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The low-frequency linearly polarised radio source population is largely unexplored. However, a renaissance in low-frequency polarimetry has been enabled by pathfinder and precursor instruments for the Square Kilometre Array. In this second paper from the POlarised GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA Survey-the POlarised GLEAM Survey, or POGS-we present the results from our all-sky MWA Phase I Faraday Rotation Measure survey. Our survey covers nearly the entire Southern sky in the Declination range
at a resolution between around three and seven arcminutes (depending on Declination) using data in the frequency range 169−231 MHz. We have performed two targeted searches: the first covering 25 489 square degrees of sky, searching for extragalactic polarised sources; the second covering the entire sky South of Declination
, searching for known pulsars. We detect a total of 517 sources with 200 MHz linearly polarised flux densities between 9.9 mJy and 1.7 Jy, of which 33 are known radio pulsars. All sources in our catalogues have Faraday rotation measures in the range
rad m−2. The Faraday rotation measures are broadly consistent with results from higher-frequency surveys, but with typically more than an order of magnitude improvement in the precision, highlighting the power of low-frequency polarisation surveys to accurately study Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We discuss the properties of our extragalactic and known-pulsar source population, how the sky distribution relates to Galactic features, and identify a handful of new pulsar candidates among our nominally extragalactic source population.
Understanding trends in grain consumption is essential to tackle the low consumption of healthful grain foods. This study aimed to evaluate trends and determinants of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 carbohydrate:fibre ratio (≤10:1 ratio) in Brazil and to estimate this intake for the next years.
Three editions of the cross-sectional, population-based study Health Survey of São Paulo (2003, 2008 and 2015).
Urban area of São Paulo, Brazil.
The sample included 5801 participants aged 12 years or more.
A growing trend in the intake of these foods (0·9 percentage of energy (%E) in 2003 to 1·5 %E in 2015) was observed. Also, the proportion of the population consuming at least one grain food meeting the ≤10:1 ratio increased from 8·7 % in 2003 to 15·8 % in 2015, and 20·3 % of the population would be consuming some kind of healthful grain food by 2030. Sociodemographic factors associated with the consumption of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 ratio changed according to study edition, but overall, older individuals (+79 %), females (+28 %), those with higher education (+138 %) and higher family income (+135 %) were more likely to consume grain foods meeting the ratio, whereas participants who self-reported black, brown or indigenous ethnicity were less likely to consume these foods (–30 %).
There was a growing trend to consume grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 ratio from 2003 to 2015, but this consumption continues to be far from recommended levels. Intersectoral changes are urgently needed in order to increase the intake of healthful grain foods.
To characterise dietary habits, their temporal and spatial patterns and associations with BMI in the 23andMe study population.
We present a large-scale cross-sectional analysis of self-reported dietary intake data derived from the web-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010 dietary screener. Survey-weighted estimates for each food item were characterised by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education and BMI. Temporal patterns were plotted over a 2-year time period, and average consumption for select food items was mapped by state. Finally, dietary intake variables were tested for association with BMI.
US-based adults 20–85 years of age participating in the 23andMe research programme.
Participants were 23andMe customers who consented to participate in research (n 526 774) and completed web-based surveys on demographic and dietary habits.
Survey-weighted estimates show very few participants met federal recommendations for fruit: 2·6 %, vegetables: 5·9 % and dairy intake: 2·8 %. Between 2017 and 2019, fruit, vegetables and milk intake frequency declined, while total dairy remained stable and added sugars increased. Seasonal patterns in reporting were most pronounced for ice cream, chocolate, fruits and vegetables. Dietary habits varied across the USA, with higher intake of sugar and energy dense foods characterising areas with higher average BMI. In multivariate-adjusted models, BMI was directly associated with the intake of processed meat, red meat, dairy and inversely associated with consumption of fruit, vegetables and whole grains.
23andMe research participants have created an opportunity for rapid, large-scale, real-time nutritional data collection, informing demographic, seasonal and spatial patterns with broad geographical coverage across the USA.
Prospective memory (PM) is the memory used when intentions are to be carried out in the future. Little research has been conducted examining PM after stroke. This study aimed to determine if PM is impaired after stroke through comparison of individuals with stroke to healthy controls. Additionally, it aimed to explore the predictors of PM performance post-stroke.
Twenty-eight individuals with stroke and 27 neurologically healthy controls completed the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT), 2 self-report PM questionnaires, and multiple cognitive measures.
Individuals with stroke performed significantly lower on both event- and time-based PM than controls on the CAMPROMPT, indicating PM impairment. Event-based PM after stroke was significantly predicted by age, retrospective memory (RM), and global cognitive function, whereas time-based PM was only predicted by the metacognitive skill of note-taking. Age and note-taking predicted time-based PM for controls, whereas only age predicted event-based PM for control participants.
