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The purpose of this study was to explore how patients with diabetes and multimorbidity experience self-management support by general practitioners (GPs), nurses and medical secretaries in Norwegian general practice.
Self-management support is recognised as an important strategy to improve the autonomy and well-being of patients with long-term conditions. Collaborating healthcare professionals (cHCPs), such as nurses and medical secretaries, may have an important role in the provision of self-management support. No previous study has explored how patients with diabetes and multimorbidity experience self-management support provided by cHCPs in general practice in Norway.
Semi-structured interviews with 11 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with one or more additional long-term condition were performed during February–May 2017.
Patients experienced cHCPs as particularly attentive towards the psychological and emotional aspects of living with diabetes. Compared to GPs, whose appointments were experienced as stressful, patients found cHCPs more approachable and more likely to address patients’ questions and worries. In this sense, cHCPs complemented GP-led diabetes care. However, neither cHCPs nor GPs were perceived to involve patients’ in clinical decisions or goal setting during consultations.
This paper describes the study protocol, which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention package called ‘Enhanced Primary Healthcare’ (EnPHC) on the process of care and intermediate clinical outcomes among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Other outcome measures include patients’ experience and healthcare providers’ job satisfaction.
In 2014, almost two-thirds of Malaysia’s adult population aged 18 years or older had T2DM, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia. An analysis of health system performance from 2016 to 2018 revealed that the control and management of diabetes and hypertension in Malaysia was suboptimal with almost half of the patients not diagnosed and just one-quarter of patients with diabetes appropriately treated. EnPHC framework aims to improve diagnosis and effective management of T2DM, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia and their risk factors by increasing prevention, optimising management and improving surveillance of diagnosed patients.
This is a quasi-experimental controlled study which involves 20 intervention and 20 control clinics in two different states in Malaysia, namely Johor and Selangor. The clinics in the two states were matched and randomly allocated to ‘intervention’ and ‘control’ arms. The EnPHC framework targets different levels from community to primary healthcare clinics and integrated referral networks.
Data are collected via a retrospective chart review (RCR), patient exit survey, healthcare provider survey and an intervention checklist. The data collected are entered into tablet computers which have installed in them an offline survey application. Interrupted time series and difference-in-differences (DiD) analyses will be conducted to report outcomes.
Spirulina platensis has been found to be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of ethanol extract and butanol fraction of S. platensis on insulin release and glucose homoeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats, together with their mechanism of actions. In vitro and in vivo methods were used including cellular studies to determine potential role of ion channels and cAMP in the insulinotropic actions of the extracts. The ethanol extract and butanol fraction stimulated insulin release from mouse islets and pancreatic β-cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The butanol fraction also similarly stimulated insulin release from perfused rat pancreas. The insulin-releasing action was augmented by glucose, isobutylmethylxanthine, tolbutamide and a depolarising concentration of KCl. The insulin secretory effect was attenuated with diazoxide and verapamil and by omission of extracellular Ca2+. Butanol fraction was found to significantly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity. Moreover, butanol fraction improved glucose tolerance following oral glucose administration (2·5 g/kg body weight (b.w.)). The butanol fraction was tested on 24 h starved rats given an oral sucrose load (2·5 g/kg b.w.) to examine possible effects on carbohydrate digestion and absorption. S. platensis substantially decreased postprandial hyperglycaemia after oral sucrose load and increased unabsorbed sucrose content throughout the gut. During in situ intestinal perfusion with glucose, the butanol fraction reduced glucose absorption and promoted gut motility. Finally, chronic oral administration of butanol fraction for 28 d significantly decreased blood glucose, increased plasma insulin, pancreatic insulin stores, liver glycogen and improved lipid profile. The characterisation of active compounds from butanol fraction revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid, β-carotene, catechin and other antioxidant polyphenols. In conclusion, S. platensis could be an adjunctive therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease increasing in global prevalence. Although habitual consumption of walnuts is associated with reduced risk of CVD, there is inconsistent evidence for the impact of walnut consumption on markers of glycaemic control. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of walnut consumption on markers of blood glucose control. A systematic search of Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane databases (to 2 March 2019) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials conducted with adults which assessed the effect of walnut consumption on fasting blood glucose and insulin, glycated Hb and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences (WMD) for each outcome. Risk of bias in studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0. Sixteen studies providing eighteen effect sizes were included in the review. Consumption of walnuts did not result in significant changes in fasting blood glucose levels (WMD: 0·331 mg/dl; 95 % CI −0·817, 1·479) or other outcome measures. Studies were determined to have either ‘some concerns’ or be at ‘high risk’ of bias. There was no evidence of an effect of walnut consumption on markers of blood glucose control. These findings suggest that the known favourable effects of walnut intake on CVD are not mediated via improvements in glycaemic control. Given the high risk of bias observed in the current evidence base, there is a need for further high-quality randomised controlled trials.
