To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Emergency medical services (EMS) provides a critical role in the rapid treatment, stabilization, and transfer of patients in the prehospital setting. The national EMS provider for Israel has developed a robust and unique organization of volunteers with advanced telecommunication strategies to activate and direct them in order to improve these processes. The volunteers include local high school students, international college students, emergency medical technicians, on-call volunteers, motorcyclists, and Life Guardian first responders. The telecommunication strategies include pagers, push-to-talk over cellular, and sophisticated smartphone-based software applications. These are monitored and directed via a central command and control station. Such processes, both on an organizational as well as technical level, can be adapted to improve prehospital emergency care.
5-HT4 receptor stimulation has pro-cognitive and antidepressant-like effects in animal experimental studies; however, this pharmacological approach has not yet been tested in humans. Here we used the 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist prucalopride to assess the translatability of these effects and characterise, for the first time, the consequences of 5-HT4 receptor activation on human cognition and emotion.
Forty one healthy volunteers were randomised, double-blind, to a single dose of prucalopride (1 mg) or placebo in a parallel group design. They completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring learning and memory, emotional processing and reward sensitivity.
Prucalopride increased recall of words in a verbal learning task, increased the accuracy of recall and recognition of words in an incidental emotional memory task and increased the probability of choosing a symbol associated with a high likelihood of reward or absence of loss in a probabilistic instrumental learning task. Thus acute prucalopride produced pro-cognitive effects in healthy volunteers across three separate tasks.
These findings are a translation of the memory enhancing effects of 5-HT4 receptor agonism seen in animal studies, and lend weight to the idea that the 5-HT4 receptor could be an innovative target for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Contrary to the effects reported in animal models, prucalopride did not reveal an antidepressant profile in human measures of emotional processing.
This chapter focusses on the efforts of Protestant advanced nationalists to bring about political change using extra-parliamentary methods. It demonstrates how Protestants who emerged from cultural activism remained within recognisable circles defined by religion. The first section describes the creation of the Irish Volunteers as a nationalist counterpoint to the Ulster Volunteers, and how this body came to be armed by a committee primarily composed of Protestants. The over-optimistic hopes of figures such as Roger Casement that the Irish Volunteers and the unionist Ulster Volunteers could be brought together on a common anti-British government platform is examined. The second section discusses labour and the Irish Citizen Army, whose leadership, at least initially, included several Protestants. The extent to which socialist leaders sought to fashion a nationalism that would appeal to working-class Protestants is discussed. Ultimately, this chapter argues that the strong link between Catholicism and advanced nationalism dated not from the 1916 Rising but from the formation of the Irish Volunteers in the years before.
While the impact of disasters is strongly felt by those directly affected, they also have significant impact on the mental and physical health of rescue/relief workers and volunteers during the response phase of disaster management.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 experts in the field of disaster management from Nepal, inquiring specifically about the impact of the 2015 mega-earthquake on the mental and physical health of rescue/relief workers and volunteers. A thematic approach was used to analyze the results. These were used to assess the applicability of a previously developed conceptual framework which illustrates the hazards and risk factors affecting disaster response workers and the related hazard mitigation approaches.
The findings suggested a relationship between the type of injuries to responders and the type of disaster, type of responder, and vulnerability of location. The conceptual framework derived from literature was verified for its applicability with a slight revision on analysis of experts’ opinion based on particular context and disaster setting. Technical skills of responders, social stigma, governance, and the socio-economic status of the affected nation were identified as critical influencing factors to heath injuries and could be minimized utilizing some specific or collective measures targeted at the aforementioned variables. Some geographic and weather-specific risks may be challenging to overcome.
To prevent or minimize the hazards for disaster relief workers, it is vital to understand the variables that contribute to injuries. Risk minimization strategies should address these critical factors.
