing of foot ulcers. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is a threshold effect for serum vitamin C above which therapy is ineffective and whether there are better or lesser responding subgroups. Because of its low cost and ease of access and administration, we recommend offering vitamin C therapy to all people who have chronic foot ulcers and potentially suboptimal vitamin C intake. Trial registration number: ACTRN12617001142325.
Whole-grain foods have been reported to affect body weight and satiety. However, we are aware of no study in this regard among children. The present study aimed to determine the effects of whole grain consumption on anthropometric measures in overweight or obese children. In this randomised crossover clinical trial, forty-four overweight or obese girls participated. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to either intervention (n 44) or non-intervention (n 44) groups. Subjects in the intervention group were given a list of whole-grain foods and were asked to obtain half of their grain servings from these foods each day for 6 weeks. Individuals in the non-intervention group were asked not to consume any of these foods. A 4-week washout period was applied. Then, participants were crossed over to the alternate arm. The measurements were done before and after each phase. Mean age, weight and BMI of participants were 11·2 (sd 1·49) years, 51·2 (sd 10·2) kg and 23·5 (sd 2·5) kg/m2, respectively. Despite the slight reduction in weight and BMI, there were no significant differences in changes in these anthropometric measures. We found a significant effect of whole grain intake on waist circumference (−2·7 v. 0·3 cm, P = 0·04). No significant changes in hip circumference were observed. Changes in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were not significantly different. This study indicated a beneficial effect of whole-grain foods on waist circumference in overweight children; however, these foods did not influence weight and BMI.
Vitamin D supplementation in infancy is recommended to prevent rickets. At the population level, its effects on bone mineralisation are largely unknown. We aimed to explore whether adherence to national vitamin D supplementation guidelines (10 µg/d up to the age of 2 years), supplementation at the ages of 5 and 7 years, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) at various time points associated with bone mineral density (BMD) at the age of 7 years in the Odense Child Cohort, Denmark (n 1194). High adherence was defined as supplementation with 10 µg of vitamin D 6–7 times per week during ≥80 % of the observation time. s-25(OH)D was analysed using LC-MS/MS. Total-body-less-head (TBLH) BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At the median age of 18·1 months, 53·9 % (n 475/881) reported high adherence. The median s-25(OH)D was 64·7, 78·8, 46·0 and 71·8 nmol/l in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, cord blood and at 5 years, respectively. The mean TBLH BMD at the median age of 7·1 years was 0·613 (SD 0·049) g/cm2 (z-score +0·363 (SD 0·824)). In adjusted analyses, vitamin D supplementation up to 18 months, and at 5 and 7 years, was not associated with TBLH BMD. Similarly, no robust associations were found between TBLH BMD and s-25(OH)D at any time point. No associations were found for TBLH bone mineral concentration or bone area. In this population with relatively high s-25(OH)D concentrations, no consistent associations were found between adherence to vitamin D supplementation recommendations or vitamin D status in pregnancy or childhood, and bone mineralisation at the age of 7 years.
The study aimed to assess the associations between newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, a marker of iodine nutrition in early life, and childhood neurodevelopment and growth using data collected from two pregnancy studies, one in a borderline iodine-deficient setting (DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) Study) and one in an iodine-sufficient setting (Pregnancy Iodine and Neurodevelopment in Kids (PINK) Study). TSH data were obtained from routine newborn screening. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). Weight, height and head circumference were measured at 18 months. In total, 1467 children were included in the analysis. Comparing the highest with the lowest TSH quartile, the mean differences (MD) in the Bayley-III scores ranged from −2·0 (95 % CI −4·7, 0·7) to −2·2 (95 % CI −5·8, 1·3) points in DOMInO and 1·0 (95 % CI −1·6, 3·6) to 2·0 (95 % CI −0·4, 4·4) points in PINK in the cognitive, language and motor scales; the MD in the anthropometric z scores ranged from −0·01 (95 % CI −0·5, 0·5) to −0·5 (95 % CI −0·9, −0·1) in both studies. A 1 mIU/l increase in TSH was associated with −0·3 (95 % CI −0·9, 0·2) point and 0·2 (95 % CI −0·3, 0·7) point changes in the mean cognitive score in the DOMInO and PINK, respectively. A null association between TSH and growth was also observed in both studies. Longitudinal studies that utilise newborn TSH data and examine neurodevelopmental outcomes at later ages are warranted, as neurodevelopmental assessments in older children are more predictive of later achievement.
