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The current study examined whether self-reported memory problems among cognitively intact older adults changed concurrently with, preceded, or followed depressive symptoms over time.
Data were collected annually via in-person comprehensive medical and neuropsychological examinations as part of the Einstein Aging Study.
Community-dwelling older adults in an urban, multi-ethnic area of New York City were interviewed.
The current study included a total of 1,162 older adults (Mage = 77.65, SD = 5.03, 63.39% female; 74.12% White). Data were utilized from up to 11 annual waves per participant.
Multilevel modeling tested concurrent and lagged associations between three types of memory self-report (frequency of memory problems, perceived one-year decline, and perceived ten-year decline) and depressive symptoms.
Results showed that self-reported frequency of memory problems covaried with depressive symptoms only in participants who were older at baseline. Changes in perceived one-year and ten-year memory decline were related to changes in depressive symptoms across all ages. Depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of perceived ten-year memory decline the next year; however, perceived ten-year memory decline did not predict future depressive symptoms. Additionally, no significant temporal relationship was observed between depressive symptoms and self-reported frequency of memory problems or perceived one-year memory decline.
Our findings highlight the importance of testing the unique associations of different types of self-reported memory problems with depressive symptoms.
The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q) is a validated questionnaire tool for collecting self-reported proficiency and experience data from bilingual and multilingual speakers ages 14 to 80. It is available in over 20 languages, and can be administered in a digital, paper-and-pencil, and oral interview format. The LEAP-Q is used by researchers across various disciplines (Psychology, Neuroscience, Linguistics, Education, Communication Sciences & Disorders, etc.) to provide a comprehensive description of their bilingual participants, to substantiate a division of bilinguals into groups (e.g., early vs. late bilinguals), and to screen participants for adequate or threshold levels of language proficiency. Best practices for using the LEAP-Q include administration of the full questionnaire, consideration of acquisition and history of language use together with self-ratings of proficiency, and supplementation of self-reported data with objective language measures whenever possible. The LEAP-Q can be downloaded at no cost at https://bilingualism.northwestern.edu/leapq/.
Much bilingualism research includes some consideration of codeswitching, which may be measured via self-report, an experimental task, or sociolinguistic interview; however, there is little triangulation across measures in either psycholinguistic or sociolinguistic approaches. To consider possible differences between self-report and oral production of codeswitching, Spanish–English bilinguals completed a codeswitching questionnaire and oral production in an autobiographical memory task. They also completed proficiency and executive function tests. We found that broad measures of self-reported and orally produced codeswitches were positively correlated, although relationships with proficiency and executive function were more complex. These findings may direct future studies’ operationalization of codeswitching.
Trait impulsivity is thought to play a key role in predicting behaviors on the externalizing spectrum, such as drug and alcohol use and aggression. Research suggests that impulsivity may not be a unitary construct, but rather multidimensional in nature with dimensions varying across self-report assessments and laboratory behavioral tasks. Few studies with large samples have included a range of impulsivity-related measures and assessed several externalizing behaviors to clarify the predictive validity of these assessments on important life outcomes.
Community adults (N = 1295) between the ages of 30 and 54 completed a multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related traits (including 54 self-report scales of personality traits implicated in impulsive behaviors, and four behavioral tasks purporting to assess a construct similar to impulsivity) and reported on five externalizing behavioral outcomes (i.e. drug, alcohol, and cigarette use, and physical and verbal aggression). We ran an exploratory factor analysis on the trait scales, and then a structural equation model predicting the externalizing behaviors from the three higher-order personality factors (i.e. Disinhibition v. Constraint/Conscientiousness, Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality) and the four behavioral tasks.
Relations between the self-report factors and behavioral tasks were small or nonexistent. Associations between the self-report factors and the externalizing outcomes were generally medium to large, but relationships between the behavioral tasks and externalizing outcomes were either nonexistent or small.
These results partially replicate and extend recent meta-analytic findings reported by Sharma et al. (2014) to further clarify the predictive validity of impulsivity-related trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks on externalizing behaviors.
