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We introduce a notion of barycenter of a probability measure related to the symmetric mean of a collection of non-negative real numbers. Our definition is inspired by the work of Halász and Székely, who in 1976 proved a law of large numbers for symmetric means. We study the analytic properties of this Halász–Székely barycenter. We establish fundamental inequalities that relate the symmetric mean of a list of non-negative real numbers with the barycenter of the measure uniformly supported on these points. As consequence, we go on to establish an ergodic theorem stating that the symmetric means of a sequence of dynamical observations converge to the Halász–Székely barycenter of the corresponding distribution.
Let $\mathcal {N}$ be a non-Archimedean-ordered field extension of the real numbers that is real closed and Cauchy complete in the topology induced by the order, and whose Hahn group is Archimedean. In this paper, we first review the properties of weakly locally uniformly differentiable (WLUD) functions, $k$ times weakly locally uniformly differentiable (WLUD$^{k}$) functions and WLUD$^{\infty }$ functions at a point or on an open subset of $\mathcal {N}$. Then, we show under what conditions a WLUD$^{\infty }$ function at a point $x_0\in \mathcal {N}$ is analytic in an interval around $x_0$, that is, it has a convergent Taylor series at any point in that interval. We generalize the concepts of WLUD$^{k}$ and WLUD$^{\infty }$ to functions from $\mathcal {N}^{n}$ to $\mathcal {N}$, for any $n\in \mathbb {N}$. Then, we formulate conditions under which a WLUD$^{\infty }$ function at a point $\boldsymbol {x_0} \in \mathcal {N}^{n}$ is analytic at that point.
In this paper, we establish an infinite series expansion of Leray–Trudinger inequality, which is closely related with Hardy inequality and Moser Trudinger inequality. Our result extends early results obtained by Mallick and Tintarev [A. Mallick and C. Tintarev. An improved Leray-Trudinger inequality. Commun. Contemp. Math. 20 (2018), 17501034. OP 21] to the case with many logs. It should be pointed out that our result is about series expansion of Hardy inequality under the case $p=n$, which case is not considered by Gkikas and Psaradakis in [K. T. Gkikas and G. Psaradakis. Optimal non-homogeneous improvements for the series expansion of Hardy's inequality. Commun. Contemp. Math. doi:10.1142/S0219199721500310]. However, we can't obtain the optimal form by our method.
We show that if $X$ is an $m$-dimensional definable set in $\mathbb {R}_\text {an}^\text{pow}$, the structure of real subanalytic sets with real power maps added, then for any positive integer $r$ there exists a $C^{r}$-parameterization of $X$ consisting of $cr^{m^{3}}$ maps for some constant $c$. Moreover, these maps are real analytic and this bound is uniform for a definable family.
Given n distinct points
$\mathbf {x}_1, \ldots , \mathbf {x}_n$
in
$\mathbb {R}^d$
, let K denote their convex hull, which we assume to be d-dimensional, and
$B = \partial K $
its
$(d-1)$
-dimensional boundary. We construct an explicit, easily computable one-parameter family of continuous maps
$\mathbf {f}_{\varepsilon } \colon \mathbb {S}^{d-1} \to K$
which, for
$\varepsilon> 0$
, are defined on the
$(d-1)$
-dimensional sphere, and whose images
$\mathbf {f}_{\varepsilon }({\mathbb {S}^{d-1}})$
are codimension
$1$
submanifolds contained in the interior of K. Moreover, as the parameter
$\varepsilon $
goes to
$0^+$
, the images
$\mathbf {f}_{\varepsilon } ({\mathbb {S}^{d-1}})$
converge, as sets, to the boundary B of the convex hull. We prove this theorem using techniques from convex geometry of (spherical) polytopes and set-valued homology. We further establish an interesting relationship with the Gauss map of the polytope B, appropriately defined. Several computer plots illustrating these results are included.
We study a class of delta-like perturbations of the Laplacian on the half-line, characterized by Robin boundary conditions at the origin. Using the formalism of nonstandard analysis, we derive a simple connection with a suitable family of Schrödinger operators with potentials of very large (infinite) magnitude and very short (infinitesimal) range. As a consequence, we also derive a similar result for point interactions in the Euclidean space
$\mathbb {R}^3$
, in the case of radial potentials. Moreover, we discuss explicitly our results in the case of potentials that are linear in a neighborhood of the origin.