The findings of this study have helped to confirm that PM impairment does exist after stroke, particularly when using a standardised PM measure. Furthermore, PM impairment may be predicted by variables, such as age, strategy use, RM, and cognitive ability.
We derive transformation equations between GALEX
and UBV colours by using the reliable data of 556 stars. We present two sets of equations: as a function of (only) luminosity class and as a function of both luminosity class and metallicity. The metallicities are provided from the literature, while the luminosity classes are determined by using the PARSEC mass tracks in this study. Small colour residuals and high squared correlation coefficients promise accurate derived colours. The application of the transformation equations to 70 stars with reliable data shows that the metallicity plays an important role in estimation of more accurate colours.
Research on sensitive topics uses a variety of methods to combat response bias on in-person surveys. Increasingly, researchers allow respondents to self-administer responses using electronic devices as an alternative to more complicated experimental approaches. Using an experiment embedded in a survey in the rural Philippines, we test the effects of several such methods on response rates and falsification. We asked respondents a sensitive question about reporting insurgents to the police alongside a nonsensitive question about school completion. We randomly assigned respondents to answer these questions either verbally, through a “forced choice” experiment, or through self-enumeration. We find that self-enumeration significantly reduced nonresponse compared to direct questioning, but find little evidence of differential rates of falsification. Forced choice yielded highly unlikely estimates, which we attribute to nonstrategic falsification. These results suggest that self-administered surveys can be effective for measuring sensitive topics on surveys when response rates are a priority.
The present study aimed to examine the nutritional deprivation of Paraguayan households (measured as households' access to diverse diets) and investigate the association between nutritional deprivation and socio-economic characteristics in a large sample. An extension of Alkire–Foster methodology, a technique widely employed in multidimensional poverty measurement, was used to calculate both the incidence and intensity of nutritional deprivation. The resulting Nutritional Deprivation Index allows us to consider minimum food group requirements that vary by food groups as well as by individual characteristics such as age, sex and activity level. Applying the methodology to a nationally representative sample of households from the 2011–2012 Income and Expenditures Household Survey, the study found that about two in every three Paraguayan households (67 %) were inadequately nourished in at least four (of the total of six) food groups. Although no significant differences were found between rural and urban households, the incidence of multi-dimensionally deprived households generally decreased as income increased. Logistic regression results showed that nutritional deprivation decreased as household income and mother's education increased and increased with household size. Our study concludes that the majority of Paraguayan households is significantly nutritionally deprived across most food groups and suggests that strategies are needed to improve their access to diverse diets, especially among its lower- and middle-income segments.
Droughts and land degradation result in biodiversity and ecosystem service losses with serious implications for human wellbeing. The Sahel region has seen increased plant cover since the end of 1970s–1980s droughts, but understanding the nature and implications of this change remains a priority. This study aimed to assess changes in the woody floristic composition of re-greened agrosystems since the droughts in Burkina Faso. In 148 vegetation survey plots distributed across areas with increasing woody plant cover and those to some extent protected from exploitation, a total of 71 species from 51 genera and 23 families were identified. Compared to pre-drought flora, our measurements show a decline in the diversity and density of woody species. Combretaceae species and thorny species of the genera Acacia and Balanites, which are more tolerant of drought, were the most dominant, indicating a post-drought woody vegetation that is more resistant to water stress. The increased presence of food-producing species in agroforestry parks (cultivated fields with woody plants) seems to reflect the growing needs of the human population.
There is an emerging debate about the growth of Anglicanism in sub-Saharan Africa. With this debate in mind, this paper uses four statistically representative surveys of sub-Saharan Africa to estimate the relative and absolute number who identify as Anglican in five countries: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. The results for Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania are broadly consistent with previous scholarly assessments. The findings on Nigeria and Uganda, the two largest provinces, are likely to be more controversial. The evidence from statistically representative surveys finds that the claims often made of the Church of Nigeria consisting of ‘over 18 million’ exceedingly unlikely; the best statistical estimate is that under 8 million Nigerians identify as Anglican. The evidence presented here shows that Uganda (rather than Nigeria) has the strongest claim to being the largest province in Africa in terms of those who identify as Anglican, and is larger than is usually assumed. Evidence from the Ugandan Census of Populations and Households, however, also suggests the proportion of Ugandans that identify as Anglican is in decline, even if absolute numbers have been growing, driven by population growth.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
Over the last 25 years, the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) has made a significant return to the Southern Bight of the North Sea and the English Channel due to a shift in distribution from northerly regions. Although the ecological drivers of this return are unclear, this species faces multiple threats in the region, including by-catch and habitat degradation. Ferry-based surveys were conducted year-round between November 2011 and June 2014 to assess the influence of environmental parameters upon the spatiotemporal distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. A total of 1450 sightings of harbour porpoises were recorded during the 100 round-trip surveys carried out between Dunkirk (France) and Dover (England). Inter-annual and monthly variations in group size were observed, with largest groups recorded in 2014 (mean = 2.02) and in January (mean = 2.32). The relative abundance showed significant seasonal variation, with peaks recorded during winter months. An inter-annual increasing relative abundance was recorded during the study period. There was a seasonally dependent association with environmental variables, particularly depth, seabed roughness and current speed. Finally, predictions suggest large increases of the relative abundance in offshore habitats during winter months and over the study period.