Introduction: Little is known about the variety of roles volunteers play in the emergency department (ED), and the potential impact they have on patient experience. The objective of this scoping review was to identify published and unpublished reports that described volunteer programs in EDs, and determine how these programs impacted patient experiences or outcomes. Methods: Electronic searches of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CINAHL were conducted and reference lists were hand-searched. A grey literature search was also conducted (Web of Science, ProQuest, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Database ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global). Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full text articles, and extracted data. Results: The search strategy yielded 4,589 potentially relevant citations. After eliminating duplicate citations and articles that did not meet eligibility criteria, 87 reports were included in the review. Of the included reports, 18 were peer-reviewed articles, 6 were conference proceedings, 59 were magazine or newspaper articles, and 4 were graduate dissertations or theses. Volunteer activities were categorized as non-clinical tasks (e.g., provision of meals/snacks, comfort items and mobility assistance), navigation, emotional support/communication, and administrative duties. 52 (59.8%) programs had general volunteers in the ED and 35 (40.2%) had volunteers targeting a specific patient population, including pediatrics, geriatrics, patients with mental health and addiction issues and other vulnerable populations. 20 (23.0%) programs included an evaluative component describing how ED volunteers affected patient experiences and outcomes. Patient satisfaction, follow-up and referral rates, ED and hospital costs and length of stay, subsequent ED visits, medical complications, and malnutrition in the hospital were all reported to be positively affected by volunteers in the ED. Conclusion: This scoping review demonstrates the important role volunteers play in enhancing patient and caregiver experience in the ED. Future volunteer engagement programs implemented in the ED should be formally described and evaluated to share their success and experience with others interested in implementing similar programs in the ED.
Introduction: Patient satisfaction is an essential component of effective delivery of quality care in the emergency department (ED). Frequent reflection on current practices is required to detect areas in need of improvement. The Ontario Hospital Association (OHA) outlined five ‘Leading Practices’ (LPs) targeted to increase patient satisfaction in this setting. The ED volunteers are a group of individuals who have unique perspectives on ED practices that are unbiased by confounders affecting patients and staff. The goal of this study was to explore the unique perspectives of ED volunteers involving what they believe will improve the delivery of patient-centered care, as well as to examine to what extent Saskatoon EDs are embracing the principles outlined in the OHA LPs. Methods: A two-phase mixed methods approach, with a survey followed by interviews that allowed participants to expand on survey findings was used. The pool of 45 ED volunteers was extended the opportunity to participate resulting in 36 survey responses and 6 interviews. The 13 Likert-grade survey questions were generated to align to each of the LPs and allowed room for qualitative feedback. Interview questions were generated following 15 survey responses to expand on the LPs that were rated below average. Results: Analysis of responses identified inefficient ED processes leading to increased waiting times, inefficient patient location, inadequate signage, a lack of physical space, unclean environments, and a lack of staff and volunteer awareness regarding spiritual care and interpreter services, perceptions of received care by patients due to long wait times and level of cultural safety training of ED staff. Themes reduced from interviews yielded common themes such as patient frustration, disorganization, uncomfortable environment, overcrowding, prolonged wait times, and patient misconception of ED processes at Site 1. Themes common to Site 2 included organization, patient-friendly environment, patient misconception of ED processes, and prolonged wait times. Additionally, the volunteers suggested a plethora of interventions that could improve the current processes in Saskatoon's EDs to make them more patient friendly. Conclusion: Saskatoon EDs comply reasonably well to the OHA Leading practices. Surveying ED volunteers provides important insight into current practices and areas for improvement, and should be considered at other sites to improve adherence to the OHA LPs.
There is limited research into the experiences of receiving and providing help in the context of hoarding disorder.
The present study aimed to explore the experiences of older people with hoarding difficulties receiving help and volunteers providing support to people with hoarding problems.
Qualitative methods were adopted to investigate the lived experience of participants. A total of seven volunteer helpers and four people with hoarding disorder were recruited and interviewed using a semi-structured interview, designed to explore experiences of providing and receiving help. Qualitative analysis of the interview data was performed using interpretive phenomenological analysis.
Four superordinate themes were identified: relationship between client and volunteer; ‘live life again’; challenges; and supporting volunteers. The relationship was crucial in providing a trusting foundation from which clients felt able to move forward. Volunteers provided a space for clients to talk and appropriate self-disclosure helped to build a relationship. The informal and ‘non-professional’ status of volunteers enabled clients to take the lead and feel more in control of the therapeutic process. Volunteer flexibility and lack of time constraints contributed to clients ‘making space’ for themselves, both in their home and their lives. The support from volunteers enabled clients to ‘live life again’ and created a domino effect, bringing about improvements in other areas of their lives.
The findings are discussed in relation to the training of health professionals to work with people with hoarding difficulties and the implications of the findings for treatment approaches and service provision.
Disasters cause severe disruption to socio-economic, infrastructural, and environmental aspects of community and nation. While the impact of disasters is strongly felt by those directly affected, they also have significant impacts on the mental and physical health of relief/recovery workers and volunteers. Variations in the nature and scale of disasters necessitate different approaches to risk management and hazard reduction during the response and recovery phases.
