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Chapter 7 deals with the relation between the case of the nominal (or adjectival) predicate and semantics. First, we consider instrumental predicates in such Slavic languages as Russian and Polish (and the instrumental/nominative alternation), essive predicates in Uralic languages and translative case in Finnish. This contrast has been linked to the distinction between stage-level and individual-level predicates, but also to additional semantic oppositions, e.g. between predicational and identity readings of predicate nominal sentences. Further, we consider the approach according to which this case alternation results from the existence of two types of small clauses, one of which is deficient in some sense. The chapter then turns to the essive case in Uralic languages. Like the Slavic predicate instrumental, it is associated with stage-level readings and with additional types of relativization, e.g. relativization to a facet/role of the argument or to a specific possible world. Finally, translative predicates are investigated. These predicates are strongly associated with the notion of change, but their compatibility with such verbs as jäädä ‘remain’ and jättää ‘leave’ challenges this link. An alternative analysis is described, formulated within a force-theoretic framework. Under this analysis, a translative predicate signals force exertion, rather than change.
This chapter treats pay in nonprofits and the public sector, where the organization’s objectives are not as straightforward as in the typical for-profit firm. It also covers small businesses, a subject which is neglected in standard compensation texts but which is important because some readers are or aspire to be small-business managers. The opening section defines the 3 entities under discussion. Organizational missions and workers’ intrinsic motivation are described, which relates to compensating differentials in that workers who value the organizational mission interpret it as a non-monetary component of pay that creates an incentive to work hard to further the mission. The chapter revisits external and internal constraints on pay, training (and recruitment of desired worker types), performance pay, and turnover, thereby tying the book’s earlier concepts together. Subjects that were covered in earlier chapters are re-examined through the different lenses of nonprofits, the public sector, and small businesses. The chapter ends with coverage of “distance” between managers and owners, which tends to be shorter in small businesses than in larger ones, and its implications for pay.
Dual inhibition (2i) of Ras–MEK–ERK and GSK3β pathways enables the derivation of embryo stem cells (ESCs) from refractory mouse strains and, for permissive strains, allows ESC derivation with no external protein factor stimuli involvement. In addition, blocking of ERK signalling in 8-cell-stage mouse embryos leads to ablation of GATA4/6 expression in hypoblasts, suggesting fibroblast growth factor (FGF) dependence of hypoblast formation in the mouse. In human, bovine or porcine embryos, the hypoblast remains unaffected or displays slight-to-moderate reduction in cell number. In this study, we demonstrated that segregation of the hypoblast and the epiblast in rabbit embryos is FGF independent and 2i treatment elicits only a limited reinforcement in favour of OCT4-positive epiblast populations against the GATA4-/6-positive hypoblast population. It has been previously shown that TGFβ/Activin A inhibition overcomes the pervasive differentiation and inhomogeneity of rat iPSCs, rat ESCs and human iPSCs while prompting them to acquire naïve properties. However, TGFβ/Activin A inhibition, alone or together with Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition, was not compatible with the viability of rabbit embryos according to the ultrastructural analysis of preimplantation rabbit embryos by electron microscopy. In rabbit models ovulation upon mating allows the precise timing of progression of the pregnancy. It produces several embryos of the desired stage in one pregnancy and a relatively short gestation period, making the rabbit embryo a suitable model to discover the cellular functions and mechanisms of maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic cells and the embryo-derived stem cells of other mammals.
Understanding network formation is essential to building a cohesive theory of network connectivity in the social relations that form historical regimes. Using diagrams of network structure in which nodes represent components and lines represent their interactions, we can recognize essential features of the interactive configurations that lead to patterns (institutions) and behaviors (regimes) and emergent properties. When we capture how agents interact and self-organize, we can infer structure; and knowing structure we can infer patterns of information transmission and thus collective behavior, including why system growth or breakdown follows a critical event. Theoretical network models – random, scale-free, small-world, and hub-and-spoke – capture these regularities and allow us to infer the principles underlying their construction and the trade-offs of stability and resilience. Knowing the patterns of structure and interaction, we gain a deeper grasp of two critically important and strongly correlated phenomena of contemporary political economy: the Great Divergence of East and West, and the global impact of China’s contemporary and unprecedented economic transformation.