As individuals seek increasingly individualised nutrition and lifestyle guidance, numerous apps and nutrition programmes have emerged. However, complex individual variations in dietary behaviours, genotypes, gene expression and composition of the microbiome are increasingly recognised. Advances in digital tools and artificial intelligence can help individuals more easily track nutrient intakes and identify nutritional gaps. However, the influence of these nutrients on health outcomes can vary widely among individuals depending upon life stage, genetics and microbial composition. For example, folate may elicit favourable epigenetic effects on brain development during a critical developmental time window of pregnancy. Genes affecting vitamin B12 metabolism may lead to cardiometabolic traits that play an essential role in the context of obesity. Finally, an individual’s gut microbial composition can determine their response to dietary fibre interventions during weight loss. These recent advances in understanding can lead to a more complete and integrated approach to promoting optimal health through personalised nutrition, in clinical practice settings and for individuals in their daily lives. The purpose of this review is to summarise presentations made during the DSM Science and Technology Award Symposium at the 13th European Nutrition Conference, which focused on personalised nutrition and novel technologies for health in the modern world.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily Se intake and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) among Chinese lactating women, and the impact of their Se nutritional status on infants’ physical development. Se contents in breast milk and plasma collected from 264 lactating Chinese women at the 42nd day postpartum were analysed with inductively coupled plasma MS. Daily Se intake was calculated based on plasma Se concentration. The dietary data of 24-h records on three consecutive days were collected. Infant growth status was evaluated with WHO standards by Z-scores. Linear regression analyses and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine the impact of Se disequilibrium (including other factors) on PPWR and growth of infants, respectively. The results indicated that: (1) the daily Se intake of the subjects was negatively associated with their PPWR (B = −0·002, 95 % CI − 0·003, 0·000, P = 0·039); (2) both insufficient Se daily intake (B = −0·001, OR 0·999, 95 % CI 0·998, 1·000, P = 0·014) and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·025, OR 0·975, 95 % CI 0·951, 0·999, P = 0·021) had potential associations with their infants’ wasting, and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·159, OR 0·853, 95 % CI 0·743, 0·980, P = 0·024) had a significant association with their infants’ overweight. In conclusion, the insufficient Se nutritional status of lactating Chinese women was first found as one possible influencing factor of their PPWR as well as low physical development of their offspring.
High fibre intake is associated with reduced mortality risk in both general and chronic kidney disease populations. However, in dialysis patients, such data are limited. Therefore, the association between dietary fibre intake (DFI) and the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was examined in this study. A total of 1044 maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients from eight outpatient dialysis centres in China were included in this study. Data on DFI were collected using 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d in a week and were normalised to actual dry weight. The study outcomes included all-cause and CVD mortality. Over a median of 46 months of follow-up, 354 deaths were recorded, of which 210 (59 %) were due to CVD. On assessing DFI as tertiles, the CVD mortality risk was significantly lower in patients in tertiles 2–3 (≥0·13 g/kg per d; hazard ratio (HR) 0·71; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·97) compared with those in tertile 1 (<0·13 g/kg per d). A similar but non-significant trend was found for the association between DFI (tertiles 2–3 v. tertile 1; HR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·64, 1·07) and all-cause mortality. In summary, higher DFI was associated with lower CVD mortality risk among Chinese MHD patients. This study emphasises the significance of DFI in MHD patients and provides information that is critical for the improvement of dietary guidelines for dialysis patients.