Published articles (2010-2017) on the quantitative and quantitative relationship between disasters and the physical and mental health of relief/recovery workers and volunteers were systematically collected and reviewed. A total of 162 relevant studies were identified. Physical injuries and mental health impacts were categorized into immediate, short-term, and chronic conditions. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to explore the health risks and injuries encountered by disaster relief workers and volunteers, and to identify the factors contributing to these and relating mitigation strategies.
There were relatively few studies into this issue. However, the majority of the scrutinized articles highlighted the dependence of nature and scope of injuries with the disaster type and the types of responders, while the living and working environment and socio-economic standing also had significant influence on health outcomes.
A conceptual framework derived from the literature review clearly illustrated several critical elements that directly or indirectly cause damage to physical and mental health of disaster responders. Pre-disaster and post-disaster risk mitigation approaches may be employed to reduce the vulnerability of both volunteers and workers while understanding the identified stressors and their relationships.
Khatri KC J, Fitzgerald G, Poudyal Chhetri MB. Health risks in disaster responders: a conceptual framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):209–216
There is a scarcity of specialist trainers and supervisors for psychosocial interventions in low- and middle-income countries. A cascaded model of training and supervision was developed to sustain delivery of an evidence-based peer-delivered intervention for perinatal depression (the Thinking Healthy Programme) in rural Pakistan. The study aimed to evaluate the model.
Mixed methods were employed as part of a randomised controlled trial of the intervention. Quantitative data consisted of the peers' competencies assessed during field training and over the implementation phase of the intervention, using a specially developed checklist. Qualitative data were collected from peers and their trainers through 11 focus groups during the second and third year of intervention rollout.
Following training, 43 peers out of 45 (95%) achieved at least a ‘satisfactory’ level of competency (scores of ⩾70% on the Quality and Competency Checklist). Of the cohort of 45 peers initially recruited 34 (75%) were retained over 3 years and showed sustained or improved competencies over time. Qualitatively, the key factors contributing to peers' competency were use of interactive training and supervision techniques, the trainer–peer relationship, and their cultural similarity. The partnership with community health workers and use of primary health care facilities for training and supervision gave credibility to the peers in the community.
The study demonstrates that lay-workers such as peers can be trained and supervised to deliver a psychological intervention using a cascaded model, thus addressing the barrier of scarcity of specialist trainers and supervisors.
Evaluate the clinical outcomes for patients with dementia, delirium, or at risk for delirium supported by the person-centered volunteer program in rural acute hospitals.
A non-randomized, controlled trial.
Older adults admitted to seven acute hospitals in rural Australia. Intervention (n = 270) patients were >65 years with a diagnosis of dementia or delirium or had risk factors for delirium and received volunteer services. Control (n = 188) patients were admitted to the same hospital 12 months prior to the volunteer program and would have met eligibility criteria for the volunteer program, had it existed.
Trained volunteers provided 1:1 person-centered care with a focus on nutrition and hydration support, hearing and visual aids, activities, and orientation.
Medical record audits provided data on volunteer visits, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), behavioral incidents, readmission, specialling, mortality, admission to residential care, falls, pressure ulcers, and medication use.
Across all sites, there was a significant reduction in rates of 1:1 specialling and 28 day readmission for patients receiving the volunteer intervention. LOS was significantly shorter for the control group. There were no differences in other patient outcomes for the intervention and control groups.
The volunteer intervention is a safe, effective, and replicable way to support older acute patients with dementia, delirium, or risk factors for delirium in rural hospitals. Further papers will report on cost effectiveness, family carer, volunteer, and staff experiences of the program.
Rapid response to a trauma incident is vital for saving lives. However, in a mass casualty incident (MCI), there may not be enough resources (first responders and equipment) to adequately triage, prepare, and evacuate every injured person. To address this deficit, a Volunteer First Responder (VFR) program was established.
This paper describes the organizational structure and roles of the VFR program, outlines the geographical distribution of volunteers, and evaluates response times to 3 MCIs for both ambulance services and VFRs in 2000 and 2016.
When mapped, the spatial distribution of VFRs and ambulance stations closely and deliberately reflects the population distribution of Israel. We found that VFRs were consistently first to arrive at the scene of an MCI and greatly increased the number of personnel available to assist with MCI management in urban, suburban, and rural settings.
The VFR program provides an important and effective life-saving resource to supplement emergency first response. Given the known importance of rapid response to trauma, VFRs likely contribute to reduced trauma mortality, although further research is needed in order to examine this question specifically. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:287–294)
The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy.
A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes.
The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers.
By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process.
BrobyN, LassetterJH, WilliamsM, WintersBA. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119–126.
It is not clear how to effectively recruit healthy research volunteers.