The second great transition is the organic development of the Western legal system – from legal frameworks for succession and transmitting landed property to the oaths of fealty, on into a macroscopic nexus of institutions, practices, and beliefs that formed a hypernetwork within the wider society. The evolution of the legal tradition, forging a system of strong but limited states, is a story of increasing returns. No legal document or pact like the Magna Carta exists in China. Its aristocracies never gained sufficient military, political, or ideological strength to demand rights that could constrain the sovereign via institutions. Imperial officialdom did not intend to negotiate with a corporate body in possession of its own resources and rights. Nor did the bureaucratic clans have any incentive to stem the centralization of authority. They acted as representatives of the state’s interests, not those of civil society. The legalist/Confucian state exercised authority over economic resources to an extent that no European monarch could hope to accomplish. It also counterbalanced power with a code of ethical responsibilities to ensure the basic needs of the population.
The first of the book’s five great transitions is the creation of institutions of dynastic succession in Europe and China. Orderly, incontestable hereditary succession afforded dynastic longevity from the ninth century onward, and was a key institutional determinant of long-term economic performance, serving as a hypernetwork that contributed to system-level dynamics. The hypernetwork structures in Europe and China were very different, one being scale-free, the other star-like. Each presented trade-offs between properties of stability and resilience that arose according to widely different adaptive strategies. Historical meta-regimes offer evidence that qualities embedded in macrostructures are distinct from those at the micro levels, and that long-standing institutions are likely to be gradual in formation, but sudden in their demise. Redundancies in Europe’s network of connected dynasties ruling across the continental “fabric” lent resilience to the macro-system. China's system distributed information more efficiently, but with the attendant risk that the collapse of a lone central hub reliant on a powerful bureaucracy would produce cycles of decay during which the population suffered on massive scales.
In contrast to the “strong” Lily-White states discussed in Chapter 7, Lily-White groups that took control of the Republican state organizations in Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida, and Tennessee never entirely excluded blacks from political participation within the party. To be sure, black GOP representation was minimized by these Lily-White leaders, but they did not engage in the type of exclusion that occurred in Virginia, Texas, North Carolina, and Alabama. Why did Lily-Whiteism play out so differently in these four states? As the cases presented in this chapter show, the “soft”" version of Lily-Whiteism was mostly the product of state-specific political contexts in which white party leaders sought to win control of the party but did not believe the complete exclusion of blacks was worth pursuing. In Arkansas and Louisiana, this was because – unlike in Virginia and North Carolina – there was no real expectation that electoral success was possible even as a white-dominated party. Thus, the goal was more to control federal patronage than to expel all blacks from the party. In Florida, which Herbert Hoover carried in the 1928 presidential election, white party leaders thought that a GOP resurgence might be possible, and they saw an opportunity to take control of the party. While blacks were kept from serving as delegates at the 1932 and 1936 national conventions, strict Lily-Whiteism would not last: after Florida repealed the poll tax in 1937, black Republicans began to organize politically again. And white Republicans in the state determined that it would be easier to provide these black Republicans with a small but consistent level of representation rather than to fight them on it. Finally, in Tennessee, the Republican party organization was long split between an eastern wing and a western wing. While the locus of state GOP power lay in the east and was led by whites, a Black-and-Tan organization was in power in the west. These Black-and-Tans cooperated with local Democratic leaders and remained in place until the 1952 convention – producing a small but consistent minority of black GOP delegates.
A prevalence study was conducted on German sheep flocks including goats if they cohabitated with sheep. In addition, a novel approach was applied to identify an infection at the herd-level before lambing season with preputial swabs, suspecting venereal transmission and ensuing colonisation of preputial mucosa with Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Blood samples and genital swabs were collected from breeding males and females after the mating season and were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) respectively. In total, 3367 animals were sampled across 71 flocks. The true herd-level prevalence adjusted for misclassification probabilities of the applied diagnostic tests using the Rogan-Gladen estimator for the prevalence estimate and a formula by Lang and Reiczigel (2014) for the confidence limits, ranged between 31.3% and 33% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 17.3–45.5) detected by the ELISA and/or qPCR. Overall 26–36.6% (95% CI 13–56.8) were detected by ELISA, 13.9% (95% CI 4.5–23.2) by the qPCR and 7.9–11.2% (95% CI 0.08–22.3) by both tests simultaneously. The range of results is due to data obtained from literature with different specifications for test quality for ELISA. Among eight farms with females shedding C. burnetii, three farms (37.5%) could also be identified by preputial swabs from breeding sires. This indicates less reliability of preputial swabs if used as a single diagnostic tool to detect C. burnetii infection at the herd-level.
