To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous studies have shown elevated levels of depressive symptoms in parents of children with ASD. However, few studies have assessed depressive symptoms in neurotypical ASD-siblings and most have done so, within a broad age range, while studies focusing on a certain developmental stage (middle childhood in particular) using a self-report depression-specific assessment tool are sparse.
This study aimed to investigate the depressive symptoms of Greek school-age neurotypical siblings of individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder through a self-reported questionnaire.
The sample included 85 school-age neurotypical ASD-siblings (8-13 years old). The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) and a demographics questionnaire were administered to all participants.
Results showed that a considerable percentage of the sample (15.3%) scored twice as high as the mean score. ASD-siblings in the present study scored higher (mean total score in CDI was 7.24±6.27) than children of similar age and nationality. Further, 5.9% of the siblings in the present study exhibited severe depressive symptoms (using 19 as a threshold) whereas 12.9% of ASD-siblings scored above 15 and therefore should be further evaluated by mental health services.
The results of the present study documents a relatively high prevalence of depressive symptoms in neurotypical siblings of individuals with ASD. ASD-siblings showed higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to normative data. This is the first study addressing depressive symptoms in siblings of autistic children conducted in the Greek cultural context. The present study highlights the need for the development and implementation of appropriate and effective interventions within the Greek healthcare system for ASD-siblings.
Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction. Considering the impact and potential ramifications of cognitive dysfunction, it is important that cognition is routinely assessed in PwMS. Thus, it is also important to identify a screener that is accurate and sensitive to MS-related cognitive difficulties, which can inform decisions for more resource-intensive neuropsychological testing. However, research focused on available self-report screeners has been mixed, such as with the Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ). This study aims to clarify the relationship between subjective and objective assessment of cognitive functioning in MS by examining domain-specific performance and intraindividual variability (IIV).
87 PwMS (F = 65, M = 22) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery which included self- and informant-report measures of neurocognitive functioning. Scores were examined in relation to mean performance on five domains of cognitive functioning and two measures of IIV.
The MSNQ-Self was inversely associated with executive function, verbal memory, and visual memory; it was not associated with IIV. The MSNQ-Informant was inversely associated with executive function and verbal memory, and positively associated with one measure of IIV. The MSNQ-Self showed a correlation of moderate effect size with depression (r = .39) while the MSNQ-Informant did not.
Results suggest that the MSNQ-Self and MSNQ-Informant show similar utility. Our findings also suggest that domains of executive function and memory may be most salient, thus more reflected in subjective reports of cognitive functioning. Future work should further examine the impact of mood disturbance with cognitive performance and IIV.
This chapter reviews the methods that psychologists have devised for measuring wisdom. There are two classical types of measures: self-report scales, where people rate themselves with respect to characteristics of wisdom, and performance measures, where people respond to descriptions of problems that require wisdom. Both types of measures have their problems. Self-report wisdom scales are susceptible to both unintentional distortions, if participants have inaccurate views of themselves, and intentional distortions, if participants want to present themselves as wiser than they are. Performance measures require a lot of effort for administration and scoring, and they measure what participants theoretically think about a problem, which is not necessarily what they would do if they were faced with that problem in real life. New approaches have tried to move the measurement of wisdom closer to real life. Some researchers ask people about difficult events from their own life. Other researchers use videos instead of real-life conflicts and written problem descriptions. There is still a lot of room for improvement of our wisdom measures.
This study used multiple assessment methods to examine instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) performance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) compared to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively healthy older adults (HOA). Associations between functional performance and cognition were also examined.
Eighteen individuals with PD-MCI, 48 individuals with MCI, and 66 HOAs were assessed with multiple IADL measures, including direct observation, a performance-based measure, and self- and informant-report questionnaires. Performance on the direct-observation measure was further characterized by coding for four error types: omissions, substitutions, and inefficient and irrelevant/off-task actions.
Both the PD-MCI and MCI groups performed more poorly on the overall score for all IADL measures relative to HOAs. Although the PD-MCI and MCI groups did not differ in overall performance, on the direct-observation measure, the PD-MCI group took longer and made more inefficient and irrelevant/off-task errors relative to the HOA and MCI groups, whereas the MCI group made more omission and substitution errors relative to HOAs. Further, the pattern of cognitive correlates that associated most strongly with the functional measures varied across groups and functional assessment methods.
