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“The 1986 Enterprise Bankruptcy Law (1986 EBL) was adopted after many ineffective attempts to reform SOEs. It, in fact, neither effectively reformed SOEs as anticipated by the government, nor succeeded as a bankruptcy law in addressing the creditor-debtor problem. Lawmakers granted the government extensive roles in the bankruptcy of SOEs because of a misunderstanding of the nature and the goals of the bankruptcy regime when it was transplanted into China from other jurisdictions. They did not treat this law as a real bankruptcy law, but rather as an ‘SOE-rescuing law’ or ‘workers’ resettlement law’.This chapter introduces the background of government intervention in enterprise bankruptcies, the object dimension and temporal scope of this study, and research methodologies of this study: which includes empirical study, doctrinal approach and historical approach. It presents a general picture of the pending issue: whether the government is needed in addressing the bankruptcy problem of enterprises, especially listed companies in China with a socialist market economy.”
Notwithstanding that the goals of the government may not be consistent with the legislative goals of the 2006 EBL, the government is determined to realise its own goals in the reorganisation of listed companies in practice, namely, to further local economic interests such as local fiscal revenue, local employment rates, local and regional economic development, a friendly business environment; and political interests in protecting the interests of workers and maintenance of the order of the socialist market economy. By studying the reorganisation of fifty-three listed companies that entered reorganisation after the 2006 EBL came into effect, this chapter identifies the administrative means applied by local governments to intervene in the reorganisation of listed companies – controlling the access to the bankruptcy/reorganisation procedure, organising liquidation groups, resettling workers, introducing strategic investors, granting government subsidies and intervening in the cram down process of reorganisation plans rejected by creditors or shareholders. Some administrative means applied by local governments facilitate the bankruptcy of listed companies, such as the resettlement of workers and subsidising financially distressed listed companies. Certain other administrative means, such as blocking listed companies’ access to the bankruptcy procedure, may hinder the bankruptcy process.
This chapter provides an analysis of the implications of Turkish foreign policy on Syria and Iraq for Turkey–USA–NATO relations and argues that US support for the Syrian Kurds in the fight against the Islamic State (IS) caused a significant strain in USA–Turkey relations. It provides evidence for boundary-challenging behavior against the USA and NATO in light of Turkey’s long-lasting reluctance to join the fight against the IS, lax control of its border with Syria, and its denial of the Incirlik Air Base to US warplanes in the fight against the terrorist organization up until July 2015. It also makes a case for boundary-breaking behavior as a result of the use of compellent threats against US forces deployed in the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)-held areas in Syria, the Turkish military and diplomatic cooperative balancing with Russia leading to Turkey’s involvement in the Astana peace talks, and the Russian air support to Turkey’s ground operations in Syria. It concludes that Turkish foreign policy in the region increasingly shows tendencies for boundary breaking against the West through the use of more traditional tools of balancing.
This paper revisits the question of how brain drain affects the optimal education policy of a developing economy. Our framework of analysis highlights the complementarity between public spending on education and students' efforts to acquire human capital in response to career opportunities at home and abroad. Given this complementarity, we find that brain drain has conflicting effects on the optimal provision of public education. A positive response is called for when the international earning differential with destination countries is large, and when the emigration rate is relatively low. In contrast with the findings in the existing literature, our numerical experiments show that these required conditions are in fact present in a large number of developing countries; they are equivalent to those under which an increase in emigration induces a net brain gain. As a further contribution, we study the interaction between the optimal immigration policy of the host country and education policy of the source country in a game-theoretic framework.
While Chinese local governments remain extremely wary of workers’ collective actions, they do not always suppress them; sometimes, they tolerate such actions and even seek to placate workers. What accounts for these different government responses to workers’ collective actions? Based on a sample of over 1,491 collective action cases that took place in Guangdong between 2011 and 2016, we find that the types of demands raised by workers during collective actions affect how local governments respond. Local governments are likely to forcefully intervene in collective actions in which workers make defensive claims concerning issues of payment. In contrast, local governments are likely to use non-forceful approaches in response to actions in which workers make defensive claims regarding social security.