This work focuses on the ongoing research of lineability (the search for large linear structures within certain non-linear sets) in non-Archimedean frameworks. Among several other results, we show that there exist large linear structures inside each of the following sets: (i) functions with a fixed closed subset of continuity, (ii) all continuous functions that are not Darboux continuous (or vice versa), (iii) all functions whose Dieudonné integral does not behave as an antiderivative, and (iv) functions with finite range and having antiderivative.
Yuval Peres and Perla Sousi showed that the mixing times and average mixing times of reversible Markov chains on finite state spaces are equal up to some universal multiplicative constant. We use tools from nonstandard analysis to extend this result to reversible Markov chains on compact state spaces that satisfy the strong Feller property.
The aim of this paper is to find a broad family of means defined on a subinterval of $I\subset [0,+\infty )$ such that
$$\begin{eqnarray}\mathop{\sum }_{n=1}^{\infty }\mathscr{M}(a_{1},\ldots ,a_{n})<+\infty \quad \text{for all }a\in \ell _{1}(I).\end{eqnarray}$$
Equivalently, the averaging operator $(a_{1},\,a_{2},a_{3}\,,\ldots )\mapsto (a_{1},\,\mathscr{M}(a_{1},a_{2}),\,\mathscr{M}(a_{1},a_{2},a_{3}),\ldots )$ is a selfmapping of $\ell _{1}(I)$. This property is closely related to the so-called Hardy inequality for means (which additionally requires boundedness of this operator). We prove that these two properties are equivalent in a broad family of so-called Gini means. Moreover, we show that this is not the case for quasi-arithmetic means, that is functions $f^{-1}(\sum f(a_{i})/n)$, where $f:I\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous and strictly monotone, $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and $a\in I^{n}$. However, the weak Hardy property is localisable for this family.
By an influential theorem of Boman, a function $f$ on an open set $U$ in $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ is smooth (${\mathcal{C}}^{\infty }$) if and only if it is arc-smooth, that is, $f\,\circ \,c$ is smooth for every smooth curve $c:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow U$. In this paper we investigate the validity of this result on closed sets. Our main focus is on sets which are the closure of their interior, so-called fat sets. We obtain an analogue of Boman’s theorem on fat closed sets with Hölder boundary and on fat closed subanalytic sets with the property that every boundary point has a basis of neighborhoods each of which intersects the interior in a connected set. If $X\subseteq \mathbb{R}^{d}$ is any such set and $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is arc-smooth, then $f$ extends to a smooth function defined on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$. We also get a version of the Bochnak–Siciak theorem on all closed fat subanalytic sets and all closed sets with Hölder boundary: if $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is the restriction of a smooth function on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ which is real analytic along all real analytic curves in $X$, then $f$ extends to a holomorphic function on a neighborhood of $X$ in $\mathbb{C}^{d}$. Similar results hold for non-quasianalytic Denjoy–Carleman classes (of Roumieu type). We will also discuss sharpness and applications of these results.
We prove two main results on Denjoy–Carleman classes: (1) a composite function theorem which asserts that a function $f(x)$ in a quasianalytic Denjoy–Carleman class ${\mathcal{Q}}_{M}$, which is formally composite with a generically submersive mapping $y=\unicode[STIX]{x1D711}(x)$ of class ${\mathcal{Q}}_{M}$, at a single given point in the source (or in the target) of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D711}$ can be written locally as $f=g\circ \unicode[STIX]{x1D711}$, where $g(y)$ belongs to a shifted Denjoy–Carleman class ${\mathcal{Q}}_{M^{(p)}}$; (2) a statement on a similar loss of regularity for functions definable in the $o$-minimal structure given by expansion of the real field by restricted functions of quasianalytic class ${\mathcal{Q}}_{M}$. Both results depend on an estimate for the regularity of a ${\mathcal{C}}^{\infty }$ solution $g$ of the equation $f=g\circ \unicode[STIX]{x1D711}$, with $f$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D711}$ as above. The composite function result depends also on a quasianalytic continuation theorem, which shows that the formal assumption at a given point in (1) propagates to a formal composition condition at every point in a neighbourhood.
