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Inflammation is a major cause of chronic diseases. Several studies have investigated the effects of soy intake on inflammatory biomarkers; however, the results are equivocal. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that evaluated the effect of soy consumption on inflammatory biomarkers. Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched, up to and including May 2020, for clinical trials that evaluated the effects of soy and soy products on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin1-β (IL1-β), and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in adults. A random-effects method was used to calculate overall effects, and subgroup analyses were performed to discern probable sources of inter-study heterogeneity. A total of 28 clinical trials were included. Although soy consumption reduced TNF-α (Hedges’ g= −0.28; 95%CI: −0.49, −0.07), it had no significant effect on IL-6 (Hedges’ g= 0.07, 95% CI: −0.14, 0.28), IL-2 (MD= −1.38 pg/ml; 95%CI: −3.07, 0.31), IL1-β (MD= −0.02 pg/ml; 95%CI: −0.08, 0.03), and IFN-γ (MD= 1685.82 pg/ml; 95%CI: −1604.86, 4976.50). Subgroup analysis illustrated a reduction in TNF-α in in parallel designed studies, at dosages ≥100 mg of isoflavones, and in unhealthy subjects. The present study showed that high doses of isoflavones in unhealthy subjects may yield beneficial effects on TNF-α.
The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment plans can be improved by replacing conventional flattening filter (FF) beams with flattening filter-free (FFF) beams.
Materials and methods:
We selected 15 patients who had received SBRT with conventional 6-MV photon beams for early-stage lung cancer. We imported the patients’ treatment plans into the Eclipse 13·6 treatment planning system, in which we configured the AAA dose calculation model using representative beam data for a TrueBeam accelerator operated in 6-MV FFF mode. We then created new treatment plans by replacing the conventional FF beams in the original plans with FFF beams.
The FFF plans had better target coverage than the original FF plans did. For the planning target volume, FFF plans significantly improved the D98, D95, D90, homogeneity index and uncomplicated tumour control probability. In most cases, the doses to organs at risk were lower in FFF plans. FFF plans significantly reduced the mean lung dose, V10, V20, V30, and normal tissue complication probability for the total lung and improved the dosimetric indices for the ipsilateral lung. For most patients, FFF beams achieved lower maximum doses to the oesophagus, heart and the spinal cord, and a lower chest wall V30.
Compared with FF beams, FFF beams achieved lower doses to organs at risk, especially the lung, without compromising tumour coverage; in fact, FFF beams improved coverage in most cases. Thus, replacing FF beams with FFF beams can achieve a better therapeutic ratio.
Survivors of childhood brain tumors experience neurological sequelae that disrupt everyday adaptive functioning (AF) skills. The Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS), a cumulative measure of tumor treatments and sequelae, predicts cognitive outcomes, but findings on its relation to informant-reported executive dysfunction (ED) and AF are mixed. Given known effects of frontal-subcortical system disruptions on AF, this study assessed the NPS’ relationship with AF as mediated by frontal systems dysfunction, measured by the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe).
75 participants (Mage = 23.5, SDage = 4.5) were young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors at least 5 years past diagnosis. FrSBe and Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), a measure of AF, were administered to informants. Parallel multiple mediator models included Apathy and ED as mediators, and age at diagnosis and time between diagnosis and assessment as covariates.
More complex treatment and sequelae were correlated with poorer functioning. Mediation models were significant for all subscales: Motor Skills (MS), p = .0001; Social Communication (SC), p = .002; Personal Living (PL), p = .004; Community Living (CL), p = .007. The indirect effect of ED on SC and CL was significant; the indirect effect of Apathy was not significant for any subscales.
More complex tumor treatment and sequelae were associated with poorer long-term AF via increased ED. Cognitive rehabilitation programs may focus on the role of executive function and initiation that contribute to AF, particularly SC and CL skills, to help survivors achieve comparable levels of independence in everyday function as their peers.
Primary pediatric cardiac tumors are extremely rare. We report a 14-year-old girl with primary cardiac Hodgkin lymphoma. The large right atrial tumor extended upward and occluded the superior caval vein and left innominate vein.
We studied the relationship between depressive symptoms and quality of life (QOL) as well as functional status in primary brain tumor patients at recurrent measurements. Differences in QOL between depressive and non-depressive samples by gender were controlled for tumor characteristics and patients' psychosocial factors.
Materials and methods. –
The data consisted of 77 patients with a primary brain tumor, 30 males and 47 females. Depression of the patients was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI), functional status by Karnofsky Performance scale (KPS) and QOL by Sintonen's 15D before tumor operation as well as at 3 months and at 1 year from surgical operation of the tumor.