This article builds on previous studies concerning the question of street-level bureaucracy, an expression coined by Lipsky (1980) – Street-Level Bureaucracy. Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services (New York: Russel Sage Foundation) – to highlight the importance of the discretionary power that professionals in public agencies exercise during the implementation of laws, standards and guidelines. Discretion may depend on the need to compromise between the limited resources available and the claims of citizens, or between administrative policy directives and assessments, on the one hand, and their interpretation by “street-level” bureaucrats, on the other. This article focuses on the dilemmas that labour inspectors face when dealing with employment irregularities involving domestic workers. Based on nine months of observations in a local office of the Italian Labour Inspectorate, it aims to understand how labour inspectors make use of their discretionary power when the workplace is the home. This article connects studies of street-level bureaucracy with the new institutional organisational analysis, focusing on the isomorphic pressures from the institutional field in which the labour inspectors operate, together with the manner in which such pressures shape labour inspectors’ discretion. Through this connection, the article aims to extend the scope of both theories.
Disaster health care workers experience much greater stress providing psychological first-aid and suffer from the indirect experience of traumatic events. This study examines how disaster health care workers experience disaster mental health.
Twenty-one disaster health care workers recruited from fire stations, community mental health service centers, and disaster trauma centers in Korea participated in this study. Data were collected via in-depth interviews and qualitatively analyzed according to Colaizzi’s phenomenological approach.
Disaster health care workers’ experiences of disaster mental health can be analyzed according to 4 theme categories: (1) commitment to one’s duty as a disaster health care worker; (2) powerlessness and lack of confidence; (3) incident shock and burnout; and (4) incomplete and inadequate healing.
In order to prevent mental health problems and support the disaster health care workers, it is necessary to develop and provide effective, nationwide psychological first-aid training, as well as disaster trauma recovery programs that are tailored to Korean sociocultural context and use immersive digital health care/education technology.
This qualitative study used a narrative approach to address the vulnerabilities and problems experienced by the children of sex workers in Iran. A purposive sample of women who were referred to drop-in centres were invited to take part in semi-structured interviews. An analysis of the data identified 8 main themes and 12 sub-themes, most of which related to risks and harm being perpetrated on the children of sex workers. The main risk to these children was the likelihood that they would escape from home and become sex workers themselves. Also identified as problematic was the risk of child labour, becoming members of offending groups and becoming a member of a brothel.
Aboriginal Education Workers (AEWs) are utilised by primary and secondary schools to improve components of success for Aboriginal students, liaise with their families and the Aboriginal community and contribute to developing and promoting an Aboriginal pedagogy. Despite the challenging role of decolonising the school environment, the important work undertaken by AEWs can be misunderstood and underappreciated by the Western school system. This paper aims to measure the influence of AEWs on Aboriginal culture within schools using quantitative data from Wave 7K Cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. Results show that there is a positive impact on Aboriginal culture within schools through having an AEW present all or some of the time. For Aboriginal children to grow up strong, employment of an AEW is important to decolonise the school environment and provide a holistic education.
Scholars of Chinese society have predominantly regarded the region's money to represent an unusually “social” artefact. The dramatic proliferation of “digital money” services within Chinese social media platforms in the last decade would seem to further confirm the social character of Chinese money. I present a comparison of the diverse views held by migrant factory workers in Shenzhen towards different digital payment platforms which, however, suggests that rather than digital money necessarily being more or less social, different platforms instead extend the possibilities of sociality in varying ways. I argue that acknowledging the production of such novel working-class subjectivities through digital money ought to be central to efforts to assess the potential of these technologies for addressing the social, institutional and economic exclusions faced by Chinese migrant labourers. This in turn can enrich our understanding of the emergence of a new “digital working-class” in China by revealing how such contemporary working-class subjectivities are shifting, contextual and processual in nature.
This chapter examines the ‘servant problem’ from the servant’s point of view through a history of the Domestic Workers’ Union of Great Britain and Ireland (est. 1909–1910). It is the first ever in-depth history of this or any other servants’ trade union in Britain. It provides an important new perspective on both class relations in the suffrage movement and the gender politics of labour organising in the years leading up to the First World War. My account relies upon the correspondence pages of the Woman Worker and the Glasgow Herald, and on press cuttings from the local and radical press. These letters provide an unusual opportunity for the voices of rank-and-file domestic workers to be heard discussing working conditions and the possibility of self-organisation. The DWU aimed to be a union run ‘by servants for servants’. It sought to reconfigure the mistress–maid relationship as a formal employment contract, and did not shy away from the potential for class antagonism between these two groups of women despite also having its roots in the suffrage movement.
