Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-76fb5796d-vfjqv Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-25T09:11:08.907Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

17 - How Social-Emotional Imagination Facilitates Deep Learning and Creativity in the Classroom

from PART II - VOICES FROM THE RESEARCH

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 November 2016

Ronald A. Beghetto
Affiliation:
University of Connecticut
James C. Kaufman
Affiliation:
University of Connecticut
Get access

Summary

Imagination is not only the uniquely human capacity to envision that which is not, and therefore the fount of all invention and innovation. In its arguably most transformative and revelatory capacity, it is the power that enables us to empathise with humans whose experiences we have never shared.

J. K. Rowling, 2008

Developing creativity in students is not a luxury. Technology experts project that about 47% of current jobs in the United States will become obsolete because of computers within the next decade or two, and the jobs that will remain are those that require creative intelligence (Frey & Osborne, 2013). In this chapter we propose that supporting youths’ capacities for social-emotional imagination – their abilities to creatively conjure alternative perspectives, emotional feelings, courses of action, and outcomes for oneself and others in the short- and long-term future – is a critical missing piece in many classrooms. This mental act of imagining precedes and translates into creative behaviors – behaviors that demonstrate divergent thinking or a novel approach to a problem and result in the formation of a useful idea or work.

Students’ school success and lifelong creativity are facilitated not only by the cognitive skills measured by IQ tests but by other cognitive and social-emotional attributes. Critically, a capacity for imagination enables many of these cognitive and social-emotional skills, such as intellectual curiosity, openness to experience, passion, inspiration, love of work, envisioning future goals, persistence, sense of mission, courage, delight in deep thinking, tolerance of mistakes, and feeling comfortable as a “minority of one” (e.g., Cox, 1926; Duckworth & Seligman, 2005; Fredricks, Blumfeld & Paris, 2004; Furnham & Bachtair 2008; Kaufman, 2013a, 2013b; Kaufman et al., 2015; Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011; Oyserman & Destin, 2010; Runco, Millar, Acar, & Cramond, 2010; Torrance, 1993, 2003, 2004; von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro- Premuzic, 2011). Imagination is central because it allows students to reflect holistically about what they learn such that school-related tasks are more meaningful, personally relevant and rewarding, and more connected to the adulthood they hope to achieve one day. Imagination facilitates creative, critical dispositions toward new content and skills by helping students conjure new connections between ideas and invent new ways to represent and apply information.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2007). Remembering the past and imagining the future: Common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1363–1377.Google Scholar
Aiello, D. A., Jarosz, A. F., Cushen, P. J., & Wiley, J. (2012). Firing the executive: When an analytic approach to problem solving helps and hurts. The Journal of Problem Solving, 4(2), 7.Google Scholar
Allen, M., Smallwood, J., Christensen, J., Gramm, D., Rasmussen, B., et al. (2013). The balanced mind: The variability of task-unrelated thoughts predicts error monitoring. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 743. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00743Google Scholar
Andrews-Hanna, J. R., Smallwood, J., & Spreng, R. N. (2014). The default network and self-generated thought: Component processes, dynamic control, and clinical relevance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1316, 29–52.Google Scholar
Batson, C. D. (2009). Two forms of perspective taking: Imagining how another feels and imagining how you would feel. In Markman, K. D., Klein, W. M. & Suhr, J. A. (Eds.), The handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. 267–279). New York: Psychology Press.
Baumeister, R. F., & Masicampo, E. J. (2010). Conscious thought is for facilitating social and cultural interactions: How mental simulations serve the animal–culture interface. Psychological Review, 117(3), 945.Google Scholar
Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Kaufman, S. B., & Silvia, p. J. (2015). Default and executive network coupling supports creative idea production. Nature Scientific Reports, 5, 10964. doi:10.1038/srep10964Google Scholar
Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Wilkins, R. W., Jauk, E., Fink, , et al. (2014). Creativity and the default network: A functional connectivity analysis of the creative brain at rest. Neuropsychologia, 64, 92–98.Google Scholar