Obesity indicators are known to predict the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, evidence for which indicator best identifies undiagnosed T2DM in the Indian population is still very limited. In the present study we examined the utility of different obesity indicators to identify the presence of undiagnosed T2DM and determined their appropriate cut point for each obesity measure. Individuals were recruited from the large-scale population-based Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program. Oral glucose tolerance tests was performed to diagnose T2DM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to compare the association of different obesity indicators with T2DM and to determine the optimal cut points for identifying T2DM. A total of 357 new cases of T2DM and 1352 individuals without diabetes were identified. The mean age of the study participants was 46⋅4 (sd 7⋅4) years and 62 % were men. Waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR), waist:height ratio (WHtR), BMI, body fat percentage and fat per square of height were found to be significantly higher (P < 0⋅001) among those with diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes. In addition, ROC for WHR (0⋅67; 95 % 0⋅59, 0⋅75), WHtR (0⋅66; 95 % 0⋅57, 0⋅75) and WC (0⋅64; 95 % 0⋅55, 0⋅73) were shown to better identify patients with T2DM. The proposed cut points with an optimal sensitivity and specificity for WHR, WHtR and WC were 0⋅96, 0⋅56 and 86 cm for men and 0⋅88, 0⋅54 and 83 cm for women, respectively. The present study has shown that WHR, WHtR and WC are better than other anthropometric measures for detecting T2DM in the Indian population. Their utility in clinical practice may better stratify at-risk patients in this population than BMI, which is widely used at present.
The present study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in an urban south Indian population in individuals with different grades of glucose tolerance. A total of 1500 individuals (900 normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 300 prediabetes and 300 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) who were not on vitamin D supplementation were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study follow-up study. Anthropometric, clinical examination and biochemical investigations (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and serum lipids) were measured. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D < 20·0 ng/ml, insufficiency as 20–29·9 ng/ml and sufficiency as ≥30 ng/ml. Of the 1500 individuals studied, 45 % were males and the mean age was 46 (sd 12) years. Vitamin D levels lowered with increasing degrees of glucose tolerance (NGT: 21 (sd 11); prediabetes: 19 (sd 10); T2DM: 18 (sd 11) ng/ml, P < 0·001). The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55 % and was significantly higher among individuals with T2DM (63 %) followed by prediabetes (58 %) and NGT (51 %) (Pfor trend < 0·001). Women had 1·6 times the risk of vitamin D deficiency compared with men (unadjusted OR 1·6 (95 % CI 1·3, 2·0) and adjusted OR 1·6 (95 % CI 1·2, 1·9)). However, there was no increasing trend observed with increasing age. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (66 v. 49 %), generalised obesity (80 v. 64 %), the metabolic syndrome (45 v. 37 %) and insulin resistance (38 v. 27 %) was significantly higher in those with vitamin D deficiency compared with those without. This study shows that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in this urban south Indian population and was higher among individuals with T2DM and prediabetes compared with those with NGT.
The effect of modifying dietary fatty acid (FA) composition on insulin sensitivity remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether changes in plasma phospholipid (PL) FA composition, as a result of dietary intervention, correspond with changes in insulin sensitivity. The RISCK study was a 6-month randomised controlled dietary intervention study, which assessed the effect of modifying dietary fat and the glycaemic index (GI) of carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity. Total NEFA levels, fasting plasma PL FA profiles and an insulin sensitivity index (Si), derived from intravenous glucose tolerance minimal-model analysis, were available from 533 participants, all at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Bivariate correlations between changes in saturated PL FA (SFA), MUFA (as a percentage of total plasma NEFA) and changes in Si were assessed according to treatment group. Age, sex, ethnicity, percentage change in body mass and change in dietary GI were controlled for. Increasing total NEFA concentration was associated with worsening Si (r −0·152; P = 0·001). In the high-MUFA/low-GI diet group, change in PL-MUFA was positively and independently associated with change in Si (r 0·297; P = 0·002). Among MUFA, change in oleic acid (18 : 1) was most strongly correlated with change in Si (r 0·266; P = 0·005), as was change in minor FA 24 : 1 (r 0·244; P = 0·011) and 17 : 1 (r 0·196; P = 0·042). In the high-SFA/high-GI group, change in SFA concentration was not significantly associated with change in Si. In conclusion, increases in the proportion of plasma PL-MUFA following a high-MUFA dietary intervention were associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.