This chapter examines the migration of nearly 200,000 Caribbean immigrants – from Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Barbados, Grenada, Aruba, and Curaçao – to Cuba in the 1920s and early 1930s. Jamaicans and Haitians, more than others, were perceived as threats to Cuban culture and national security, and between 1925 and 1933 the Gerardo Machado government encouraged the expulsion of Antillean workers and the nationalization of labor. Caribbean immigrants played a surprisingly important role in the organization of workers in the sugar industry and had a significant role in the sugar worker mobilizations of the early 1930s that culminated in the 1933 Revolution. The young Cuban Communist Party made great efforts to recruit and address Haitian and Jamaican workers, and West Indian immigrants were strikingly visible in labor agitation and resistance as well as in the strikes and mill occupations that accompanied the Revolution of 1933.
The study explored the knowledge and service delivery skills of primary health care (PHC) workers to conduct cervical cancer screening programmes in Sango primary health centre in Sango town, Ado-Odo Ota, Ogun State in Nigeria.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women. The prevention and control services in Nigeria are provided mainly at post-primary health facilities. Authorities have advocated the integration of cervical cancer prevention into reproductive health services provided at PHC centres. The service delivery capabilities of PHC workers are critical for successful implementation of screening programmes.
Exploratory qualitative research design was used. Data were collected among 10 PHC workers who were purposively sampled at Sango PHC. Semi-structured interview guide with broad items and a checklist were used to assess participants’ cervical cancer screening knowledge and service delivery skills using visual inspection screening methods. Data were analysed thematically and triangulated.
A range of roles were represented in the interviews of the health care workers at the PHC studied. They had poor knowledge and skills about cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine. Study participants perceived nurses as most equipped PHC workers to conduct screening at PHC level, followed by the community health officers. Participants reported no cervical cancer services at the centre and community. The findings provided useful insight that guided the training of primary health workers and the development of a community-based cervical cancer screening model for women in rural communities.
Nurses and other PHC workers should be trained on visual inspection screening method. This low-cost but effective methodology could be incorporated into their training curricula as a strategy for scaling up cervical cancer prevention programmes across Nigeria.
More people remain in the workforce into their late life as people’s life expectancy increases. This study examined the relationship between work stress and depressive symptoms of older workers in mainland China, focusing on the interplay between work stress with family and community factors in three (i.e., urban, rural, and migrant) settings.
National representative survey data on the Chinese labor force collected by the Social Science Research Center of Sun-Yetsen University in 2014 were used. The sample consisted of 5,751 workers aged 50 and above recruited from 29 out of 31 provinces in mainland China.
Work stress had a consistent and robust effect on depressive symptoms across older worker groups. Moreover, it interacted with family and community factors differentially in three settings. For migrant older workers, work stress was a dominant factor affecting their depressive symptoms. Among rural older workers, the influence of work stress on depressive symptoms depended on their family debt and neighborhood cohesion levels.
Stressors from work, family, and community comprised a general model that explains depressive symptoms in Chinese older workers. Interventions or service programs aimed at reducing work stress and improving mental health among older adults should consider the complexity of intertwining family and community dynamics as well as respective strengths in urban, rural, and migrant communities.
In recent years, several high-profile attacks on hospitals providing medical aid in conflict settings have raised international concern. The International Humanitarian Law prohibits the deliberate targeting of health care settings. Violation of this law is considered a war crime and impacts both those delivering and receiving medical aid.
While it has been demonstrated that both aid workers and health care settings are increasingly being targeted, little is known about the trends and characteristics of security incidents involving aid workers in health care compared to non-health care settings.
Data from the publicly available Aid Worker Security Database (AWSD) containing security incidents involving humanitarian aid workers world-wide were used in this study. The security incidents occurring from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2016 were classified by two independent reviewers as having occurred in health care and non-health care settings, and those in health care settings were further classified into five categories (hospital, health clinic, mobile clinic, ambulance, and vaccination visit) for the analysis. A stratified descriptive analysis, χ2 Goodness of Fit test, and Cochran-Armitage test for trend were used to examine and compare security incidents occurring in health care and non-health care settings.