Set differential equations are usually formulated in terms of the Hukuhara differential. As a consequence, the theory of set differential equations is perceived as an independent subject, in which all results are proved within the framework of the Hukuhara calculus. We propose to reformulate set differential equations as ordinary differential equations in a Banach space by identifying the convex and compact subsets of ℝd with their support functions. Using this representation, standard existence and uniqueness theorems for ordinary differential equations can be applied to set differential equations. We provide a geometric interpretation of the main result, and demonstrate that our approach overcomes the heavy restrictions that the use of the Hukuhara differential implies for the nature of a solution.
In this paper, we prove some new reverse dynamic inequalities of Renaud- and Bennett-type on time scales. The results are established using the time scales Fubini theorem, the reverse Hölder inequality and a time scales chain rule.
In this paper, we characterize Borel $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-fields of the set of all fuzzy numbers endowed with different metrics. The main result is that the Borel $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-fields with respect to all known separable metrics are identical. This Borel field is the Borel $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-field making all level cut functions of fuzzy mappings from any measurable space to the fuzzy number space measurable with respect to the Hausdorff metric on the cut sets. The relation between the Borel $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$-field with respect to the supremum metric $d_{\infty }$ is also demonstrated. We prove that the Borel field is induced by a separable and complete metric. A global characterization of measurability of fuzzy-valued functions is given via the main result. Applications to fuzzy-valued integrals are given, and an approximation method is presented for integrals of fuzzy-valued functions. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the applications of these results in economics. This example shows that the results in this paper are basic to the theory of fuzzy-valued functions, such as the fuzzy version of Lebesgue-like integrals of fuzzy-valued functions, and are useful in applied fields.
A necessary and sufficient condition for a continuous function $g$ to be almost periodic on time scales is the existence of an almost periodic function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f$ is an extension of $g$. Our aim is to study this question for pseudo almost periodic functions. We prove the necessity of the condition for pseudo almost periodic functions. An example is given to show that the sufficiency of the condition does not hold for pseudo almost periodic functions. Nevertheless, the sufficiency is valid for uniformly continuous pseudo almost periodic functions. As applications, we give some results on the connection between the pseudo almost periodic (or almost periodic) solutions of dynamic equations on time scales and of the corresponding differential equations.
We prove a subconvexity bound for the central value $L(\frac{1}{2},{\it\chi})$ of a Dirichlet $L$-function of a character ${\it\chi}$ to a prime power modulus $q=p^{n}$ of the form $L(\frac{1}{2},{\it\chi})\ll p^{r}q^{{\it\theta}+{\it\epsilon}}$ with a fixed $r$ and ${\it\theta}\approx 0.1645<\frac{1}{6}$, breaking the long-standing Weyl exponent barrier. In fact, we develop a general new theory of estimation of short exponential sums involving $p$-adically analytic phases, which can be naturally seen as a $p$-adic analogue of the method of exponent pairs. This new method is presented in a ready-to-use form and applies to a wide class of well-behaved phases including many that arise from a stationary phase analysis of hyper-Kloosterman and other complete exponential sums.
We extract a quantitative variant of uniqueness from the usual hypotheses of the implicit function theorem. Not only does this lead to an a priori proof of continuity, but also to an alternative, full proof of the implicit function theorem. Additionally, we investigate implicit functions as a case of the unique existence paradigm with parameters.
This paper focuses on the analyticity of the limiting behavior of a class of dynamical systems defined by iteration of non-expansive random operators. The analyticity is understood with respect to the parameters which govern the law of the operators. The proofs are based on contraction with respect to certain projective semi-norms. Several examples are considered, including Lyapunov exponents associated with products of random matrices both in the conventional algebra, and in the (max, +) semi-field, and Lyapunov exponents associated with non-linear dynamical systems arising in stochastic control. For the class of reducible operators (defined in the paper), we also address the issue of analyticity of the expectation of functionals of the limiting behavior, and connect this with contraction properties with respect to the supremum norm. We give several applications to queueing theory.
Let , be i.i.d. random closed sets in . Limit theorems for their normalized convex hulls conv () are proved. The limiting distributions correspond to C-stable random sets. The random closed set A is called C-stable if, for any , the sets anA and conv ( coincide in distribution for certain positive an, compact Kn, and independent copies A1, …, An of A. The distributions of C-stable sets are characterized via corresponding containment functionals.
We consider continuous Gaussian stochastic process indexed by a compact subset of a vector space over a local field. Under suitable conditions we obtain an asymptotic expression for the probability that such a process will exceed a high level. An important component in the proof of these results is a theorem of independent interest concerning the amount of ‘time’ which the process spends at high levels.
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