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This chapter provides an overview of the concept of “mediatization” and its different applications. It distinguishes “institutional,” “social constructionist” and “linguistic-anthropological” understandings of the concept. After defining and discussing each understanding, the chapter draws attention to how the linguistic-anthropological approach may be employed in discourse-analytical research. Specifically, the approach is argued to be highly amenable with a focus on metapragmatics. Much like a focus on metapragmatics reflects language users’ awareness of language use, mediatization may reflect their understanding of the nature of the communication they are engaged in. After providing several examples, the chapter discusses how discourse-analytic methods may further complement the development of mediatization frameworks. Looking ahead, these developments will need to take into account a surge in multimodal content, the increasingly global reach of communications, and ever-shifting social media potentials.
The developmental status of perennial weeds such as rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.) can influence herbicide absorption and translocation. Differential efficacy between fall and spring applications suggests vernalization impacts herbicide absorption and translocation in other perennial asters. Clopyralid and aminopyralid absorption and translocation were quantified in nonvernalized and vernalized plants following application of 14C-labeled herbicides 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 h after treatment. Less 14C clopyralid was absorbed, and at a slower rate, in vernalized plants. Movement out of the treated leaf was slower, with 14C clopyralid translocating more rapidly than 14C aminopyralid. More 14C moved to the roots in nonvernalized plants compared with vernalized plants, regardless of herbicide. Increased translocation to belowground survival structures is needed for effective control of C. juncea.
Chapter 4 examines the success of standards in changing prevailing market mechanisms in the conventional commodity chain, and providing reliable market incentives for behavior change. It first takes note that only two out of the seven standards under analysis have the clear aim of fundamentally changing pricing structures. Yet, during a period of mainstreaming and competition between sustainability initiatives, these standards have been overtaken by more industry–friendly alternatives that offer negotiation–based price premiums. Standards’ failure to limit participant entry through strict rule–setting and the existence of information asymmetry regarding buyers’ future purchasing patterns has led to a large oversupply of certified coffee, driving down such premiums. They are also likely to be absorbed by other supply chain actors. The chapter further shows the difficulty of isolating the market–based effects of market–driven regulatory governance from the multitude of simultaneous signals related to quality, origin, or timing. Price incentives trickling down to producers have thus substantially weakened, putting into question their motivation to comply with costly behavioral rules.
Durum wheat culture requires a high level of N fertilization to achieve ideal protein concentration for semolina and pasta quality, contributing to N losses. Optimizing plant N use efficiency could improve agro-environmental balance. In the current paper, we studied the impact of the marine (DPI4913) and fungal (AF086) extracts (biostimulants) applied on leaves on growth, N absorption and N fluxes in durum wheat in field and greenhouse experiments. In the field, 15NO3− and 15NH4+ were injected into the soil; in the greenhouse, N of the flag-leaf was labelled with 15NH4+. Flag-leaf senescence was studied by estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration. In greenhouse, biostimulants increased grain yield, total N in plant and the proportion of plant N in ears. When water was limited in greenhouse experiment, neither biostimulants had any effect. In the field, DPI4913 increased soil fertilizer-derived 15N accumulated in grains. In the greenhouse, biostimulants increased the proportion of 15N applied to the flag-leaf recovered in grains and accelerated leaf senescence. For plants treated with biostimulants, flag-leaf N resorption increased. Biostimulants had a larger positive impact on mineral N root uptake than on N remobilization. In conclusion, our study has shown that DPI4913 and AF086 can promote plant growth and grain yield, N uptake and remobilization. Thus, these biostimulants could be used to optimize durum wheat N fertilization and contribute to reduced N losses.
Chapter 12 examines the effectiveness of corrective feedback as a tool in language teaching. The authors review different types of corrective feedback and key research findings, before presenting a study on the types of feedback used by an experienced teacher when interacting with students in communicative lessons.
It has been suggested that low serum cholesterol interferes with brain serotonergic functioning, which results in increased suicidal and aggressive tendencies. To test this hypothesis we investigated the relationship between serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride levels, and serotonin uptake by blood platelets in 17 healthy men aged 39.5 ± 10.2 years. Platelet serotonin uptake and serum lipids were assayed concomitantly for each individual. Serum cholesterol levels and other serum lipid levels did not correlate with serotonin uptake by platelets at the concentration of 2 × 10−5 M (a concentration within the maximal uptake capacity range). The results indicate no influence of cholesterol on serotonin uptake, as opposed to some investigators who suggested that high risk of suicide and aggressiveness in hypocholesterolemic individuals is related to impaired serotonin transport.