The last few decades have witnessed a global rise in the number of older individuals. Despite this demographic shift, morbidity within this population group is high. Many factors influence healthspan; however, an obesity pandemic is emerging as a significant determinant of older people’s health. It is well established that obesity adversely affects several metabolic systems. However, due to its close association with overall cardiometabolic health, the impact that obesity has on cholesterol metabolism needs to be recognised. The aim of the present review is to critically discuss the effects that obesity has on cholesterol metabolism and to reveal its significance for healthy ageing.
Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. In vivo, 4 weeks’ administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene (Slc2a2) expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major diseases of our times. Besides being a considerable inconvenience for the patient, the associated healthcare expenses are tremendous. One of the cornerstones of T2DM prevention is a healthy diet, including a variety of fruits and vegetables. Apples are touted to have health benefits, and the apple polyphenol, phloridzin, has gained interest in recent years as it can reduce intestinal sugar uptake by inhibition of the Na/glucose cotransporter 1. By researching the amount of phloridzin in different food sources and linking them to their consumption data, we could estimate the average and high-level phloridzin consumption in Europe. On average, European people consume 0·7–7·5 mg/d phloridzin, the main contributors being apples and apple juice. High-level consumers may get up to 52 mg/d of phloridzin. Older people are more at risk of developing T2DM, yet they consume less phloridzin than adolescents and adults, as determined by our survey. Management of blood glucose levels might be improved by the consumption of phloridzin, as has been shown in recent clinical trials; these trials used phloridzin-enriched apple extract at doses exceeding those from normal food consumption. There are, however, indications that consumption of average to high levels of phloridzin via food might also contribute to reduced sugar load and a reduction in T2DM risk.
Birth dimensions have been associated with increased risk of both, severe mental illness and type 2 diabetes in adulthood, however, any influence on their co-occurrence has never been examined. This cohort study examine whether birth weight/ponderal index explain or modify the later association between severe mental illness and risk of type 2 diabetes.
The Metropolit cohort included 10,863 Danish men born in 1953 with information from age at conscription (between1971-84) until February 15th, 2018. Severe mental illness was defined as the exposure and information was retrieved from the national Danish health registries. Information on type 2 diabetes diagnosis or oral antidiabetic prescriptions was also obtained, as they were the outcome of interest. Information on birth weight/ponderal index was available from birth certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the associations and interactions were tested.
After 47.1 years of follow-up, 848 (7.8%) and 1320 (12.2%) men developed a severe mental illness or diabetes, respectively. Men with severe mental illness presented higher risk of subsequent diabetes (HR = 1.92; 95%CI, 1.61–2.30). This association was stronger in severe mental ill men with low birth weight (HR = 3.58; 95%CI, 2.11–6.07), than in those normal birth weight (HR = 1.79; 95%CI, 1.45–2.20). This effect modification was most evident for men diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Birth information on birth weight/ponderal index could be of interest in diabetes screening on severe mental ill populations (especially in schizophrenia) since they might play a critical role in the increased risk of type 2 diabetes following severe mental illness.
We assessed the effects of increased Ca consumption from fat-free milk in an energy-restricted diet and educational activities in the metabolic control of overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Fourteen subjects with T2DM (BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d)) were included in this randomised, crossover clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: drink containing 700 mg of Ca (DAIR) or drink containing 0 mg of Ca (CONT) for ninety consecutive days each. Energy-restricted diets (–500 kcal/d; –2092 kJ/d), containing 800 mg of Ca from dietary sources/d, were prescribed for both groups. Questionnaires were applied at baseline and at the end of the study to assess the subjects’ knowledge on the disease and on self-care, biochemical variables and physical activity. Blood pressure, food intake, body composition and anthropometry were assessed at baseline, days 45 and 90. There was a higher reduction of body fat %, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, waist:hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter, diastolic/systolic blood pressure and an increase in fat-free mass % in DAIR than in CONT. Uric acid, fasting glucose, Hb1Ac, parathyroid hormone and alanine aminotransferase concentrations reduced and vitamin D concentration increased after 90 d in DAIR compared with CONT. The consumption of energy-restricted diet containing 1200 mg Ca/d seems to favour metabolic control in subjects with T2DM. The educational activities increased the knowledge on the disease care.