Among the 2,139 security incidents involving 4,112 aid workers listed in the AWSD during the study period, 74 and 2,065 incidents were in health care settings and non-health care settings, respectively. There was a nine-fold increase from five to 45 incidents in health care settings (χ2 = 56.27; P < .001), and a five-fold increase from 159 to 852 incidents in non-health care settings (χ2 = 591.55; P < .001), from Period 1 (1997-2001) to Period 4 (2012-2016). Of the 74 incidents in health care settings, 23 (31.1%) occurred in ambulances, 15 (20.3%) in hospitals, 13 (17.6%) in health clinics, 13 (17.6%) during vaccination visits, and six (8.1%) in mobile clinics. Bombings were the most common means of attack in hospitals (N = 9; 60.0%), followed by gun attacks (N = 3; 20.0%). In health care settings, 184 (95.3%) were national staff and nine (4.7%) were international staff.
Security threats are a growing occupational health hazard for aid workers, especially those working in health care settings. There is a need for high-quality data from the field to better monitor the rapidly changing security situation and improve counter-strategies so aid workers can serve those in need without having to sacrifice their lives.
A key question concerning the marketisation of employment services is the interaction between performance management systems and frontline client-selection practices. While the internal sorting of clients for employability by agencies has received much attention, less is known about how performance management shapes official categorisation practices at the point of programme referral. Drawing on case studies of four Australian agencies, this study examines the ways in which frontline staff contest how jobseekers are officially classified by the benefit administration agency. With this assessment pivotal in determining payment levels and activity requirements, we find that reassessing jobseekers so they are moved to a more disadvantaged category, suspended, or removed from the system entirely have become major elements of casework. These category manoeuvres help to protect providers from adverse performance rankings. Yet, an additional consequence is that jobseekers are rendered fully or partially inactive, within the context of a system designed to activate.
This paper examines the implications of labour migration models that rely on employer sponsorship. According to UK government proposals, long-term migration into high-skilled jobs after Brexit will require workers to be sponsored by employers, while workers in low-skilled and low-wage jobs will receive short-term work permits that do not require an employer sponsor. The paper argues that choosing employer sponsorship over worker-driven routes has three key effects: it gives the government greater ability to regulate which jobs migrants fill; it gives employers more power over their workforce; and it increases the administrative burden associated with hiring workers from overseas. This implies that in high-skilled jobs, employer sponsorship is likely to improve the skill composition of labour migrants but reduce the total number of skilled workers admitted; and that in low-skilled positions the government faces a trade-off between the ability to channel workers to specific jobs (including those where employers struggle to attract workers) and the risk of increasing underpayment or exploitation.
This study examines the gender dimension of the brain drain in Turkey, drawing on the results of an online survey to argue that the gender inequality present in sending countries can serve as a push factor in women's decisions to migrate and return or not return. The results indicate that the gender gap in the labor market in Turkey is an important factor in shaping the return intentions of female Turkish professionals and students living abroad. The findings reveal a gender gap in return intentions independent of other main factors, such as age, field of study/occupation, or duration of stay.
This article applies the concepts of the financial-subject and micro-foundation of financialisation to young workers’ experiences with Hong Kong’s financialised pension regime. The results of our qualitative analysis show that many respondents doubt and belittle their financial investment for retirement. In response to the compulsory investment required by the government and the fact that their aspirations for security in later life seemed unfulfilled, some young workers undertook ‘uninformed’ investment and ‘age-led’ risk taking. The findings also show that employment precarity translates into investment precarity owing to workers’ unstable incomes and contributions; labour inequalities are reflected in financial inequalities. Arguably, the neoliberal crafting of the young financial-subject, including constructions of financial irresponsibility, irrationality, and illiteracy, is fraught with tensions, turning workers into investors and using finance to satisfy socio-economic needs. It contributes to social policy studies by connecting selfhood and institutions, and calls for questions about the future of financialised pensions.
The norm in fitness to practise proceedings (FTPP) is that where sanctions might be imposed procedural fairness requires a court-like hearing. This paper questions that paradigm, using empirical research to focus on the FTPP to which social workers must account. Procedural fairness is a multi-faceted legitimising concept used to justify the design of decision-making processes. With FTPPs, the major justification is an ‘instrumentally’ focused model of procedural fairness which prioritises making decisions that look right, a goal which is delivered in the context of social work. But other justifications for procedural fairness are inadequately fulfilled, with in particular a ‘dignitarian’ respect not achieved due to the high levels of non-attendance by registrant social workers. Further, procedural fairness as ‘public accountability’ is undermined due to the relative lack of engagement of FTPPs with the perspective of the social work community. These findings hint that in the context of a poorly organised and resource-poor profession other hybrid forms of FTPP might have a stronger claim to procedural fairness than the court-like model.