Compared to HOAs, PD-MCI and MCI groups demonstrated increased difficulties performing everyday activities, and cognitive and motor abilities differentially contributed to the everyday task difficulties of these two groups.
Memory symptoms and objective impairment are common in HIV disease and are associated with disability. A paradoxical issue is that objective episodic memory failures can interfere with accurate recall of memory symptoms. The present study assessed whether responses on a self-report scale of memory symptoms demonstrate measurement invariance in persons with and without objective HIV-associated memory impairment.
In total, 505 persons with HIV completed the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Objective memory impairment (n = 141) was determined using a 1-SD cutoff on clinical tests of episodic memory. PRMQ measurement invariance was assessed by confirmatory factor analyses examining a one-factor model with increasing cross-group equality constraints imposed on factor loadings and item thresholds (i.e., configural, weak, and strong invariance).
Configural model fit indicated that identical items measured a one-factor model for both groups. Comparison to the weak model indicated that factor loadings were equivalent across groups. However, there was evidence of partial strong invariance, with two PRMQ item thresholds differing across memory impairment groups. Post hoc analyses using a 1.5-SD memory impairment cutoff (n = 77) revealed both partial weak and partial strong invariance, such that PRMQ item loadings differed across memory groups for three items.
The PRMQ demonstrated a robust factor structure among persons with and without objective HIV-associated memory impairment. However, on select PRMQ items, individuals with memory impairment reported observed scores that were relatively higher than their latent score, while items were more strongly associated with the memory factor in a group with greater memory impairment.
Concerns have been raised about the utility of self-report assessments in predicting future suicide attempts. Clinicians in pediatric emergency departments (EDs) often are required to assess suicidal risk. The Death Implicit Association Test (IAT) is an alternative to self-report assessment of suicidal risk that may have utility in ED settings.
A total of 1679 adolescents recruited from 13 pediatric emergency rooms in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network were assessed using a self-report survey of risk and protective factors for a suicide attempt, and the IAT, and then followed up 3 months later to determine if an attempt had occurred. The accuracy of prediction was compared between self-reports and the IAT using the area under the curve (AUC) with respect to receiver operator characteristics.
A few self-report variables, namely, current and past suicide ideation, past suicidal behavior, total negative life events, and school or social connectedness, predicted an attempt at 3 months with an AUC of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–0.90] in the entire sample, and AUC = 0.91, (95% CI 0.85–0.95) for those who presented without reported suicidal ideation. The IAT did not add significantly to the predictive power of selected self-report variables. The IAT alone was modestly predictive of 3-month attempts in the overall sample ((AUC = 0.59, 95% CI 0.52–0.65) and was a better predictor in patients who were non-suicidal at baseline (AUC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.55–0.79).
In pediatric EDs, a small set of self-reported items predicted suicide attempts within 3 months more accurately than did the IAT.
We examined parent- and adolescent-reported executive functioning (EF) behaviors following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the context of Online Family Problem-Solving Therapy (OFPST) and moderators of change in EF behaviors.
In total, 274 families were randomized to OFPST or an internet resource comparison group. Parents and adolescents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function at four time points. Mixed models were used to examine EF behaviors, assessing the effects of visit, treatment group, rater, TBI severity, age, socioeconomic status, and family functioning.
Parents rated their adolescents’ EF as poorer (F(3,1156) = 220.15, p < .001; M = 58.11, SE = 0.73) than adolescents rated themselves (M = 51.81, SE = 0.73). Across raters, EF behaviors were poorer for adolescents whose parents had less education (F(3,1156) = 8.60, p = .003; M = 56.76, SE = 0.98) than for those with more education (M = 53.16, SE = 0.88). Age at baseline interacted with visit (F(3,1156) = 5.05, p = .002), such that families of older adolescents reported improvement in EF behaviors over time. Family functioning also interacted with visit (F(3, 1156) = 2.61, p = .049), indicating more improvement in EF behaviors over time in higher functioning families. There were no effects of treatment or TBI severity.
We identified a discrepancy between parent- and adolescent-reported EF, suggesting reduced awareness of deficits in adolescents with TBI. We also found that poorer family functioning and younger age were associated with poorer recovery after TBI, whereas adolescents of parents with less education were reported as having greater EF deficits across time points.
People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) and healthy controls (HCs) were evaluated on cognitive variability indices and we examined the relationship between fatigue and cognitive variability between these groups. Intraindividual variability (IIV) on a neuropsychological test battery was hypothesized to mediate the group differences expected in fatigue.