We developed an electronic health record (EHR)-based algorithm to identify healthy subjects, who were randomly assigned to receive an invitation to join a research registry via the EHR’s patient portal, letters, or phone calls. A follow-up survey assessed contact preferences.
The EHR algorithm accurately identified 858 healthy subjects. Recruitment rates were low, but occurred more quickly via the EHR patient portal than letters or phone calls (2.7 vs. 19.3 or 10.4 d). Effort and costs per enrolled subject were lower for the EHR patient portal (3.0 vs. 17.3 or 13.6 h, $113 vs. $559 or $435). Most healthy subjects indicated a preference for contact via electronic methods.
Healthy subjects can be accurately identified from EHR data, and it is faster and more cost-effective to recruit healthy research volunteers using an EHR patient portal.
This study explores policy makers’, health-care professionals’ and senior volunteers’ perceptions of senior volunteers. Two Norwegian government white papers regarding older adult care and welfare services, which were published over a period of 19 years, were selected for close examination. Furthermore, focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of five senior volunteers and 15 health-care professionals were conducted. The study explores the discursive formations of senior volunteers in the government white papers and how they are negotiated in the senior volunteers’ and the health-care professionals’ narratives. Two dominant discourses were presented in the white papers: a prevention discourse (in which volunteering was presented primarily as a means to prevent volunteers’ loneliness and need for care services) and a sustainability discourse (in which the volunteers were presented as instrumental in future sustainable care services). Both discourses echo a common overarching discourse about a capacity crisis due to the ageing population. The senior volunteers were positioned as partners and active agents in both their own narratives and the health-care professionals’ narratives. Their position as independent and as spokespersons for the less empowered were evident only in the senior volunteers’ own narratives. Only the health-care professionals referenced the prevention discourse and capacity issues. The senior volunteers presented themselves as competent, efficient political actors, and they resisted both the prevention and sustainability discourses. In the senior volunteers’ narratives, social and political participation were interrelated. The study demonstrates that new discursive landscapes must be created to capture the diversity among senior volunteers and their efforts. While senior volunteers must be meaningfully involved in decision making, planning and design, their positions as independent and active agents must also be ensured. Authentic partnerships between senior volunteers and public care services involve a balance between involvement and independence.
Development disorders and delays are recognised as a public health priority and included in the WHO mental health gap action programme (mhGAP). Parents Skills Training (PST) is recommended as a key intervention for such conditions under the WHO mhGAP intervention guide. However, sustainable and scalable delivery of such evidence based interventions remains a challenge. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and scaled-up implementation of locally adapted WHO PST programme delivered by family volunteers in rural Pakistan.
The study is a two arm single-blind effectiveness implementation-hybrid cluster randomised controlled trial. WHO PST programme will be delivered by ‘family volunteers’ to the caregivers of children with developmental disorders and delays in community-based settings. The intervention consists of the WHO PST along with the WHO mhGAP intervention for developmental disorders adapted for delivery using the android application on a tablet device. A total of 540 parent-child dyads will be recruited from 30 clusters. The primary outcome is child's functioning, measured by WHO Disability Assessment Schedule – child version (WHODAS-Child) at 6 months post intervention. Secondary outcomes include children's social communication and joint engagement with their caregiver, social emotional well-being, parental health related quality of life, family empowerment and stigmatizing experiences. Mixed method will be used to collect data on implementation outcomes. Trial has been retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02792894).
This study addresses implementation challenges in the real world by incorporating evidence-based intervention strategies with social, technological and business innovations. If proven effective, the study will contribute to scaled-up implementation of evidence-based packages for public mental health in low resource settings.
Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as Family Networks (FaNs) for Children with Developmental Disorders and Delays. Identifier: NCT02792894 Registered on 6 July 2016.
Seed dormancy is a critical factor in determining seed persistence in the soil and can create oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) volunteer problems in subsequent years. A 3-year field trial in south-west Germany investigated the effects of seed maturity on primary dormancy and disposition to secondary dormancy of ten oilseed rape varieties (lines) in 2009 and 2010, and of five imidazolinone-tolerant varieties (hybrids) in 2014. Fresh seeds were sampled weekly from about 30 d after flowering (DAF) until full maturity and tested for dormancy on the day of seed collection. Primary dormancy decreased from a high level of 70−99% at 30−40 DAF to 0−15% after 7−14 d, coinciding with embryo growth and depending on variety and year. For some oilseed rape varieties, 30−50% primary dormancy was still present in mature seeds. Depending on variety, disposition to secondary dormancy was nearly zero at the early stage of seed development, increased to its highest level during development, and decreased afterwards. Some varieties maintained a high level of secondary dormancy at maturity or during the entire seed development period. The correlation between primary dormancy and secondary dormancy was significantly positive at early seed development (r = 0.95, 50 DAF), but declined in mature seeds. Environmental conditions during ripening are also expected to affect dormancy dynamics. The deeper insights into dormancy formation of oilseed rape provide the possibility to improve harvest time and harvest method, and to better assess the potential for volunteer oilseed rape in following crops.