The high overall plant-based diet index (PDI) is considered to protect against type 2 diabetes in the general population. However, whether the PDI affects gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among pregnant women is still unclear. We evaluated the association between PDI and GDM risk based on a Chinese large prospective cohort – the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary data were collected at 13–28 weeks of pregnancy by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The PDI was obtained by assigning plant food groups positive scores while assigning animal food groups reverse scores. GDM was diagnosed by a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate OR of GDM, with associated 95 % CI, comparing women in different PDI quartiles. Among the total 2099 participants, 169 (8·1 %) were diagnosed with GDM. The PDI ranged from 21·0 to 52·0 with a median of 36·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 33·0–39·0). After adjusting for social-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors etc., the participants with the highest quartile of PDI were associated with 57 % reduced odds of GDM compared with women in the lowest quartile of PDI (adjusted OR 0·43; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·77; Pfor trend = 0·005). An IQR increment in PDI was associated with 29 % decreased odds of GDM (adjusted OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·90). Findings suggest that adopting a plant-based diet during pregnancy could reduce GDM risk among Chinese women, which may be valuable for dietary counselling during pregnancy.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum Zn concentrations were associated with metabolic risk factors in Chinese children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study including 3241 participants, aged 6 to 17 years, from Jiangsu, China. Metabolic risk factors included fasting glucose (FG), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Data were analysed using multi-variable linear regression and generalised additive models, which were adjusted for age, sex, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMI and region of residence, to assess the associations of serum Zn concentrations with metabolic risk factors. We observed a negative association between serum Zn concentrations and FG (coefficient = −0·532; 95 % CI −0·569, −0·495; P < 0·001). Moreover, TC (coefficient = 0·175; 95 % CI 0·127, 0·222; P < 0·001), HDL-cholesterol (coefficient = 0·137; 95 % CI 0·082, 0·193; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (coefficient = 0·195; 95 % CI 0·128, 0·263; P < 0·001) were found to be positively associated with Zn levels. A generalised additive model showed that the negative association between serum Zn and FG was weak at lower serum Zn concentrations and was stronger with the increase in serum Zn concentrations. Additionally, a U-shaped association between serum Zn and TAG was observed. Serum Zn concentrations were associated with FG, TC, TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in Chinese children and adolescents. Lower levels of serum Zn were more likely related to a poor metabolic status.
Intakes of excess Na and insufficient K are two major contributors of heart diseases and stroke development. However, no precise study has previously been carried out on Na and K intakes among Indonesian adults. The present study aimed to estimate the Na and K intakes using two consecutive 24-h urine collections. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged between 20 and 96 years, randomly selected from a pool of resident registration numbers. Of the 506 participants, 479 (240 men and 239 women) completed urine collections. The mean Na excretion was 102·8 and 100·6 mmol/d, while the mean K excretion was 25·0 and 23·4 mmol/d for men and women, respectively. Na and K excretions were higher in participants with a higher BMI. A higher K excretion was associated only with younger age. More than 80 % of the participants consumed more than 5 g/d of salt (the upper limit recommended by the Indonesian government), whereas none of them consumed more than 3510 mg/d of K (the lower limit). The high Na and low K intakes, especially high Na among participants with high BMI, should be considered when future intervention programmes are planned in this country.
Experimental studies suggest that abnormal levels of Ca, Mg and phosphorus are implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations between intakes of these minerals and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study conducted in 1994–1998. Cases of pancreatic cancer (n 150) were recruited from all hospitals in the metropolitan area of the Twin Cities and Mayo Clinic, Minnesota. Controls (n 459) were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. All dietary variables were adjusted for energy intake using the residual method prior to data analysis. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations between intake of three nutrients examined and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Total intake of Ca (936 v. 1026 mg/d) and dietary intake of Mg (315 v. 331 mg/d) and phosphorus (1350 v. 1402 mg/d) were significantly lower in cases than in controls. After adjustment for confounders, there were not significant associations of total and dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and phosphorus with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In addition, no significant interactions exist between intakes of these minerals and total fat on pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, the present study does not suggest that intakes of Ca, Mg and phosphorus were significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Folic acid (FA) can reduce the risk for selected birth defects other than neural tube defects. We examined whether FA has preventive effects against fetal abdominal wall defects (AWD) in a unique intervention cohort in China. Birth outcomes of 247 831 singleton births from a population-based cohort study with detailed pre-conceptional FA intake information were collected in China in 1993–1996. Information on births at 20 complete gestational weeks, including live births, stillbirths and pregnancy terminations, and all structural birth defects regardless of gestational week were recorded. The birth prevalence of omphalocele, gastroschisis and total fetal AWD was classified by maternal FA supplementation. The prevalence of total AWD was 4·30 per 10 000 births among women who took FA compared with 13·46 per 10 000 births among those who did not take FA in northern China and 6·28 and 5·18 per 10 000 births, respectively, in southern China. The prevalence of omphalocele was 0·54 per 10 000 births among women who took FA compared with 3·74 per 10 000 births among those who did not take FA in northern China and 1·79 and 1·44 per 10 000 births, respectively, in southern China. FA supplementation significantly prevented total AWD in multivariate analysis (relative risk 0·26, 95 % CI 0·11, 0·61) in northern China, although no preventive effect of FA on AWD was observed in southern China. FA supplementation successfully reduced the prevalence of AWD in northern China.