Fifty-nine PwMS and 51 HCs completed a psychosocial interview and battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires during a 1-day visit. Fatigue in this study was measured with the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), a self-report multidimensional measure of fatigue. IIV was operationalized using two different measures, a maximum discrepancy score (MDS) and intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), in two cognitive domains, memory and attention/processing speed. Two mediation analyses with group (PwMS or HCs) as the independent variable, variability composite (memory or attention/processing speed) measures as the mediators, total residual fatigue (after accounting for age) as the outcome, and depression as a covariate were conducted. The Baron and Kenny approach to testing mediation and the PROCESS macro for testing the strength of the indirect effect were used.
Results of a mediation analysis using 5000 bootstrap samples indicated that IIV in domains of both attention/processing speed and memory significantly mediated the effect of patient status on total residual fatigue.
IIV is an objective performance measure that is related to differences in fatigue impact between PwMS and HCs. PwMS experience more variability across tests of attention/processing speed and memory and this experience of variable performance may increase the impact of fatigue.
Self-report screening instruments are frequently used as scalable methods to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but their validity across cultural and linguistic groups is unclear. We summarized the diagnostic accuracy of brief questionnaires on symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Arabic-speaking adults.
Five databases were searched from inception to 22 January 2021 (PROSPERO: CRD42018070645). Studies were included when diagnostic accuracy of brief (maximally 25 items) psychological questionnaires was assessed in Arabic-speaking populations and the reference standard was a clinical interview. Data on sensitivity/specificity, area under the curve, and data to generate 2 × 2 tables at various thresholds were extracted. Meta-analysis was performed using the diagmeta package in R. Quality of studies was assessed with QUADAS-2.
Thirty-two studies (Nparticipants = 4042) reporting on 17 questionnaires with 5–25 items targeting depression/anxiety (n = 14), general distress (n = 2), and PTSD (n = 1) were included. Seventeen studies (53%) scored high risk on at least two QUADAS-2 domains. The meta-analysis identified an optimal threshold of 11 (sensitivity 76.9%, specificity 85.1%) for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (nstudies = 7, nparticipants = 711), 7 (sensitivity 81.9%, specificity 87.6%) for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety subscale and 6 (sensitivity 73.0%, specificity 88.6%) for the depression subscale (nstudies = 4, nparticipants = 492), and 8 (sensitivity 86.0%, specificity 83.9%) for the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) (nstudies = 4, nparticipants = 459).
We present optimal thresholds to screen for perinatal depression with the EPDS, anxiety/depression with the HADS, and CMDs with the SRQ-20. More research on Arabic-language questionnaires, especially those targeting PTSD, is needed.
Errors inherent in self-reported measures of energy intake (EI) are substantial and well documented, but correlates of misreporting remain unclear. Therefore, potential predictors of misreporting were examined. In Study One, fifty-nine individuals (BMI = 26·1 (sd 3·8) kg/m2, age = 42·7 (sd 13·6) years, females = 29) completed a 14-d stay in a residential feeding behaviour suite where eating behaviour was continuously monitored. In Study Two, 182 individuals (BMI = 25·7 (sd 3·9) kg/m2, age = 42·4 (sd 12·2) years, females = 96) completed two consecutive days in a residential feeding suite and five consecutive days at home. Misreporting was directly quantified by comparing covertly measured laboratory weighed intakes (LWI) with self-reported EI (weighed dietary record (WDR), 24-h recall, 7-d diet history, FFQ). Personal (age, sex and %body fat) and psychological traits (personality, social desirability, body image, intelligence quotient and eating behaviour) were used as predictors of misreporting. In Study One, those with lower psychoticism (P = 0·009), openness to experience (P = 0·006) and higher agreeableness (P = 0·038) reduced EI on days participants knew EI was being measured to a greater extent than on covert days. Isolated associations existed between personality traits (psychoticism and openness to experience), eating behaviour (emotional eating) and differences between the LWI and self-reported EI, but these were inconsistent between dietary assessment techniques and typically became non-significant after accounting for multiplicity of comparisons. In Study Two, sex was associated with differences between LWI and the WDR (P = 0·009), 24-h recall (P = 0·002) and diet history (P = 0·050) in the laboratory, but not home environment. Personal and psychological correlates of misreporting identified displayed no clear pattern across studies or dietary assessment techniques and had little utility in predicting misreporting.