African White-backed Vultures were recently uplisted to ‘Critically Endangered’ by IUCN due to declines across their range. Poisoning is widely accepted as the major reason for these declines. Botswana supports a high number of this species (breeding pairs > c.1,200), but as yet no published information exists on their breeding success in the country. However, mass poisonings within Botswana and neighbouring countries have killed thousands of White-backed Vultures in recent years. We therefore expected that nesting numbers may have declined in this region if these poisoning events killed local breeding birds. We used information from aerial surveys conducted between 2006 and 2017 in Khwai and Linyanti, two important breeding areas for this species in north-central Botswana, to determine if there was any change in nesting numbers and breeding success of White-backed Vultures. Results showed an overall 53.5% decline in nesting numbers, with a greater decline in Linyanti than in Khwai. In both areas, breeding success was significantly lower in 2017 than it was 10 ten years earlier. We recommend that similar repeat surveys are continued to provide greater confidence in the trends of both nesting numbers and breeding performance. Population viability analysis suggested that if the productivity levels detected in 2017 were a true indication of current productivity levels for this population, and if recent high poisoning rates continue, this population could be extirpated from the area in the next 13 years.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between socio-economic factors and the food consumption of a young population. Participants were from the Portuguese National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016) aged from 3 to 17 years (n 1153). Food consumption was assessed using two non-consecutive days of food diaries in children and two 24-h recalls for adolescents. A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify children’s socio-economic status (socio-economic composite classification (SCC)), categorised in low, middle or high. The associations between socio-economic variables and food consumption were evaluated through linear or logistic regression models, weighted for the Portuguese population distribution. A positive association was found between belonging to a higher level of SCC and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), by children (β = 2·4, 95 % CI 1·1, 3·8) and by adolescents (β = 52·4, 95 % CI 9·6, 95·3). A higher SCC, but particularly higher maternal education, was positively associated with consumption of ‘white meat, fish and eggs’. Both higher SCC and parental education were positively associated with salty snack consumption in the adolescents’ group. In conclusion, children and adolescents with higher educated parents and belonging to a high socio-economic level have a higher daily intake of FV and white meat, fish and eggs. Socio-economic factors play an important role in justifying differences in the food consumption of children and adolescents and must be considered in future interventions. The relationship between higher socio-economic position and salty snack consumption in adolescents needs to be further explored in other populations.
This article presents the long-term results in terms of antipsychotic medication maintenance and factors influencing it in a representative sample of patients with schizophrenia recruited in the SOHO study within Spain.
The SOHO was a prospective, 3-year observational study of the outcomes of schizophrenia treatment in outpatients who initiated therapy or changed to a new antipsychotic performed in 10 European countries with a focus on olanzapine. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyse the time to treatment discontinuation and the Cox proportional hazards model to investigate correlates of discontinuation.
Results and conclusions
In total, 1688 patients were included in the analyses. Medication maintenance at 3 years varied with the antipsychotic prescribed, being highest with clozapine (57.6%, 95% CI 39.2–74.5), followed by olanzapine (48.3%, 95% CI 45.1–51.5); and lowest with quetiapine (19.0%, 95% CI 13.0–26.3). Treatment discontinuation was significantly less frequent with olanzapine than with risperidone (p = 0.015), depot typical (p = 0.001), oral typical antipsychotics (p < 0.001) or quetiapine (p < 0.001); but not than with clozapine (p = 0.309). Longer maintenance was also associated with higher social abilities and better cognitive status at baseline; in contrast, a shorter time to discontinuation was associated with the need for mood stabilisers during follow-up. This study emphasises the different value of antipsychotics in day-to-day clinical practice, as some of them were associated with longer medication maintenance periods than others. This study has some limitations because of possible selection and information biases derived from the non-systematic, non-randomised allocation to treatments and the existence of unobserved covariates that may influence the outcome.