The level of QOL in females was lower compared to that of males. Depression was the main predictor for worse QOL in the patients at all measurements. Depressive patients with a benign brain tumor had significantly worse QOL versus non-depressive ones.
Discussion and conclusion. –
Decreased QOL was strongly related to depression, especially among patients with a benign brain tumor. Further studies are needed to find whether sufficient depression therapy improves the QOL of patients.
Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the most lethal tumors because of delayed diagnosis and treatment. Aminopeptidase N (CD13/APN), expressed in pancreatic cancer cells, is closely related to the malignant biological behavior, for instance, angiogenesis formation, tumor proliferation, and metastasis. In this study, asparagine–glycine–arginine (Asn–Gly–Arg, NGR), selectively binding to CD13 receptor, was modified to construct a novel contrast agent of QDs@Gd3+-NGR for targeted diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. It consists of QDs-unit for fluorescence imaging, Gd3+-unit for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and NGR for binding to CD13 receptor. PANC-1 cells labeled by QDs@Gd3+-NGR showed significant red fluorescence and high intensity on fluorescence and MR imaging, respectively. Besides, it was confirmed that QDs@Gd3+-NGR could inhibit theproliferation, metastasis, and invasion of PANC-1 cells, and increase reactive oxygen species production and death rate in vitro. Reasonably, we believe the targeted contrast agent of QDs@Gd3+-NGR can sensitively detect pancreatic cancer via MR-fluorescence dual-modality imaging, and plays an active role in inhibition of tumor progression. The promising results in this study provide integration of diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of pancreatic cancer in future.
Psychiatric disorders are a group of complex psychological syndromes with high prevalence. Recent studies observed associations between altered plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders. This study aims to systematically explore the potential genetic relationships between five major psychiatric disorders and more than 3,000 plasma proteins.
The genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of attention deficiency/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were driven from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium. The GWAS datasets of 3,283 human plasma proteins were derived from recently published study, including 3,301 study subjects. Linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and each of the 3,283 plasma proteins.
LDSC observed several genetic correlations between plasma proteins and psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD and lysosomal Pro-X carboxypeptidase (p value = 0.015), ASD and extracellular superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn; p value = 0.023), BD and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6 (p value = 0.007), MDD and trefoil factor 1 (p value = 0.011), and SCZ and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 (p value = 0.011). Additionally, we detected four common plasma proteins showing correlation evidence with both BD and SCZ, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (p value = 0.012 for BD, p value = 0.011 for SCZ).
This study provided an atlas of genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and plasma proteome, providing novel clues for pathogenetic and biomarkers, therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common in neuroendocrine tumor (NET), yet controversy exists over whether serotonin-mediated antidepressants (SAs) are safe in this population. We sought to address this knowledge gap.
Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review to identify NET patients who were prescribed SA.
We identified 15 articles, reporting on 161 unique patients, 72 with carcinoid syndrome (CS) and 89 without. There was substantial agreement between reviewers at the full-text stage (κ = 0.69). Three of the articles, all with low risk of bias, accounted for most of the cases (149/161; 93%). Among the 72 NET patients with CS prior to antidepressant usage, CS was exacerbated in 6 cases (8%), only 3 (4%) of whom chose to discontinue the antidepressant. The remaining 89 patients had no prior CS symptoms, and none developed CS following antidepressant usage. Overall, no instances of carcinoid crisis or death were reported.
We found no evidence for serious adverse outcomes related to SA usage in NET patients. Previous authors have recommended avoiding antidepressants in NET, but our findings do not support those recommendations. Oncologists should nonetheless monitor for symptom exacerbation when prescribing SA to patients with NET.
This chapter, reviews the basics for children undergoing abdominal mass resections. Combined with the chapter on neuroblastoma, the authors discuss the incidence, diagnosis and perioperative considerations for patients undergoing resection of large abdominal tumors. The anesthetic evaluation and planning for these patients is presented with the relative tumor specific management principles.
Microwave imaging is an efficient technique that can be used for the early detection of breast cancer. Therefore the current research article presents the microwave imaging of two spherical tumors (radius 4 and 5 mm) in the breast phantom by using the monostatic radar-based technique. This is carried out by using an ultra-wideband (4.9–10.9 GHz), three-layered stacked aperture coupled microstrip antenna (SACMPA) with a defected ground structure to scan the breast phantom and make near field S parameter measurements from a breast phantom. The S parameter data from different locations and at different time intervals are noted and then used in a beam-forming algorithm; Delay and Sum to process it and form a 2D image of the tumor location in the breast phantom using MATLAB.