This article offers insights into the organization of Scioto Hopewell craft production and examines the implications of this organization through the lens of ritual economy. We present a novel analysis of investigations at the North 40 site, concluding that it is a craft production site located on the outskirts of the renowned Mound City Group. High-resolution landscape-scale magnetic survey revealed a cluster of three large structures and two rows of associated pits; one of the buildings and three of the pits were sampled in excavations. Evidence from the North 40 site marks this as the best-documented Scioto Hopewell craft production site. Mica, chert, and copper were crafted here in contexts organized outside the realm of domestic household production and consumption. Other material remains from the site suggest that crafting was specialized and embedded in ceremonial contexts. This analysis of the complex organization of Scioto Hopewell craft production provides grounds for further understanding the elaborate ceremonialism practiced by Middle Woodland (AD 1–400) societies and adds to the known complexity of craft production in small-scale societies. Furthermore, this article contributes to a growing body of literature demonstrating the utility of ritual economy as a framework for approaching the sociality of small-scale societies.
This study aims to evaluate dosimetric parameters like percentage depth dose, dosimetric field size, depth of maximum dose surface dose, penumbra and output factors measured using IBA CC01 pinpoint chamber, IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD), PTW microDiamond against Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for 6 MV flattening filter-free small fields.
Materials and Methods:
The linear accelerator used in the study was a Varian TrueBeam® STx. All field sizes were defined by jaws. The required shift to effective point of measurement was given for CC01, SFD and microdiamond for depth dose measurements. The output factor of a given field size was taken as the ratio of meter readings normalised to 10 × 10 cm2 reference field size without applying any correction to account for changes in detector response. MC simulation was performed using PRIMO (PENELOPE-based program). The phase space files for MC simulation were adopted from the MyVarian Website.
Results and Discussion:
Variations were seen between the detectors and MC, especially for fields smaller than 2 × 2 cm2 where the lateral charge particle equilibrium was not satisfied. Diamond detector was seen as most suitable for all measurements above 1 × 1 cm2. SFD was seen very close to MC results except for under-response in output factor measurements. CC01 was observed to be suitable for field sizes above 2 × 2 cm2. Volume averaging effect for penumbra measurements in CC01 was observed. No detector was found suitable for surface dose measurement as surface ionisation was different from surface dose due to the effect of perturbation of fluence. Some discrepancies in measurements and MC values were observed which may suggest effects of source occlusion, shift in focal point or mismatch between real accelerator geometry and simulation geometry.
For output factor measurement, TRS483 suggested correction factor needs to be applied to account for the difference in detector response. CC01 can be used for field sizes above 2 × 2 cm2 and microdiamond detector is suitable for above 1 × 1 cm2. Below these field sizes, perturbation corrections and volume averaging corrections need to be applied.
High yields and crop quality in organic small grain production can only be achieved through successful management of nitrogen. Experienced farmers and advisors in the Northeastern U.S. were asked to discuss the most pressing challenges in organic nitrogen management for organic small grain systems, with a particular focus on legume green manures (LGMs). Eighteen semi-structured interviews with 12 farmers and eight advisors were conducted between December 2017 and March 2018. The farmers employed a range of materials and practices for fulfilling the nitrogen fertility needs of their crops, including LGMs, animal manures and organic fertilizers. Farmers and advisors identified cost, overdependence on external nitrogen sources, nitrogen source access, diversifying rotations, weed management and predicting nitrogen mineralization of organic residues as major challenges in nitrogen management. Results indicated that cost-effectiveness in nitrogen management is essential, but that farmers consider additional factors, such as weed pressure and long-term soil health effects, when choosing nitrogen sources or practices. Legume-based nitrogen fertility is promising for small grain systems in this region, but structural challenges, such as the lack of animal agriculture proximal to grain operations, and limited cash crop markets, impede the development of diverse rotations that feature long-term legume sods. Recommendations include additional field-based research, including on-farm, participatory LGM studies as one avenue. Programming and educational outreach should focus on bolstering farmers' understanding of nitrogen mineralization of incorporated LGM residues, as well as their ability to anticipate and respond to sources of variability in LGM systems.
Small angle scattering (SAS) is a widely used technique for characterizing structures of wide ranges of materials. For such wide ranges of applications of SAS, there exist a large number of ways to model the scattering data. While such analysis models are often available from various suites of SAS data analysis software packages, selecting the right model to start with poses a big challenge for beginners to SAS data analysis. Here, we present machine learning (ML) methods that can assist users by suggesting scattering models for data analysis. A series of one-dimensional scattering curves have been generated by using different models to train the algorithms. The performance of the ML method is studied for various types of ML algorithms, resolution of the dataset, and the number of the dataset. The degree of similarities among selected scattering models is presented in terms of the confusion matrix. The scattering model suggestions with prediction scores provide a list of scattering models that are likely to succeed. Therefore, if implemented with extensive libraries of scattering models, this method can speed up the data analysis workflow by reducing search spaces for appropriate scattering models.