From 2008, the UK’s National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) changed the method of dietary data collection from a 7-d weighed diary to a 4-d unweighed diary, partly to reduce participant burden. This study aimed to test whether self-reported energy intake changed significantly over the 4-d recording period of the NDNS rolling programme. Analyses used data from the NDNS years 1 (2008/2009) to 8 (2015/2016) inclusive, from participants aged 13 years and older. Dietary records from participants who reported unusual amounts of food and drink consumed on one or more days were excluded, leaving 6932 participants. Mean daily energy intake was 7107 kJ (1698 kcal), and there was a significant decrease of 164 kJ (39 kcal) between days 1 and 4 (P < 0·001). There was no significant interaction of sex or low-energy reporter status (estimated from the ratio of reported energy intake:BMR) with the change in reported energy intake. The decrease in reported energy intake on day 4 compared with day 1 was greater (P < 0·019) for adults with higher BMI (>30 kg/m2) than it was for leaner adults. Reported energy intake decreased over the 4-d recording period of the NDNS rolling programme suggesting that participants change their diet more, or report less completely, with successive days of recording their diet. The size of the effect was relatively minor, however.
The present study aimed to (a) establish the frequency of consumption of red meat and eggs; (b) determine serum ferritin levels (μg/l); and (c) establish the relationship between serum ferritin and the consumption of red meat and eggs. In Colombia during 2014–2018, an analytical study was conducted in 13 243 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 17 years, based on cross-sectional data compiled by ENSIN-2015 (Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia-2015) on serum ferritin levels and dietary consumption based on a questionnaire of the frequency of consumption. Using simple and multiple linear regression, with the serum ferritin level as the dependent variable and the frequency of consumption as the main explanatory variable, the crude and adjusted partial regression coefficients (β) between serum ferritin levels and consumption were calculated. The frequency of habitual consumption of red meat was 0⋅49 (95 % CI 0⋅47, 0⋅51) times/d. The frequency of habitual egg consumption was 0⋅76 (95 % CI 0⋅74, 0⋅78) times per d. The mean serum ferritin level in men was 41⋅9 (95 % CI 40⋅6, 43⋅1) μg/l and in women, 35⋅7 (95 % CI 34⋅3, 37⋅7) μg/l (P < 0⋅0001). The adjusted β between the consumption of red meat and eggs and serum ferritin levels were β = 3⋅0 (95 % CI 1⋅2, 4⋅7) and β = 2⋅5 (95 % CI 1⋅0, 3⋅9) for red meat and eggs, respectively. In conclusion, red meat and eggs are determinants of serum ferritin levels in Colombia and, therefore, could be considered public policy options to reduce anaemia and Fe deficiency.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
In this article, based on a presentation at the BIALL Annual Conference in 2019, Renae Satterley and Adam Woellhaf discuss the methodology and potential effectiveness of using contingent valuation surveys in law libraries. Their approach is based on the Middle Temple Library's experience of running such a survey in 2018.
This paper follows up from a previous study on this topic and outlines the second part of a wider, two-part study on the information seeking behaviour (ISB) of law students. Exploratory work was outlined in a previous publication17 and there we found that although mobile technologies offered benefits to law students seeking information for their academic studies, there was concern from law librarians that the use of electronic resources via both non-mobile and mobile interfaces resulted in a loss of skills required for information retrieval due to the increasing capabilities of electronic resources’ search interfaces. To gain more insight into how law students were using mobile information resources, and better understand the advantages and disadvantages of such, we extended our study to a wider cohort and employed more research techniques including a focus group. This final phase of our study was conducted between 2015 to 2017. Here our cohort included another set of law librarians (13) and a further 54 law students. We expanded our research tools to include 2 thematic questionnaires and a focus group exercise. Our findings discovered that law librarians were concerned with the intangibility of digital formats. Law students remained indifferent to this aspect and valued the speed, multi-tasking and near-ubiquitous accessibility attributes that electronic format use via mobile technologies provided. These learnings and more, with conclusions, are reported in the course of this paper written by Zaki Abbas, Andrew MacFarlane and Lyn Robinson.
To measure caregivers’ and clinicians’ perception of false memories in the lives of patients with memory loss due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using a novel false memories questionnaire. Our hypotheses were that false memories are occurring as often as forgetting according to clinicians and family members.
This prospective, questionnaire-based study consisting of 20 false memory questions paired with 20 forgetting questions had two forms: one for clinicians and the other for family members of older subjects. In total, 226 clinicians and 150 family members of 49 patients with AD, 44 patients with MCI, and 57 healthy older controls (OCs) completed the questionnaire.
False memories occurred nearly as often as forgetting according to clinicians and family members of patients with MCI and AD. Family members of OCs and patients with MCI reported fewer false memories compared to those of the AD group. As Mini-Mental State Examination scores decreased, the mean score increased for both forgetting and false memories. Among clinicians, correlations were observed between the dementia severity of patients seen with both forgetting and false memories questionnaire scores as well as with the impact of forgetting and false memories on daily life.
Patients with AD experience false memories almost as frequently as they do forgetting. Given how common false memories are in AD patients, additional work is needed to understand the clinical implications of these false memories on patients’ daily lives. The novel false memories questionnaire developed may be a valuable tool.