Bruner, J. (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cocchi, L., Zalesky, A., Fornito, A., & Mattingley, J. B. (2013). Dynamic cooperation and competition between brain systems during cognitive control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 494–501.Google Scholar
Cox, C. M. (1926). The early mental traits of three hundred geniuses (Vol. 2). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
D'Argembeau, A., Stawarczyk, D., Majerus, S., Collette, F., Van der Linden, M., et al. (2010). The neural basis of personal goal processing when envisioning future events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(8), 1701–1713.Google Scholar
Davis, M. A. (2009). Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 25–38.Google Scholar
Decety, J., Chen, C., Harenski, C., & Kiehl, K. A. (2013). An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 489. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00489Google Scholar
Depue, B. E., Curran, T., & Banich, M. T. (2007). Prefrontal regions orchestra suppression of emotional memories via a two-phase process. Science, 317, 215–219.Google Scholar
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939–944.Google Scholar
Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.
Dwyer, D. B., Harrison, B. J., Yücel, M., Whittle, S., Zalesky, A., et al. (2014). Large-scale brain network dynamics supporting adolescent cognitive control. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 14096–14107.Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49, 725–747.Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.Google Scholar
Esposito, F., Bertolino, A., Scarabino, T., Latorre, V., et al. (2006). Independent component model of the default-mode brain function: Assessing the impact of active thinking. Brain Research Bulletin, 70(4), 263–269.Google Scholar
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911.Google Scholar
Forbes, C. E., Leitner, J. B., Duran-Jordan, K., Magerman, A. B., Schmader, T., & Allen, J. J. (2014). Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(7), 994–1002.Google Scholar
Forbes, C. E., & Schmader, T. (2010). Retraining attitudes and stereotype to affect motivation and cognitive capacity under stereotype threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 740–754.Google Scholar
Fox, M. D., Snyder, A. Z., Vincent, J. L., Corbetta, M., Van Essen, D. C., & Raichle, M. E. (2005). The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102, 9673–9678.Google Scholar
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109.Google Scholar
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions – Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 1367–1378.
Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2013). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerization? Oxford: University of Oxford, Oxford Martin School.
Furnham, A., & Bachtiar, V. (2008). Personality and intelligence as predictors of creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(7), 613–617.Google Scholar
Gerlach, K. D., Spreng, R. N., Madore, K. P., & Schacter, D. L. (2014). Future planning: Default network activity couples with frontoparietal control network and reward-processing regions during process and outcome simulations. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(12), 1942–1951.Google Scholar
Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B., & Altoe, G. (2008). Determinants of adolescents’ active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 93–105.Google Scholar
Goleman, D. (2013). Focus: The hidden driver of excellence. New York: HarperCollins.
Greicius, M. D., Krasnow, B., Reiss, A. L., & Menon, V. (2003). Functional connectivity in the resting brain: A network analysis of the default mode hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(1), 253–258.Google Scholar
Greicius, M. D., & Menon, V. (2004). Default-mode activity during a passive sensory task: Uncoupled from deactivation but impacting activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(9), 1484–1492.Google Scholar
Gresky, D. M., Ten Eyck, L. L., Lord, C. G., & McIntyre, R. B. (2005). Effects of salient multiple identities on women's performance under mathematics stereotype threat. Sex Roles, 53(9–10), 703–716.Google Scholar
Hare, T. A., Camerer, C., & Rangel, A. (2009). Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science, 324, 646–648.Google Scholar
Horstmanshof, L., & Zimitat, C. (2007). Future time orientation predicts academic engagement among first‐year university students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 703–718.Google Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2010). Toward a microdevelopmental, interdisciplinary approach to social emotion. Emotion Review, 2(3), 217–220.Google Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2011a). Me, my “self” and you: Neuropsychological relations between social emotion, self-awareness, and morality. Emotion Review, 3(3), 313–315.Google Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2011b). Musings on the neurobiological and evolutionary origins of creativity via a developmental analysis of one child's poetry. LEARNING Landscapes, 5(1), 133–139.Google Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H., Christodoulou, J. A., & Singh, V. (2012). Rest is not idleness: Implications of the brain's default mode for human development and education. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), 352–364.Google Scholar