When selecting an antidepressant, a number of factors must be considered. These considerations are summarized under the mnemonic STEPS: Safety, Tolerability, Efficacy, Payment (eg, cost-effectiveness), and Simplicity of use. Venlafaxine is the first of a new class of antidepressants that selectively blocks the serotonin and noradrenaline uptake pumps without blocking muscarinic, histaminergic and adrenergic receptors or inhibiting sodium fast channels. Because venlafaxine avoids these mechanisms of action, it has a wide therapeutic index, an improved tolerability profile and a reduced risk of causing pharmacodynamically mediated drug-drug interactions when compared to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In contrast to some other new antidepressants, venlafaxine also avoids effects on cytochrome P450 which are likely to cause clinically meaningful, pharmacokinetically mediated drug-drug interactions. The effects on the uptake pumps of both serotonin and noradrenaline appear to be responsible for some of venlafaxine's unique features in terms of antidepressant efficacy, including its ascending antidepressant dose-response curve and its apparent rapid onset of antidepressant action at the upper end of its clinically relevant dosing range. Venlafaxine is effective in a broad spectrum of patients, including outpatients and inpatients, those with and without melancholia, patients with symptoms of anxiety or agitation or retardation and patients with first time or recurrent episodes of major depression. An important factor when selecting an antidepressant is the simplicity of the dosing regimen and the ability to rapidly and confidently achieve the optimal dose for the patient. In this regard, venlafaxine can be initiated at a clinically effective dose from the beginning. If the patient fails to respond to this dose, there is evidence that increased antidepressant efficacy can be achieved by increasing the dose rather than having to resort to an augmentation strategy or switch to another class of antidepressants. In the immediate release form, venlafaxine has proven antidepressant efficacy when using a twice-or three-times-a-day schedule. A sustained release formulation is expected to be marketed soon and will permit once-a-day-dosing.
A simulation model based on the theory of clinical decision analysis was used to compare outcomes and costs when treating patients with major depressive episodes using either a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) or a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), in comparison with milnacipran (a serotonin), and a norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor (SNRI). The clinical data used were taken from published meta-analyses. This analysis supports: (1) a comparable efficacy of milnacipran and TCA with a better tolerance; and, (2) an advantage of milnacipran over SSRI for efficacy with a comparable tolerance. Based on these findings, a decision tree was constructed with the assistance of a panel of psychiatrists in order to provide a model of usual clinical practice. Estimates not available from clinical studies were obtained either from literature analysis or from the panel.
Economic appraisal was performed according to the viewpoint of the French national sickness fund (sécurité sociale), and expenditure assessment was limited to direct costs (hospitalizations, antidepressant medications, visits, and laboratory tests). The results suggest that milnacipran is a cost-effective alternative: the expected cost of treatment per depressive episode is lower than either a French representative panel of TCAs (a saving of 288 FF), or SSRIs (a savings of 961 FF). The expected length of clinical remission is slightly higher than comparators. The robustness of these findings was supported by sensitivity analyses.
Tianeptine is a clinically effective anti-depressant with the unusual profile of increasing 5-HT uptake, thereby decreasing the synaptic availability of 5-HT. In the social interaction test of anxiety in the rat, withdrawal from chronic diazepam treatment produced a significant anxiogenic response that was reversed by acute administration of tianeptine (2.5–10 mg/kg). These doses were without significant effect in the vehicle-treated rats. Exposure of rats to cat odour resulted in anxiogenic responses in the plus-maze and social interaction tests and in decreased exploration. These changes were not reversed by 5 days treatment with tianeptine (2.5–10 mg/kg). Thus, tianeptine may not he effective in all anxiety states, but could be particularly useful in treating patients withdrawn from benzodiazepines.
A 25-year-old man with DSM-IV-TR Axis I social phobia and Axis II avoidant personality disorder and erectile dysfunction, presenting with depression, anxiety and insomnia, responded partially to extended release oral venlafaxine (75 mg/die for 6 weeks), but developed side effects and worsening symptoms when dose was increased to 150 mg/die; he responded to a combination of 75 mg/die venlafaxine and 4 mg/die reboxetine and improved on most of his symptoms.
Despite massive research on weight gain and metabolic complications in schizophrenia there are few studies on energy expenditure and no current data on physical capacity.