The proposed SACMPA is a three-layered structure with overall dimensions of 37 × 43 × 4.85 mm3 that shows an impedance bandwidth of 6 GHz (4.9–10.9 GHz) and a simulated peak gain of 6.32 dB at a frequency of 9.1 GHz. The validation of S parameters and gain results are done using a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and an anechoic chamber. The experimental validation of the proposed microwave imaging procedure is done by allowing the SACMPA to radiate parallel to the breast phantom made from polythene (skin), petroleum jelly (fat), and wheat flour (with water as tumor) and record the S parameters on the VNA. The proposed microwave method is safe for human exposure as the antenna also shows simulated specific absorption rates of 0.271 and 1.115 W/Kg (on the breast phantom) at frequencies of 5.7 and 6.5 GHz, respectively (for 1 g of body tissue).
Pott's puffy tumour is a rare complication of sinusitis. This osteomyelitis can affect the outer and inner tables of the frontal sinus. The treatment of Pott's puffy tumour combines medical and surgical approaches. Surgical approaches have traditionally been open, but endoscopic techniques have been adopted recently in select cases. The bony defect from debridement can be left alone, or closed with autografts or allografts.
To describe a technique for the reconstruction of a large skull vault after the debridement of extensive osteomyelitis of the anterior cranial vault.
Modified distraction osteogenesis is used in the cranial vault, to induce new bone formation. This is customarily used to lengthen long bones. The advantages of this technique include avoiding autologous grafts or alloplastic cranioplasty in the infected surgical bed, and allowing primary closure.
Early post-operative imaging results have been encouraging, with no reported complications.
Modified distraction osteogenesis is a novel technique in the primary reconstruction of calvarial bone.
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a common benign lesion that causes significant morbidity due to the failure of modern medical and surgical treatment. Surface ultra-structures of giant cells (GCs) may help in distinguishing aggressive tumors from indolent GC lesions. This study aimed to standardize scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of GC from GCT of bone. Fresh GCT collected in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium was washed to remove blood, homogenized, or treated with collagenase to isolate the GCs. Mechanically homogenized and collagenase-digested GCs were imaged on SEM after commonly used drying methodologies such as air-drying, tetramethylsilane (TMS)-drying, freeze-drying, and critical point-drying (CPD) for the optimization of sample processing. The collagenase-treated samples yielded a greater number of isolated GC and showed better surface morphology in comparison to mechanical homogenization. Air-drying was associated with marked cell shrinkage, and freeze-dried samples showed severe cell damage. TMS methodology partially preserved the cell contour and surface structures, although the cell shape was distorted. GC images with optimum surface morphology including membrane folding and microvesicular structures on the surface were observed only in collagenase-treated and critical point-dried samples. Collagenase digestion and critical point/TMS-drying should be performed for optimal SEM imaging of individual GCs.
MR perfusion imaging is a relatively new technique that may aid in identifying recurrent tumor (RT) in those with radically treated high-grade gliomas (HGG). We aim to assess the relationship between dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR perfusion (DSC-MRP) and overall survival to establish a baseline for future research and to determine the utility of DSC-MRP as a clinical decision-making and prognostic tool.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Adults with pathologically confirmed HGG at the Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario between January 2011 and April 2014 with at least one post-treatment DSC-MRP were included. DSC-MRP was interpreted as positive or negative for tumor recurrence by experienced radiologists. The primary outcome was overall survival.
Sixty-one patients were enrolled. Median survival for patients with a positive DSC-MRP scan was 4.5 months compared with 10.2 months for those with a negative DSC-MRP scan (hazard ratio [unadjusted] = 2.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.10–5.67; p-value = 0.03). Multivariable modeling (adjusted) that included all pre-selected variables showed similar results.
Survival time in patients with HGG is generally low, and almost all patients will demonstrate RT. Our data suggest a positive DSC-MRP correlates with lower overall survival and may signify the presence of highly active RT. These results generate a hypothesis that there may be a prognostic role for the use of serial DSC-MRP for tumor surveillance. More importantly, this biomarker may aid in decision making for treatment plans and palliation.