Immordino‐Yang, M. H., & Damasio, A. (2007). We feel, therefore we learn: The relevance of affective and social neuroscience to education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1(1), 3–10.Google Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H., McColl, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (2009). Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 106(19), 8021–8026.Google Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H., Yang, X. F., & Damasio, H. (2014). Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(728), 1–15.Google Scholar
Jung, R. E., Mead, B. S., Carrasco, J., & Flores, R. A. (2013). The structure of creative cognition in the human brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(330), 1–13.Google Scholar
Kane, M. J., Brown, L. H., McVay, J. C., Silvia, P. J., Myin-Germeys, I., & Kwapil, T. R. (2007). For whom the mind wanders, and when: An experience-sampling study of working memory and executive control in daily life. Psychological Science, 18(7), 614–621.Google Scholar
Kane, M. J., & McVay, J. C. (2012). What mind wandering reveals about executive-control abilities and failures. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5), 348–354.Google Scholar
Kaufman, S. B. (2013a). Ungifted: Intelligence redefined. New York: Basic Books.
Kaufman, S. B. (2013b). Opening up openness to experience: A four-factor model and relations to creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Creative Behavior, 47, 233–255.Google Scholar
Kaufman, S. B., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Openness to experience and intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84(2), 248–258.Google Scholar
Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330(6006), 932 Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, L. A., Suyenobu, B. Y., Smith, S. R., Bueller, J. A., Goodman, T., et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. Neuroimage, 56(1), 290–298.Google Scholar
Kucyi, A., & Davis, K. D. (2014). Dynamic functional connectivity of the default mode network tracks daydreaming. Neuroimage, 100, 471–480.Google Scholar
Lamm, C., Decety, J., & Singer, T. (2011). Meta-analytic evidence for common and distinct neural networks associated with directly experienced pain and empathy for pain. Neuroimage, 54(3), 2492–2502.Google Scholar
Lee, C. S., Therriault, D. J., & Linderholm, T. (2012). On the cognitive benefits of cultural experience: Exploring the relationship between studying abroad and creative thinking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(5), 768–778.Google Scholar
Lee, H., & Kim, K. H. (2011). Can speaking more languages enhance your creativity? Relationship between bilingualism and creative potential among Korean American students with multicultural link. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(8), 1186–1190.Google Scholar
Leikin, M. (2013). The effect of bilingualism on creativity: Developmental and educational perspectives. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(4), 431–447.Google Scholar
Levinson, D. B., Smallwood, J., & Davidson, R. J. (2012). The persistence of thought evidence for a role of working memory in the maintenance of task-unrelated thinking. Psychological Science, 23(4), 375–380.Google Scholar
Lewis, J., Neil, A., & Oyserman, D. (2015). When does the future begin? Time metrics matter, connecting present and future selves. Psychological Science, 26(6), 816–825.Google Scholar
Li, Y., Liu, Y., Li, J., Qin, W., Li, K., Yu, C., & Jiang, T. (2009). Brain anatomical network and intelligence. PLoS Computational Biology, 5(5), e1000395. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000395Google Scholar
McMillan, R. L., Kaufman, S. B., & Singer, J. L. (2013). Ode to positive constructive daydreaming. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 626. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00626Google Scholar
Miyake, A., Kost-Smith, L. E., Finkelstein, N. D., Pollock, S. J., Cohen, G. L., & Ito, T. A. (2010). Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: A classroom study of values affirmation. Science, 330(6008), 1234–1237.Google Scholar
Mooneyham, B. W., and Schooler, J. W. (2013). The costs and benefits of mind-wandering: A review. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67, 11–18.Google Scholar
Morris, M., Chiu, C.Y., & Liu, Z. (2015). Polycultural psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 631–659.Google Scholar
Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science, 24(5), 776–781.Google Scholar
Nickerson, A. B., Mele, D., & Princiotta, D. (2008). Attachment and empathy as predictors of roles as defenders or outsiders in bullying interactions. Journal of School Psychology, 46(6), 687–703.Google Scholar