To determine oxygen uptake capacity, respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure during a submaximal exercise test in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.
Ten male patients and 10 controls were included. RQ and energy expenditure were investigated with indirect calorimetry during a cycle ergometer test. The submaximal work level was defined by heart rate and perceived exhaustion. Physical capacity was determined from predicted maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2-max).
The patients exhibited significantly higher RQ on submaximal workloads and lower physical capacity. A significant lower calculated VO2-max remained after correction for body weight and fat free mass (FFM). Energy expenditure did not differ on fixed workloads.
RQ was rapidly increasing in the patients during exercise indicating a faster transition to carbohydrate oxidation and anaerobic metabolism that also implies a performance closer to maximal oxygen uptake even at submaximal loads. This may restrict the capacity for everyday activity and exercise and thus contribute to the risk for weight gain. Physical capacity was consequently significantly lower in the patients.
Excessive adipose accumulation, which is the main driver for the development of secondary metabolic complications, has reached epidemic proportions and combined pharmaceutical, educational and nutritional approaches are required to reverse the current rise in global obesity prevalence rates. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique organ able to dissipate energy and thus a promising target to enhance BMR to counteract a positive energy balance. In addition, active BAT might support body weight maintenance after weight loss to prevent/reduce relapse. Natural products deliver valuable bioactive compounds that have historically helped to alleviate disease symptoms. Interest in recent years has focused on identifying nutritional constituents that are able to induce BAT activity and thereby enhance energy expenditure. This review provides a summary of selected dietary phytochemicals, including isoflavones, catechins, stilbenes, the flavonoids quercetin, luteolin and resveratrol as well as the alkaloids berberine and capsaicin. Most of the discussed phytochemicals act through distinct molecular pathways e.g. sympathetic nerve activation, AMP-kinase signalling, SIRT1 activity or stimulation of oestrogen receptors. Thus, it might be possible to utilise this multitude of pathways to co-activate BAT using a fine-tuned combination of foods or combined nutritional supplements.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, neuromodulatory technique with an emerging role for treating major depression.
To investigate the interactions between tDCS and drug therapy in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients who were refractory for at least one pharmacological treatment.
This was a naturalistic study using data from 54 female and 28 male patients (mean age of 54 years) that consecutively visited our psychiatric unit. They received active tDCS (five consecutive days, 2 mA, anodal stimulation over the left and cathodal over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, twice a day, 20 minutes). The outcome variable (mood) was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Predictor variables were age, gender, disorder and pharmacological treatment (seven dummy variables). We performed univariate and multivariate analyses as to identify predictors associated to the outcome.
After 5 days of treatment, BDI and HDRS scores decreased significantly (29% ± 36%, 18% ± 9%, respectively, P < 0.01 for both). Benzodiazepine use was independently associated with a worse outcome in both univariate (β = 4.92, P < 0.01) and multivariate (β = 5.8, P < 0.01) analyses; whereas use of dual-reuptake inhibitors positively changed tDCS effects in the multivariate model (β = –4.7, P = 0.02). A similar trend was observed for tricyclics (β = –4, P = 0.06) but not for antipsychotics, non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsants and other drugs.
tDCS over the DLPFC acutely improved depressive symptoms. Besides the inherent limitations of our naturalistic design, our results suggest that tDCS effects might vary according to prior pharmacological treatment, notably benzodiazepines and some antidepressant classes. This issue should be further explored in controlled studies.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common in neuroendocrine tumor (NET), yet controversy exists over whether serotonin-mediated antidepressants (SAs) are safe in this population. We sought to address this knowledge gap.
Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review to identify NET patients who were prescribed SA.
We identified 15 articles, reporting on 161 unique patients, 72 with carcinoid syndrome (CS) and 89 without. There was substantial agreement between reviewers at the full-text stage (κ = 0.69). Three of the articles, all with low risk of bias, accounted for most of the cases (149/161; 93%). Among the 72 NET patients with CS prior to antidepressant usage, CS was exacerbated in 6 cases (8%), only 3 (4%) of whom chose to discontinue the antidepressant. The remaining 89 patients had no prior CS symptoms, and none developed CS following antidepressant usage. Overall, no instances of carcinoid crisis or death were reported.
We found no evidence for serious adverse outcomes related to SA usage in NET patients. Previous authors have recommended avoiding antidepressants in NET, but our findings do not support those recommendations. Oncologists should nonetheless monitor for symptom exacerbation when prescribing SA to patients with NET.