Objectives: Craniopharyngioma survivors experience cognitive deficits that negatively impact quality of life. Aerobic fitness is associated with cognitive benefits in typically developing children and physical exercise promotes recovery following brain injury. Accordingly, we investigated cognitive and neural correlates of aerobic fitness in a sample of craniopharyngioma patients. Methods: Patients treated for craniopharyngioma [N=104, 10.0±4.6 years, 48% male] participated in fitness, cognitive and fMRI (n=51) assessments following surgery but before proton radiation therapy. Results: Patients demonstrated impaired aerobic fitness [peak oxygen uptake (PKVO2)=23.9±7.1, 41% impaired (i.e., 1.5 SD<normative mean)], motor proficiency [Bruininks-Oseretsky (BOT2)=38.6±9.0, 28% impaired], and executive functions (e.g., WISC-IV Working Memory Index (WMI)=96.0±15.3, 11% impaired). PKVO2 correlated with better executive functions (e.g., WISC-IV WMI r=.27, p=.02) and academic performance (WJ-III Calculation r=.24, p=.04). BOT2 correlated with better attention (e.g., CPT-II omissions r=.26, p=.04) and executive functions (e.g., WISC-IV WMI r=.32, p=.01). Areas of robust neural activation during an n-back task included superior parietal lobule, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and middle and superior frontal gyri (p<.05, corrected). Higher network activation was associated with better working memory task performance and better BOT2 (p<.001). Conclusions: Before adjuvant therapy, children with craniopharyngioma demonstrate significantly reduced aerobic fitness, motor proficiency, and working memory. Better aerobic fitness and motor proficiency are associated with better attention and executive functions, as well as greater activation of a well-established working memory network. These findings may help explain differential risk/resiliency with respect to acute cognitive changes that may portend cognitive late effects. (JINS, 2019, 25, 413–425)
This study focused on parotid gland tumours diagnosed as benign by fine-needle aspiration cytology and investigated the necessity of frozen section biopsy.
There were 104 cases of parotid gland tumour where fine-needle aspiration cytology was benign and frozen section biopsy was subsequently performed, between April 2006 and June 2016. In this retrospective study, the results of frozen section biopsy were analysed and compared with the final histological diagnosis.
Among the 104 cases diagnosed as benign by fine-needle aspiration cytology, 102 cases and 2 cases were diagnosed as benign and malignant, respectively, by frozen section biopsy. The final histological diagnoses showed that 98 cases were benign and 6 cases were malignant. The sensitivity and specificity values of frozen section biopsy in detecting malignant tumours were 33 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively.
The necessity of frozen section biopsy in cases with benign fine-needle aspiration cytology may be low in parotid gland surgery.
This study evaluated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukins 10 and 12, and interferon-γ levels, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and clusters of differentiation 17c and 86 expression in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Twenty-four patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and 24 individuals with normal hearing and no history of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (who were attending the clinic for other problems), were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and clusters of differentiation 11c and 86 were isolated and analysed. Plasma and supernatant levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukins 10 and 12 were measured.
There were no significant differences with respect to age and gender. Monocyte population, mean tumour necrosis factor-α level and cluster of differentiation 86 expression were significantly increased in the study group compared to the control group. However, interferon-γ and interleukin 12 levels were significantly decreased. The difference in mean interleukin 10 level was not significant.
Increases in tumour necrosis factor-α level and monocyte population might play critical roles in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. This warrants detailed investigation and further studies on the role of dendritic cells in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Environmental factors during perinatal life can lead to changes in the mammary gland, making it susceptible to cancer in adulthood. Breastfeeding has a special importance since it takes place at a critical period of growth and development of the newborn. We aimed to analyze if an appropriate lactation protects the offspring against mammary carcinogenesis during adult life and explore the mechanisms involved in the protective effect. One-day-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in litters of three (L3), eight (L8) or 12 (L12) pups per dam, to induce a differential consumption of breast milk. At 55 days of age, the animals were treated with a single dose of dimethylbenzanthracene to study tumor latency, incidence and progression. Histological, immunohistochemical and Western blot studies were performed. We observed lower incidence and higher latency in L3 compared to the other groups. The mitotic index and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was significantly augmented in tumors of L12 rats compared to L3 and L8, while the apoptotic index was augmented in tumors of L3 v. L12. Cleaved caspase 8 was significantly higher in tumors from L3 compared to L12. Tumors developed in L3 have a greater number of apoptotic bodies and a greater expression of caspase 8. These results demonstrate that the animals that maintained a higher intake of maternal milk (L3) presented lower incidence and greater tumor latency. Lower consumption of breast milk (L12) would increase tumor mitosis and the expression of PCNA, explaining the higher tumor incidence observed in this group.