Objectives: Although subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) are an integral component of the diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), previous findings indicate they may not accurately reflect cognitive ability. Within the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we investigated longitudinal change in the discrepancy between self- and informant-reported SCC across empirically derived subtypes of MCI and normal control (NC) participants. Methods: Data were obtained for 353 MCI participants and 122 “robust” NC participants. Participants were classified into three subtypes at baseline via cluster analysis: amnestic MCI, mixed MCI, and cluster-derived normal (CDN), a presumptive false-positive group who performed within normal limits on neuropsychological testing. SCC at baseline and two annual follow-up visits were assessed via the Everyday Cognition Questionnaire (ECog), and discrepancy scores between self- and informant-report were calculated. Analysis of change was conducted using analysis of covariance. Results: The amnestic and mixed MCI subtypes demonstrated increasing ECog discrepancy scores over time. This was driven by an increase in informant-reported SCC, which corresponded to participants’ objective cognitive decline, despite stable self-reported SCC. Increasing unawareness was associated with cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer’s disease biomarker positivity and progression to Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, CDN and NC groups over-reported cognitive difficulty and demonstrated normal cognition at all time points. Conclusions: MCI participants’ discrepancy scores indicate progressive underappreciation of their evolving cognitive deficits. Consistent over-reporting in the CDN and NC groups despite normal objective cognition suggests that self-reported SCC do not predict impending cognitive decline. Results demonstrate that self-reported SCC become increasingly misleading as objective cognitive impairment becomes more pronounced. (JINS, 2018, 24, 842–853)
Objectives: A rich body of literature has established the role of body image distortion and dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. However, many of the currently used techniques require explicit comparison of the person’s body to an external stimulus. As the body schema is a largely unconscious construct, explicit comparison tasks may reflect a proxy, rather than the body schema itself. Methods: Here we use an implicit mental motor imagery (MMI) task to interrogate the body schema in healthy control participants (N=40) and participants at a residential eating disorder treatment center (N=42). By comparing the time it takes to imagine making a movement along a part of the body to the time it takes to actually make the same movement, we were able to assess participants’ mental image of their body (i.e., body schema). Results: We found that participants with eating disorders, but not healthy controls, exhibited distortions of the body schema such that they believed their abdomen, buttocks, and thighs to be larger than they really are. Additionally, the MMI task used here provided information above and beyond traditional self-report measures (i.e., Body Shape Questionnaire). Together the MMI task and traditional measures provide the most information. Conclusions: Findings using the novel MMI task are in line with the literature; participants with eating disorders consider themselves to be larger than they truly are. Taken together, results of this study suggest that MMI tasks provide complementary information to traditional self-report measures. (JINS, 2018, 22, 000–000)
Introduction: Introduction: A variety of pain assessment tools exist for children, however none of the current scales were created specifically for family use. Further, none provide direct guidance with regards to pain treatment threshold. This study aimed to validate a novel, three faced, coloured coded (red, yellow, green), family-friendly pain tool, the Stoplight Pain Scale, by comparing it to the widely accepted and validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). This novel tool has the capability to guide families with regards to treatment, as well as measure pain. Methods: Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the Stollery Childrens Hospital emergency department (ED) (Edmonton, Alberta) from November, 2014 to February, 2017. Demographic information was collected, and patients (3-12 years) and their caregivers were asked to rate their pain using the novel Stoplight Pain Scale as well as the FPS-R. Pain was measured at presentation to the ED, immediately following painful procedures, and thirty minutes after analgesia administration. Patients and their caregivers also indicated their preferred scale for assessing pain. Results: Results: A purposeful random sample of 227 patients were included for analyses; 61/227 (26.9%) of patients were 3-5 years old and 166/227 (73.1%)were 6-12 years old. 53/227 (23.3%) of patients had been previously hospitalized. Correlation between the two pain scales was consistently fair to moderate; using Kappa Statistics, a baseline correlation for Stoplight and FPS-R was fair for both caregivers (0.38, 95% CI 0.28 0.48) and patients (0.36 95% CI 0.27-0.45). The Stoplight Pain Scale had fair to moderate correlation between caregiver and patient scores, (0.37, 95% CI 0.27-0.47), compared to FPS-R which showed poor to fair agreement between caregiver and child scores (0.20, 95% CI 0.12-0.29). Regardless of age or hospitalization status, 64% of patients (139/218) and 54% caregivers (118/220) preferred the Stoplight Pain scale (p=0.001). Conclusion: Conclusions: The Stoplight Pain Scale correlates moderately well with FPS-R, a validated pain assessment tool for children and shows good correlation between patients and caregivers assessment of reported pain. The Stoplight Pain Scale is a simple, easy to administer tool that may have a role in empowering family involvement in ED pain management. Future research should focus on at-home study of the tool.
The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and different versions of the Padua Inventory (PI) are frequently used instruments to measure symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known of how these different versions of the PI compare to each other in their sensitivity to measuring treatment outcome, and there is currently no adequate explanation to account for the weak relationships between self-report measures and the Y-BOCS. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of these measures to treatment outcome, and to examine whether differences in how they measure symptom severity can explain the weak relationships. Hypotheses were: (1) the Y-BOCS would be significantly more sensitive to measuring treatment outcome than the PI versions; (2) correlations between the measures would be significantly stronger for change scores as compared to relations measured at a single point in time; (3) weak relationships can be explained by the PI measuring symptom severity based on content and the Y-BOCS measuring symptoms, independent of content. Results showed that the Y-BOCS was significantly more sensitive to measuring treatment outcome than the PI versions, while differences between the questionnaires in which severity is measured can provide a partial account for why weak relations are observed between these measures.