The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly progressing, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Various antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs and immunomodulators have been tried without substantial clinical benefits. The severe and critical cases of COVID-19 disease are characterised by gut microbiome dysbiosis, immune dysregulation, hyper-inflammation and hypercytokinaemia (cytokine storm). Therefore, the strategies which target these pathophysiological processes may be beneficial. Probiotics are one such strategy that exerts beneficial effects by manipulation of the gut microbiota, suppression of opportunistic pathogens in the gut, decreasing translocation of opportunistic organisms, activation of mucosal immunity and modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response. Probiotics are the potential candidates to be tested in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 due to several beneficial effects, including easy availability, easy to administer, safe and economical to use.
Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomised crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during a 72-h period of high physical activity energy expenditure (about 9·6 MJ/d (2300 kcal/d)) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1 d (REST) followed by energy-balanced (BAL) and energy-deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET) and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18 (sd 20) %) and negative during DEF (–43 (sd 9) %). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26 (sd 40) %, 56 (sd 71) %, 28 (sd 34) %, respectively) and lower during BAL (–55 (sd 25) %, −52 (sd 27) %, −54 (sd 21) %, respectively; Pcondition < 0·05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65 (sd 61) % higher during BAL (Pcondition < 0·05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance was maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25 % would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiological responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
Few longitudinal studies have evaluated the association between eating and drinking habits and the risk of obesity. Therefore, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal big data analysis for evaluating various eating and drinking habits and the risk of obesity. We analysed individuals without obesity who received medical check-ups from 2008 to 2012 and 5 years later from the JMDC Health check-up database. The primary outcome was the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), and the secondary outcome was the incidence of abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 85 cm for men and 90 cm for women). Age- and sex-adjusted, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 123 182 individuals without obesity at baseline, the median age was 45 (interquartile range 40, 51) years and 76 965 (62·5 %) were men. After 5 years, 7133 (5·8 %) people developed obesity and 12 725 (10·3 %) people developed abdominal obesity. Among six eating and drinking habits, skipping breakfast was associated with a higher risk of obesity (OR 1·21; 99 % CI 1·10, 1·34). In contrast, occasional (OR 0·86; 99 % CI 0·78, 0·94) or daily (OR 0·79; 99 % CI 0·68, 0·91) drinking of alcoholic beverages was associated with a lower risk of obesity. According to the 5-year longitudinal data, eating and drinking habits such as mild to moderate alcohol consumption and avoiding skipping breakfast may result in better obesity prevention. However, excess alcohol consumption would be harmful and should be avoided.
The transition from childhood to adolescence is a sensitive period, triggering changes in health- and weight-related behaviours including eating habits which likely vary between girls and boys. We aimed to characterise the changes in the frequency of consumption of select sugary foods and drinks (‘sweet treats’) among 4237 Finnish girls and boys during a 2-year follow-up period. Additionally, we examined four subgroups: children whose weight or waist normalised as well as children whose weight or waist circumference increased during follow-up. An FFQ was completed at 11·1 (sd 0·9) and again at 13·4 (sd 1·1) years of age. A sum variable sweet treat index (STI, range 0–84) captured the weekly consumption frequencies of sweet treats. From baseline to follow-up, the mean STI decreased among girls from 7·1 (95 % CI 6·9, 7·3) to 6·0 (95 % CI 5·9, 6·2) (P < 0·001) and boys from 8·5 (95 % CI 8·3, 8·8) to 7·8 (95 % CI 7·6, 7·8) (P < 0·001), although both sexes increased their chocolate/sweets consumption: girls from 1·3 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·6 (95 % CI 1·5, 1·6) (P < 0·001) and boys from 1·4 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·6 (95 % CI 1·6, 1·7) (P < 0·001), and boys increased their soft drink consumption from 1·4 (95 % CI 1·3, 1·4) to 1·5 (95 % CI 1·4, 1·5) (P = 0·020). We found similar decreases in both the weight and waist subgroups. To conclude, the total frequency of consumption of sweet treats decreased during early adolescence. A similar trend across subgroups suggests that the frequency of consumption of sweet treats is unrelated to becoming overweight.