In the political domain, disgust is primarily portrayed as an emotion that explains individual differences in pathogen avoidance. We hypothesized that political rhetoric accusing opponents of moral transgressions also elicits disgust responses. In this registered report, we present the results from a laboratory experiment. We find that participants self-report higher disgust and have stronger physiological (Levator labii) responses to pictures of out-party leaders compared with in-party leaders. Participants also report higher disgust in response to moral violations of in-party leaders. There is more suggestive evidence that in-party leaders evoke more labii activity when they commit moral violations than when out-party leaders do. The impact of individual differences in moral disgust and partisanship strength is very limited to absent. Intriguingly, on average, the physiological and self-reported disgust responses to the treatment are similar, but individuals differ in whether their response is physiological or cognitive. This motivates further theorizing regarding the concordance of emotional responses.
Self-reported measures for body mass index (BMI) are considered a limitation in research design, especially when they are a primary outcome. Studies have found some populations to be quite accurate when self-reporting BMI; however, there is mixed research on the accuracy of self-reported measurements in adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine the accuracy of self-reported BMI by comparing it with measured BMI in a sample of U.S. adolescents and to understand gender differences. This cross-sectional study collected self-reported height and weight measurements of students from five high schools in four states (Tennessee, South Dakota, Kansas and Florida). Trained researchers took height and weight of students for an objective measurement. BMI was calculated from both sources and categorized (underweight, normal, overweight and obese) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI-for-age percentiles. Participants (n 425; 51⋅0 % female) had a mean age of 16⋅3 years old, and the majority were White (47⋅5 %). Limits of agreement (LOA) analysis revealed that BMI and weight were underreported, and height was overreported in the overall sample, in females, and in males. LOA analysis was fair for BMI in all three groups. Overall agreement in BMI categorisation was considered substantial (Κ 0⋅71, P < 0⋅001). As BMI increased, more height and weight inaccuracies led to decreased accuracy in BMI categorisation, and the specificity of obese participants was low (50⋅0 %). This study's findings suggest that using self-reported values to categorize BMI is more accurate than using continuous BMI values when self-reported measures are used in health-related interventions.
Efficient and organized assessment of addiction is essential for research, treatment planning, and referral to specialized services. The goal of this chapter is to provide basic concepts and examples of formalized assessment for substance and nonsubstance (behavioral) addictions including: alcohol and other drug use, food/eating, gambling, exercise, sex/love, and internet use. Measures of reliability and validity are discussed for each measure presented and include examples of self-report measures, interviews, screening instruments and diagnostic tools. The chapter also relates assessment measures to the criteria for diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where appropriate. Current gaps in research on the conceptualization and operationalization of addiction are discussed in relation to the development, testing and effectiveness of assessment tools for substance and behavioral addictions.
Diagnosing personality disorders according to structured expert interviews is time-consuming and costly. For epidemiological studies, self-report instruments have several advantages. The DSM-IV and ICD-10 personality questionnaire (DIP-Q) is a selfreport questionnaire constructed to identify personality disorder according to DSM-IV and ICD-10.
The DIP-Q is validated vs a structured expert interview in a clinical sample of 138 individuals. In addition, prevalence rates yielded by DIP-Q among 136 healthy volunteers are assessed and compared to expected prevalence.
For DSM-IV the agreement for any personality disorder as measured by Cohen's Kappa was 0.61 and 0.56 for ICD-10. Overall sensitivity for any personality disorder was for DSM-IV 0.84 and for ICD-10 0.85. However, specificity was lower: 0.77 and 0.70, respectively. When dimensional scores between self-report and interview for each personality disorder were compared, the intraclass correlation for the DSMIV entities was 0.37–0.87 and for the ICD-10 entities 0.33–0.73. Among healthy volunteers the base rate of personality disorders was found to be 14%.
DIP-Q can be used as a screening instrument for personality disorders according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. Self-report questionnaires such as DIP-Q will probably play an increasingly important role in future epidemiological studies.
Asking psychiatric in-patients about their drug consumption is unlikely to yield reliable results, particularly where alcohol and illicit drug use is involved. The main aim of this study was to compare spontaneous self-reports of drug use in hospitalized psychiatric patients to biological measures of same. A secondary aim was to determine which personal factors were associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs as indicated by these biological measures.
The consumption of substances was investigated using biological measures (urine cotinine, cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines and barbiturates; blood carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [CDT] and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) in 486 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients, one day following their hospitalization. Patients’ self-reports of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs consumption were recorded. Socio-professional and familial data were also recorded.