This chapter defines what kind of input contains the data necessary for acquisition (communicatively embedded input) and focuses on its fundamental role in acquisition. Subsequently, we review the claims on the role of output and interaction, focusing on these major issues: comprehensible output is necessary for acquisition; comprehensible output is beneficial for acquisition; comprehensible output does little to nothing for acquisition. We also discuss the nature of interaction more generally, focusing on whether interaction affects the acquisition of formal features of language.
Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’ use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. As the parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leave uptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent family change. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers. Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with the extension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”, but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over two months was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surrounding suburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-born fathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour market situation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-related behaviour.
Research on the drivers of vaccine acceptance has expanded but most interventions fall short of coverage targets. We explored whether vaccine uptake is driven directly or indirectly by disgust with attitudes towards vaccines acting as a possible mediator. An online cross-sectional study of 1007 adults of the USA via Amazon's Mechanical Turk was conducted in January 2017. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) items assessing attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine uptake, (2) revised Disgust Scale (DS-R) to measure Disgust Sensitivity, (3) Perceived Vulnerability to Disease scale (PVD) to measure Germ Aversion and Perceived Susceptibility, and (4) socio-demographic information. Using mediation analysis, we assess the direct, the indirect (through Vaccine Attitudes) and the total effect of Disgust Sensitivity, Germ Aversion and Perceived Susceptibility on 2016 self-reported flu vaccine uptake. Mediation analysis showed the effect of Disgust Sensitivity and Germ Aversion on vaccine uptake to be twofold: a direct positive effect on vaccine uptake and an indirect negative effect through Vaccine Attitudes. In contrast, Perceived Susceptibility was found to have only a direct positive effect on vaccine uptake. Nonetheless, these effects were attenuated and small compared to economic, logistic and psychological determinants of vaccine uptake.
A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.
Mixing of phosphate fertilizer with farmyard manure (FYM) is a simple technique for optimizing phosphorus (P) availability and then improving the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in alkaline calcareous soils. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and phosphoric acid (PA) were applied to soil at 36 mg P kg−1, either as sole or after amending 1-g P fertilizer with 2-g FYM (1:2, w/w basis). After 45-day incubation, concentration of P ions in the soil solution (Cp) and exchangeable P present in soil solid (E-value) were determined to evaluate the amount of total plant-available pool. The FYM-amended fertilizers, i.e., PA+FYM and DAP+FYM, showed higher E-values, i.e., 114 and 97 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Similarly, PA+FYM exhibited the highest proportion of P derived from fertilizer (Pdff = 51.5%) and induced the highest P uptake by wheat seedlings (L-value = 72.1 mg kg−1). Consequently, PA+FYM and DAP+FYM treatments caused higher grain yield and P-use efficiency. The regression analysis revealed strong and positive correlation between L-value and grain yield (r = 0.86), biomass production (r = 0.84) and P-use efficiency (r = 0.87) by wheat crop. Results suggested that FYM-amended inorganic P fertilizer can be a promising technique to optimize supply of P from soil, improve efficiency of inorganic P fertilizers, and improve wheat yield in alkaline calcareous soils.
Weedy rice species exhibit differential competitive ability and cause significant losses to rice yield. The present study was conducted to evaluate the competing ability of weedy rice accessions collected from foothills of eastern Himalayas and coastal Odisha grown in the presence of cultivated indica rice var. Swarna. The competitive ability of Swarna and weedy rices were estimated on the basis of (i) Swarna yield reduction under different durations of competition with weedy rice; and (ii) nutrient uptake by Swarna and weedy rice in competitive environment. There was significant yield reduction (18%) when competition was allowed until 6 weeks after emergence (WAE) compared to competition until 2 WAE, which was due to vigorous growth of weedy rice at early vegetative stage. The biomass accumulation and tiller number of weedy rice were significantly higher compared to Swarna. Odisha weedy rice accession recorded about 18, 57 and 24% higher N, P and K uptake, respectively, than Swarna. The highest yield reduction (22%) in Swarna was recorded when grown with OA1 and the lowest impact (7.7%) was recorded with AA2. As conclusion, management practices should be implemented within 2–4 weeks of emergence considering 5–10% acceptable yield loss of Swarna, and grain yield of cultivated rice was reduced significantly by high N and K uptake by weedy rice under a competitive environment.