The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12 017 subjects aged 20–70 years. Socio-demographic and general information was collected by a standardised questionnaire. A standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and to obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10 825 participants were included and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted OR for newly diagnosed diabetes were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·97), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·09) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·11) for daily tea drinkers, occasional tea drinkers and seldom tea drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in females by 32 %, elderly (>45 years) by 24 % and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) by 34 %. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45 % (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72; P < 0·01). The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
To explore the relationships between social, emotional, and functional values, and satisfaction of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an emphasis on Lithuanian primary health care services providers.
Academics and practitioners are encouraging more research on service value conceptually and empirically. Primary health care settings (PHCS) use modern management of value creation for patients with chronic diseases to increase the satisfaction of patients. Satisfaction of patients is the most important factor of competitive advantage for the PHCS. In this study, perceived value concept is dealt with in a multidimensional way. The fact that the perceived value in health sector has not previously been examined as multidimentionally has increased the importance of this research.
The study strategy is based on focus group discussions of executives and survey of patients with T2DM in the primary health care sector. The target of focus group discussions is to gain knowledge about factors developing the competitive advantage of PHCS. The survey of patients with T2DM is the background to test the conceptual model of perceived value importance on satisfaction. The study uses coefficients of correlation, exploratory factor analysis, and linear regression.
The results of focus groups revealed the factors of competitive advantage related to perspectives of health policy, organization, human resources, and patients. The results of the survey established statistically significant links between social value and satisfaction, and functional value and satisfaction. Emotional value decreased satisfaction of patients with T2DM.
We evaluated the effects of high-Ca fat-free milk v. low-Ca control diet on adiposity and on glycaemic control. Fourteen subjects with type 2 diabetes (aged 49·5 (sd 8·6) years, BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d)) were included in this randomised, crossover clinical trial. Subjects participated in two 12-week experimental sessions (high-Ca fat-free milk (HC) or low-Ca control (LC)) separated by 8-week washout. Subjects daily consumed in the laboratory a breakfast shake containing 700 mg (HC) or 6·4 mg (LC) of Ca. Energy-restricted diets containing 800 mg of dietary Ca/d were prescribed. Dietary records data indicated the consumption of 1200 mg of Ca/d during HC and of 525 mg of Ca/d during LC. There was a greater reduction in body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio after HC. Serum 25-hydoxyvitamin D and homeostatic model assessment-2 β-cell function (HOMA2-%B) increased, and serum uric acid, parathormone (PTH) and glycated Hb (HbA1c) concentrations reduced after HC. In addition, changes from baseline in terms of serum uric acid, glucose, HbA1c and PTH concentrations were lower, and those of HOMA2-%B, serum Ca and 25-hydoxyvitamin D were higher after the HC than after LC. The consumption of approximately three servings of fat-free milk and 1200 mg of dietary Ca/d enhanced weight loss, improved body composition and promoted glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes and low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d).
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids’ co-supplementation on markers of cardiometabolic risk in diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-one vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CHD. At baseline, the range of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in study participants was 6·3–19·9 ng/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups either taking 50 000 IU vitamin D supplements every 2 weeks plus 2× 1000 mg/d n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil (n 30) or placebo (n 31) for 6 months. Vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids’ co-supplementation significantly reduced mean (P = 0·01) and maximum levels of left carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) (P = 0·004), and mean (P = 0·02) and maximum levels of right CIMT (P = 0·003) compared with the placebo. In addition, co-supplementation led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (β −0·40 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·77, −0·03; P = 0·03), insulin (β −1·66 μIU/ml; 95 % CI −2·43, −0·89; P < 0·001), insulin resistance (β −0·49; 95 % CI −0·72, −0·25; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (β −0·21 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·41, −0·01; P = 0·04), and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (β +0·008; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·01; P = 0·001) and HDL-cholesterol (β +0·09 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·17; P = 0·02) compared with the placebo. Additionally, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β −1·56 mg/l; 95 % CI −2·65, −0·48; P = 0·005) was reduced in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group. Overall, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids’ co-supplementation had beneficial effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.