The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a national network of community-based volunteer groups created in 2002 by the Office of the United States Surgeon General (Rockville, Maryland USA) to augment the nation’s ability to respond to medical and public health emergencies. However, there is little evidence-based literature available to guide hospitals on the optimal use of medical volunteers and hesitancy on the part of hospitals to use them.
This study sought to determine how MRC volunteers can be used in hospital-based disasters through their participation in a full-scale exercise.
A full-scale exercise was designed as a “Disaster Olympics,” in which the Emergency Medicine residents were divided into teams tasked with completing one of the following five challenges: victim decontamination, mass casualty/decontamination tent assembly, patient triage and registration during a disaster, point of distribution (POD) site set-up and operation, and infection control management. A surge of patients potentially exposed to avian influenza was the scenario created for the latter three challenges. Some MRC volunteers were assigned clinical roles. These roles included serving as members of the suit support team for victim decontamination, distributing medications at the POD, and managing infection control. Other MRC volunteers functioned as “victim evaluators,” who portrayed the potential avian influenza victims while simultaneously evaluating various aspects of the disaster response. The MRC volunteers provided feedback on their experience and evaluators provided feedback on the performance of the MRC volunteers using evaluation tools.
Twenty-eight (90%) MRC volunteers reported that they worked well with the residents and hospital staff, felt the exercise was useful, and were assigned clearly defined roles. However, only 21 (67%) reported that their qualifications were assessed prior to role assignment. For those MRC members who functioned as “victim evaluators,” nine identified errors in aspects of the care they received and the disaster response. Of those who evaluated the MRC, nine (90%) felt that the MRC worked well with the residents and hospital staff. Ten (100%) of these evaluators recommended that MRC volunteers participate in future disaster exercises.
Through use of a full-scale exercise, this study was able to identify roles for MRC volunteers in a hospital-based disaster. This study also found MRC volunteers to be uniquely qualified to serve as “victim evaluators” in a hospital-based disaster exercise.
GistR, DanielP, GrockA, LinC, BryantC, KohlhoffS, RoblinP, ArquillaB. Use of Medical Reserve Corps Volunteers in a Hospital-based Disaster Exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):259–262.
Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention’s impact beyond the program’s duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.
The Charter of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), the guiding document for all of the organization's members, states in the final paragraph that volunteers “understand the risks and dangers of the missions they carry out”. Through a review of the different periods in the history of MSF, this article analyzes the changing interpretations that the organization's successive leaders have given to this reference to the acceptance of risk by individuals. The professionalization and expansion of MSF, coupled with its diversifying volunteer base and the changing international environment, have required constant renegotiation of the balance between institutional and individual responsibility for the dangers faced in the field. No doubt this process is far from over.
Cognitive impairment (CI) that arises in some older adults limits independence and decreases quality of life. Cognitive stimulation programs delivered by professional therapists have been shown to help maintain cognitive abilities, but the costs of such programming are prohibitive. The present study explored the feasibility and efficacy of using long-term care homes' volunteers to administer a cognitive stimulation program to residents.
Thirty-six resident participants and 16 volunteers were alternately assigned to one of two parallel groups: a control group (CG) or stimulation group (SG). For eight weeks, three times each week, CG participants met for standard “friendly visits” (casual conversation between a resident and volunteer) and SG participants met to work through a variety of exercises to stimulate residents’ reasoning, attention, and memory abilities. Resident participants were pre- and post-tested using the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence–Second Edition, Test of Memory, and Learning-Senior Edition, a modified Letter Sorting test (LS), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Action Word Verbal Fluency Test.
Two-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for dementia diagnosis indicated statistically greater improvements in the stimulation participants than in the control participants in Immediate Verbal Memory, p = 0.011; Non-Verbal Memory, p = 0.012; Learning, p = 0.016; and Verbal Fluency, p = 0.024.
The feasibility and efficiency of a volunteer-administered cognitive stimulation program was demonstrated. Longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes are recommended in order to continue investigating the breadth and depth volunteer roles in the maintenance of the cognitive abilities of older adults.