The results show a low correlation between biological measures and self-reported consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Fifty-two percent of the patients under-reported their consumption of illicit drugs (kappa = .47). Patients with schizophrenia and personality disorders were more likely to disclose their illicit drug consumption relative to patients suffering from mood disorders and alcohol dependence. Fifty-six percent of patients underreported alcohol use, as evaluated by CDT (kappa = .2), and 37% underreported when using the CDT + GGT measure as an indicator. Smoking appeared to be reported adequately. In the study we observed a strong negative correlation between cannabis use and age, a strong correlation between tobacco and cannabis use, and correlations between tobacco, cannabis and alcohol consumption.
This study is the first to compare self-reports and biological measures of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug uses in a large sample of inpatients suffering from various categories of psychiatric illnesses, allowing for cross-diagnosis comparisons.
In schizophrenia, perceptual inundation related to sensory gating deficit can be evaluated “off-line” with the sensory gating inventory (SGI) and “on-line” during listening tests. However, no study investigated the relation between “off-line evaluation” and “on-line evaluation”. The present study investigates this relationship.
A sound corpus of 36 realistic environmental auditory scenes was obtained from a 3D immersive synthesizer. Twenty schizophrenic patients and twenty healthy subjects completed the SGI and evaluated the feeling of “inundation” from 1 (“null”) to 5 (“maximum”) for each auditory scene. Sensory gating deficit was evaluated in half of each population group with P50 suppression electrophysiological measure.
Evaluation of inundation during sound listening was significantly higher in schizophrenia (3.25) compared to the control group (2.40, P < .001). The evaluation of inundation during the listening test correlated significantly with the perceptual modulation (n = 20, rho = .52, P = .029) and the over-inclusion dimensions (n = 20, rho = .59, P = .01) of the SGI in schizophrenic patients and with the P50 suppression for the entire group of controls and patients who performed ERP recordings (n = 20, rho = −.49, P = .027).
An evaluation of the external validity of the SGI was obtained through listening tests. The ability to control acoustic parameters of each of the realistic immersive environmental auditory scenes might in future research make it possible to identify acoustic triggers related to perceptual inundation in schizophrenia.
Survey and interview methods form the basis of a vast amount of the literature in clinical psychology. After all, the easiest way to infer and measure a psychological state is often to ask the person to report it directly. The chapter discusses the pros and cons of the survey/interview methods and highlights those questions for which they are well-suited, as well as those for which they are not. Although falling under the same broad umbrella, survey and interview methods are further differentiated and suggestions made as to how a researcher might choose among them. Finally, recommend are made of best practices for instrument development and a series of decision points in creating a measure within these formats are outlined.
The way that people internalize adverse experiences plays an important role in the development of psychopathology. The Pathogenic Belief Scale (PBS) is intended to operationalize a transtheoretical understanding of repetitive patterns of emotion-laden beliefs that develop in childhood and continue to influence people's current experience. Using a cross-sectional survey design, we recruited a large heterogeneous sample of 246 clinic outpatients and 732 adults in the community. Besides the PBS, measures of adverse parenting experiences and common psychopathology were administered. An exploratory factor analysis of the total sample of 978 participants was conducted followed by a convergent validity analysis for the 246 clinic outpatients. The three-factor solution included “cannot rely on others,” “undeserving,” and “interpersonal guilt,” and it showed good psychometric properties, including convergent validity with the measures of adverse parenting experiences and psychopathology. The 34-item PBS offers a promising self-report measure that could help delineate and understand the pathogenic beliefs that heterogeneous samples of patients may hold. Pathogenic beliefs may be relevant to the psychotherapy process, regardless of model or theoretical context.
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a 344-item self-administered questionnaire that assesses a variety of psychopathology and personality domains. The PAI consists of twenty-two non-overlapping scales, including four validity scales, eleven clinical scales, five treatment scales, and two interpersonal scales. Ten of the scales are further organized into subscales intended to assure breadth of coverage within diagnostic constructs. PAI scale and subscale raw scores are linearly transformed to T-scores (mean of 50, standard deviation of 10) to provide interpretation relative to a community standardization sample. Each item on the PAI is rated using a four-alternative scale, ranging from False, Not at all True (F), to Very True (VT). The PAI has practical applications across a variety of assessment specialties, including diagnostic decision-making, treatment planning, forensic evaluation, and personnel selection.