The long-term success of weed management programs requires that all crops in a rotation receive satisfactory weed control. Band sowing with inter-band hoeing has been proposed as an innovative weed management strategy for grain crops. In the band sowing system, crops are sown in a broadcast pattern within a band of some chosen width (here we selected 12.7 cm); weeds between bands are controlled with inter-band hoeing, with or without so-called “blind cultivation,” e.g., tine harrowing. Alteration of the crop spatial arrangement from typical single-line rows to a more evenly distributed pattern aims to enhance inter-specific competition while reducing intra-specific competition. Field experiments, conducted in Maine in 2016 and 2017, compared band sowing with interrow hoeing to the region’s standard practice of planting in 16.5-cm rows and tine harrowing in four test crops: spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Glenn’), oat (Avena sativa L. ‘Colt’), field pea (Pisum sativum L. ‘Jetset’), and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. ‘Prairie Thunder’). Band sowing improved weed control relative to the standard practice, especially in crops with greater competitive ability (wheat and oat). Despite improved weed control, in most cases, yields were unaffected by treatment. While band sowing with hoeing provided improved weed control in multiple crops, further study is warranted to optimize seeding rate, band width, and inter-band width to improve crop yields.
Between 2009 and 2014, against the background of the Xinjiang ethnic unity education textbook reform (2009–2010), vigorous academic debate on China's ethnic policy reform took place. Two academic cliques – one championing reform and the other representing the status quo – gradually came to the fore in this debate and competed to influence policy. This research seeks to unpack the mechanisms in China's knowledge regime that allow one agent (such as a think tank or academic) to prevail over others. Agents have an impact on policymaking mainly through connections with the decision-making body. This research uses three variables (ideological connection, level and nature of the connection) to analyse the relative policy influence of different agents in the debate. This research is among the first to provide an in-depth analysis of the debate's policy impact at the local level. The reform clique prevailed in this case because of its ability to bond with and influence higher-level decision-making bodies. Beginning in 2014, the Chinese Communist Party officially adopted the reform clique's language because of its alignment with the Party's growing need to maintain security in ethnic minority areas. Furthermore, key reform clique players continue to have an impact on the national policy shift.
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. It can cause serious damage to the small intestine, which is the main absorption site of Cd and the primary target organ after oral administration. Our previous study found that zinc chelate of hydroxy analogue of methionine (Zn-HMTB), a new type of feed additive, decreased Cd accumulation in the liver and kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Zn-HMTB on Cd absorption and Cd-induced toxicity in the small intestine of piglets. Twenty-four piglets (Landrace × Large White, 13.22 ± 0.58 kg BW) were randomly divided into four dietary treatment groups: basal diet, and diets containing 30 mg/kg Cd from CdCl2 and 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg Zn from Zn-HMTB. The experiment lasted 27 days. The feed intake and final BW of each piglet were recorded at the end of the experiment. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue and samples of liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung and longissimus muscle tissue and faeces were collected. The concentrations of Cd and metal trace elements in the GI tract and organs were analysed, as was the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inflammatory cytokines and metal element transporters in the small intestine, and epithelial apoptosis in the small intestine. The results showed that, compared with Cd-treated piglets, piglets in the Zn-HMTB and Cd cotreatment groups had less Cd deposition in the stomach, ileum, caecum, colon, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, heart and muscles (P < 0.05), and lower Cd concentrations in faeces (P < 0.05), suggesting that Zn-HMTB increased Cd absorption and the excretion of Cd in other forms (possibly urine). Zinc chelate of hydroxy analogue of methionine increased Zn deposition in the jejunum and the relative mRNA expression of divalent metal transporters 1 and zinc transporter 5 in the duodenum (P < 0.05), indicating that Zn-HMTB may promote the absorption and transportation of Cd and Zn together by upregulating metal element transporters. Competition between Zn and Cd may be responsible for accelerating Cd excretion. Furthermore, Zn-HMTB reduced Cd-induced apoptosis of enterocytes and inflammatory stimuli in the small intestine, suggesting that Zn-HMTB reduced Cd-induced toxicity to the small intestine. These results suggest that Zn-HMTB can be helpful in decreasing Cd accumulation in the GI tract and organs of piglets and relieving Cd-induced toxicity to the small intestine but cannot reduce the absorption of Cd.
Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) is a deciduous to evergreen shrub with an expansive nonnative global range. Control costs are often high, so land managers must carefully consider whether the plant’s potential negative effects warrant active management. To help facilitate this decision-making process, we reviewed and synthesized the literature on the potential ecological effects of L. sinense invasion. We also identified research gaps in need of further study. We found ample evidence of negative relationships between L. sinense invasion and native plant communities. While observational studies are not able to confirm whether L. sinense is driving these relationships, experimental evidence suggests that there is a cause–effect relationship. Of particular concern is the possibility that L. sinense could suppress forest regeneration and cause areas to transition from forest to L. sinense–dominated shrublands. Although this outcome would obviously impact a wide variety of wildlife species, empirical evidence of negative effects of L. sinense on wildlife are limited, and some species may actually benefit from the additional cover and foraging opportunities that L. sinense can provide. Further research on the potential effects of L. sinense invasion on large-scale forest structure and wildlife populations is needed. In areas where L. sinense invasion is a concern, evidence suggests early detection and management can mitigate control costs.
Navajo Nation residents experience extreme rates of poverty, food insecurity and diet-related diseases. While many residents travel far to shop at grocery stores, there are small stores closer to home that could provide more healthy options, like fruits and vegetables (F&V). Little is known from the perspective of store owners and managers regarding the barriers and facilitators to offering F&V; the present study contributes to filling that gap.
Data were collected through structured interviews from a sampling frame of all store owners or managers in the setting (n 29).
Small stores in Navajo Nation, New Mexico, USA. Navajo Nation is predominantly rural and the largest federally recognized Native American tribe in the USA.
Sixteen managers and six owners at twenty-two stores.
When asked about the types of foods that were most commonly purchased at their stores, most participants reported snacks and drinks (82 and 68 %, respectively). Many participants reported they would like to offer more fresh F&V. However, barriers included varying perceived customer demand, limited F&V choices from distributors and (for some managers) limited authority over product selection.
Findings contribute to the discussion on engaging store owners and managers in providing quality, healthy foods close to home in low-income, rural regions.
Capital and credit constraints limit the small farm’s ability to adequately use resources for optimum performance. Farmers’ access to capital is constrained in multiple ways, including price factors, risk factors, and transaction factors, as well as access to and ease of rural agricultural financing. Using a primary survey data of small farms in Tennessee, we analyzed factors influencing credit constraint and its impact on farm performance. Farm operators’ gender, off-farm work, land acreage holdings, farm specialization, and the use of smart phone with Internet significantly influenced credit constraint. We found that the financial performance of credit constrained small farmers was significantly lower than that of unconstrained small farmers—an adverse impact of constrained capacity to credit could result in up to $51,000 lower in gross farm sales. Additionally, our reason-specific results within credit constraint suggested that around $32,000 to $39,000 lower performance in gross sales can be attributable to the constrained borrowing with deficit to obtain agricultural loans at required or desired level.
Few studies have investigated the association between maternal dietary patterns (DP) during pregnancy, derived from reduced-rank regression (RRR), and fetal growth. This study aims to identify DP during pregnancy associated with macro- and micronutrient intakes, using the RRR method, and to examine their relationship with birth weight (BW). We used data of 7194 women from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in Northwest China. Dietary protein, carbohydrate, haem Fe density and the ratio of PUFA and MUFA:SFA were used as the intermediate variables in the RRR model to extract DP. Generalised estimating equation models were applied to evaluate the associations between DP and BW and related outcomes (including BW z-score, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA)). Four DP during pregnancy were identified. Socio-demographically disadvantaged pregnant women were more likely to have lower BW and lower adherence to DP1 (high legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods, with relative low wheat and oils). Women with medium and high adherence to DP1 had significantly increased BW (medium 28·6 (95 % CI 7·1, 50·1); high 25·2 (95 % CI 2·7, 47·6)) and BW z-score and had significantly reduced risks of LBW and SGA. The associations were stronger among women with babies <3100 g. There is no association between other DP and outcomes. Higher adherence to the DP that was high in legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods was associated with improved BW in the Chinese pregnant women, particularly among those with disadvantageous socio-demographic conditions.
This chapter begins by discussing what Callwell meant by the term ‘small war’. It then provides a survey of his contribution to the literature, before explaining why it matters in the context of nineteenth-century British military thought. It then provides a detailed analysis of what Callwell had to say about small wars, and why it matters. Finally, it explores some of the responses to Callwell’s work, both at the time and subsequently.