It is crucial to identify people at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to implement preventive interventions in order to address these pandemics. A simple score exclusively based on dietary components, the Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS) showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. The objective was to assess the association between DDS and the risk of GDM in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3455 women who notified pregnancies between 1999 and 2012. The diagnosis of GDM is self-reported and further confirmed by physicians. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used to assess pre-gestational dietary habits. The development of the DDS was aimed to quantify the association between the adherence to this a priori dietary score and T2DM incidence. The score exclusively included dietary components (nine food groups with reported inverse associations with T2DM incidence and three food groups which reported direct associations with T2DM). Three categories of adherence to the DDS were assessed: low (11–24), intermediate (25–39) and high (40–60). The upper category showed an independent inverse association with the risk of incident GDM compared with the lowest category (multivariate-adjusted OR 0·48; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·99; P for linear trend: 0·01). Several sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of these results. These results reinforce the importance of pre-gestational dietary habits for reducing GDM and provide a brief tool to practically assess the relevant dietary habits in clinical practice.
Abnormal Ca homeostasis has been associated with impaired glucose metabolism. However, the epidemiological evidence is controversial. We aimed to assess the association between circulating Ca levels and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or abnormal glucose homeostasis through conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified by searching electronic database (PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar) and related references with de novo results from primary studies up to December 2018. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate the weighted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI for the associations. The search yielded twenty eligible publications with eight cohort studies identified for the meta-analysis, which included a total of 89 165 participants. Comparing the highest with the lowest category of albumin-adjusted serum Ca, the pooled RR was 1·14 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·24) for T2DM (n 51 489). Similarly, serum total Ca was associated with incident T2DM (RR 1·25; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·42) (n 64 502). Additionally, the adjusted RR for 1 mg/dl increments in albumin-adjusted serum Ca or serum total Ca levels was 1·16 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·27) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·28), respectively. The observed associations remained with the inclusion of a cohort study with ionised Ca as the exposure. However, data pooled from neither case–control (n 4) nor cross-sectional (n 8) studies manifested a significant correlation between circulating Ca and glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, accumulated data from the cohort studies suggest that higher circulating Ca levels are associated with an augmented risk of T2DM.
Recent studies have shown that micronutrients are involved in the pathology of type 2 diabetes. Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and B2 and homocysteine-lowering effects of vitamins B6, folate and B12 may have protective roles. However, a few reports have investigated the association between dietary water-soluble vitamin intakes and risk of diabetes. In a prospective study encompassing 19 168 healthy Japanese men and women aged 40–79 years, we examined the associations between dietary intakes of water-soluble vitamins, determined by a validated self-administered FFQ, with the risk of 5-year cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes by using the logistic regression model. Within the 5-year period, there were 494 self-reported new cases of diabetes. Higher dietary intakes of vitamins C, B2 and folate were associated with lower risk of incident diabetes only in women, whereas no associations of dietary intakes of vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6 and B12 were observed in either sex. The multivariable OR in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intakes among women were 0·61 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·94; P-trend = 0·04) for vitamin C, 0·56 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·93; P-trend = 0·03) for vitamin B2 and 0·70 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·98; P-trend = 0·03) for folate. Other than that for sex (P < 0·05), the P-interactions with age, BMI, smoking status or having a family history of diabetes were >0·10. In conclusion, higher dietary intakes of vitamins C, B2 and folate, but not other water-soluble vitamins, were associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women.
To determine the association between excess body fat, assessed by skinfold thickness, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT).
Data from the ongoing PERU MIGRANT Study were analysed. The outcomes were T2DM and HT, and the exposure was skinfold thickness measured in bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac areas. The Durnin–Womersley formula and SIRI equation were used for body fat percentage estimation. Risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated using Poisson regression.
Rural (Ayacucho) and urban shantytown district (San Juan de Miraflores, Lima) in Peru.
Adults (n 988) aged ≥30 years (rural, rural-to-urban migrants, urban) completed the baseline study. A total of 785 and 690 were included in T2DM and HT incidence analysis, respectively.
At baseline, age mean was 48·0 (sd 12·0) years and 47 % were males. For T2DM, in 7·6 (sd 1·3) years, sixty-one new cases were identified, overall incidence of 1·0 (95 % CI 0·8, 1·3) per 100 person-years. Bicipital and subscapular skinfolds were associated with 2·8-fold and 6·4-fold risk of developing T2DM. On the other hand, in 6·5 (sd 2·5) years, overall incidence of HT was 2·6 (95 % CI 2·2, 3·1) per 100 person-years. Subscapular and overall fat obesity were associated with 2·4- and 2·9-fold risk for developing HT. The PAF for subscapular skinfold was 73·6 and 39·2 % for T2DM and HT, respectively.
We found a strong association between subscapular skinfold thickness and developing T2DM and HT. Skinfold assessment can be a laboratory-free strategy to identify high-risk HT and T2DM cases.