Nusbaum, E. C., & Silvia, P. J. (2011). Are openness and intellect distinct aspects of openness to experience? A test of the O/I model. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(5), 571–574.Google Scholar
Ochsner, K. N., Ludlow, D. H., Knierim, K., Hanelin, J., Ramachandran, T., Glover, G. C., & Mackey, S. C. (2006). Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxiety. Pain, 120(1), 69–77.Google Scholar
Ochsner, K. N., Silvers, J. A., & Buhle, J. T. (2012). Functional imagining studies of emotion regulation: A synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Annals of the New York Academy Sciences, 1251(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
Oettingen, G., & Schwörer, B. (2013). Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 562. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00562Google Scholar
Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2006). Possible selves and academic outcomes: How and when possible selves impel action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 188–204.Google Scholar
Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., Terry, K., & Hart-Johnson, T. (2004). Possible selves as roadmaps. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(2), 130–149.Google Scholar
Oyserman, D., & Destin, M. (2010). Identity-based motivation: Implications for intervention. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(7), 1001–1043.Google Scholar
Oyserman, D., Johnson, E., & James, L. (2011). Seeing the destination but not the path: Effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on school-focused possible self content and linked behavioral strategies. Self and Identity, 10(4), 474–492.Google Scholar
Oyserman, D., Novin, S., Flinkenflogel, N., & Krabbendam, L. (2014). Rethinking the culture-brain interface: Integrating culture-as-situated-cognition and neuroscience prediction models. Culture and Brain, 2(1) 1–26.Google Scholar
Peetz, J., Wilson, A. E., & Strahan, E. J. (2009). So far away: The role of subjective temporal distance to future goals in motivation and behavior. Social Cognition, 27(4), 475–495.Google Scholar
Pennebaker, J. W., & Seagal, J. D. (1999). Forming a story: The health benefits of narrative. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(10), 1243–1254.Google Scholar
Peters, J., & Buchel, C. (2010). Episodic future thinking reduces reward delay discounting through an enhancement of prefrontal-mediotemporal interactions. Neuron, 66, 138–148.Google Scholar
Piccoli, T., Valente, G., Linden, D. E., Re, M., Esposito, F., Sack, A. T., & Di Salle, F. (2015). The Default Mode Network and the Working Memory Network are not anti-correlated during all phases of a working memory task. PLoS ONE, 10(4), e0123354. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123354Google Scholar
Pletzer, B., Kronbichler, M., Nuerk, H. C., & Kerschbaum, H. H. (2015). Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 1–12.Google Scholar
Qin, P., & Northoff, G. (2011). How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network? Neuroimage, 57(3), 1221–1233.Google Scholar
Raichle, M. E., & Snyder, A. Z. (2007). A default mode of brain function: A brief history of an evolving idea. Neuroimage, 37(4), 1083–1090.Google Scholar
Ramirez, G., & Beilock, S. L. (2011). Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom. Science, 331(6014), 211–213.Google Scholar
Reeve, J., & Lee, W. (2014). Students’ classroom engagement produces longitudinal changes in classroom motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(2), 527–544.Google Scholar
Riggio, R. E., Tucker, J., & Coffaro, D. (1989). Social skills and empathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(1), 93–99.Google Scholar
Ritter, S. M., Damian, R. I., Simonton, D. K., van Baaren, R. B., Strick, M., Derks, J., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2012). Diversifying experiences enhance cognitive flexibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 961–964.Google Scholar
Rotenstein, V., Bansal, S., Yang, X., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2014, April). Social and Non Social Media Use Are Oppositely Related to Empathic Concern in Adolescents. Poster presented at the University of Southern California Undergraduate Symposium, Los Angeles, CA.
Rowling, J. K. (2008, June 5). The fringe benefits of failure, and the importance of imagination. Harvard Gazette. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2008/06/text-of-j-k-rowling-speech/
Runco, M. A., Millar, G., Acar, S., & Cramond, B. (2010). Torrance tests of creative thinking as predictors of personal and public achievement: A fifty-year follow-up. Creativity Research Journal, 22(4), 361–368.Google Scholar
Rydell, R. J., Beilock, S. L., & McConell, A. R. (2009). Multiple social identities and stereotype threat: Imbalance, accessibility, and working memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 949–966.Google Scholar
Schultz, L. H., Barr, D. J., & Selman, R. L. (2001). The value of a developmental approach to evaluating character development programmes: An outcome study of Facing History and Ourselves. Journal of Moral Education, 30(1), 3–27.Google Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.Google Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P., Railton, P., Baumeister, R. F., & Sripada, C. (2013). Navigating into the future or driven by the past. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 119–141.Google Scholar
Singer, J. L. (1961). Imagination and waiting ability in young children. Journal of Personality, 29(4), 396–413.Google Scholar
Singer, T., & Lamm, C. (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156(1), 81–96.Google Scholar
Smallwood, J. (2013). Distinguishing how from why the mind wanders: a process–occurrence framework for self-generated mental activity. Psychological Bulletin, 139(3), 519–535.Google Scholar
Smallwood, J., McSpadden, M., & Schooler, J. W. (2008). When attention matters: The curious incident of the wandering mind. Memory & Cognition, 36(6), 1144–1150.Google Scholar
Smallwood, J., Nind, L., & O'Connor, R. C. (2009). When is your head at? An exploration of the factors associated with the temporal focus of the wandering mind. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 118–125.Google Scholar
Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2015). The science of mind wandering: Empirically navigating the stream of consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 487–518.Google Scholar
Song, M., Liu, Y., Zhou, Y., Wang, K., Yu, C., & Jiang, T. (2009). Default network and intelligence difference. Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society, 2212–2215.
Spreng, R. N., DuPre, E., Selarka, D., Garcia, J., Gojkovic, S., et al. (2014). Goal-congruent default network activity facilitates cognitive control. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 14108–14114.Google Scholar
Steiner-Adair, C., & Barker, T. H. (2013). The big disconnect: Protecting childhood and family relationships in the digital age. New York: Harper Business.
Tamir, D. I., & Mitchell, J. P. (2011). The default network distinguishes construals of proximal versus distal events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(10), 2945–2955.Google Scholar
Taylor, V. A., Daneault, V., Grant, J., Scavone, G., Breton, E., et al. (2012). Impact of meditation training on the default mode network during a restful state. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 4–14.Google Scholar
Torrance, E. P. (1993). The Beyonders in a thirty-year longitudinal study of creative achievement. Roeper Review, 15, 131–135.Google Scholar
Torrance, E. P. (2003). The millennium: A time for looking forward and looking back. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 15, 6–12.Google Scholar
Torrance, E. P. (2004). Great expectations: Creative achievements of the sociometric stars in a 30-year study. Journal of Advanced Academics, 16, 5–13.Google Scholar
van Noorden, T. H., Haselager, G. J., Cillessen, A. H., & Bukowski, W. M. (2014). Empathy and involvement in bullying in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(3), 637–657.Google Scholar
von Stumm, S., Hell, B., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2011). The hungry mind intellectual curiosity is the third pillar of academic performance. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 574–588.Google Scholar
Wang, K., Yu, C., Xu, L., Qin, W., Li, K., Xu, L., & Jiang, T. (2009). Offline memory reprocessing: Involvement of the brain's default network in spontaneous thought processes. PLoS ONE, 4, e4867. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004867Google Scholar
Wiley, J., & Jarosz, A. F. (2012). Working memory capacity, attentional focus, and problem solving. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(4), 258–262.Google Scholar
Wilson, A. E., Gunn, G. R., & Ross, M. (2009). The role of subjective time in identity regulation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 1164–1178.Google Scholar
Yang, X.-F., Bossmann, J., Schiffhauer, B., Jordan, M., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2013). Intrinsic default mode network connectivity predicts spontaneous verbal descriptions of autobiographical memories during social processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 3 (592), 1–10.Google Scholar
Yang, X.-F., Pavarini, G., Schnall, S., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2012, May). Spontaneous gaze aversion during interview-induced moral elevation predicts subsequent default network activation. Poster presented at the 2012 Association for Psychological Science Convention, Chicago, IL.
Yi, X., Plucker, J. A., & Guo, J. (2015). Modeling influences on divergent thinking and artistic creativity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 16, 62–68.Google Scholar
Zhiyan, T., & Singer, J. L. (1997). Daydreaming styles, emotionality, and the big five personality dimensions. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 16, 399–414.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×