Depressive patients can present with complex and different symptom patterns in clinical care. Of these, some may report patterns that are inconsistent with typical patterns of depressive symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of person-fit statistics to identify inconsistent symptom reports and to assess the clinical usefulness of providing clinicians with person-fit score feedback during depression assessment.
Inconsistent symptom reports on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR) were investigated quantitatively with person-fit statistics for both intake and follow-up measurements in the Groningen University Center of Psychiatry (n = 2036). Subsequently, to investigate the causes and clinical usefulness of on-the-fly person-fit alerts, qualitative follow-up assessments were conducted with three psychiatrists about 20 of their patients that were randomly selected.
Inconsistent symptom reports at intake (12.3%) were predominantly characterized by reporting of severe symptoms (e.g. psychomotor slowing) without mild symptoms (e.g. irritability). Person-fit scores at intake and follow-up were positively correlated (r = 0.45). Qualitative interviews with psychiatrists resulted in an explanation for the inconsistent response behavior (e.g. complex comorbidity, somatic complaints, and neurological abnormalities) for 19 of 20 patients. Psychiatrists indicated that if provided directly after the assessment, a person-fit alert would have led to new insights in 60%, and be reason for discussion with the patient in 75% of the cases.
Providing clinicians with automated feedback when inconsistent symptom reports occur is informative and can be used to support clinical decision-making.
Objectives: We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. Methods: This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Baseline assessment included neuropsychological testing and self-reported depression, anxiety, and neuroticism, as well as self- and informant-reported cognitive decline (relative to 10 years previously). Intensive within-person measurement occasions included subjective ratings of cognitive function paired with performance on a computerized working memory (n-back) task; each participant attended four or five assessments separated by intervals of at least one day. Statistical analysis was comprised of multilevel linear regression. Results: Comparison of models suggested that both neuroticism and self-rated cognitive decline explained unique variance in the within-person, across-occasion coupling of subjective cognitive function with objective working memory performance. Conclusions: Self-ratings of cognition may accurately reflect day-to-day variations in objective cognitive performance among older adults, especially for individuals lower in neuroticism and higher in self-reported cognitive decline. Clinicians should consider these individual differences when determining the validity of complaints about perceived cognitive declines in the context of otherwise healthy aging. (JINS, 2018, 24, 57–66)
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal trajectory of self- and informant-subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), and to determine if SCC predict longitudinal changes in objective measures (OM) of cognitive function. Methods: The study included healthy and cognitively normal late middle-aged adults enriched with a family history of AD who were evaluated at up to three visits over a 4-year period. At each visit (Visit 1–3), self- and informant-SCC and OM were evaluated. Linear mixed models were used to determine if the longitudinal rate of change of self- and informant-SCC were associated with demographic variables, depressive symptoms, family history (FH), and apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE4) status. The same modeling approach was used to examine the effect of Visit 1 SCC on longitudinal cognitive change after controlling for the same variables. Results: At Visit 1, more self-SCC were associated with fewer years of education and more depressive symptoms. SCC were also associated with poorer performance on cognitive measures, such that more self-SCC at Visit 1 were associated with poorer performance on memory and executive functioning measures at Visit 1, while more informant-SCC were associated with faster rate of longitudinal decline on a measure of episodic learning and memory. FH and APOE4 status were not associated with SCC. Discussion: Self- and informant-SCC showed an association with OM, albeit over different time frames in our late middle-aged sample. Additional longitudinal follow-up will likely assist in further clarifying these relationships as our sample ages and more pronounced cognitive changes eventually emerge. (JINS, 2017, 23, 617–626)
Depression is one of the most worrying diseases nowadays. The study had three main purposes: 1) to identify the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in 7–10 year olds, exploring differences according to gender and age; 2) to analyze the consistency between self-reports and teacher reports; and 3) to explore the relationship between depression and academic performance. Regarding the methodology, the sample comprised 420 students aged between 7 and 10 years from the Basque Country (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls). With a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were used. Results from the self-reports showed a depression rate fluctuating between 4.6% and 4.8% (clinically significant), and between 4.3% and 5% (moderate depression). However, prevalence rates from teacher reports varied between 0.2% and 3.6% (clinically significant) and between 4.6% and 7.7% (moderate depression). The consistency rate between self-reports and teacher reports was small. Differences according to gender varied depending on the instruments used and depression was higher in boys (BASC, d = .23; SPECI d = .36). Symptomatology did not increase with age. Depression correlated negatively with academic performance (self-reported depression: CDS-T r = –.12, SPECI r = –.17; depression reported by teachers: CDS-T r = –.24, SPECI r = –.50). The importance of training teachers to better identify child depression is discussed, as well as the relevance of developing prevention programs.
During the past two decades, a number of studies have found that depressed patients frequently have manic symptoms intermixed with depressive symptoms. While the frequency of mixed syndromes are more common in bipolar than in unipolar depressives, mixed states are also common in patients with major depressive disorder. The admixture of symptoms may be evident when depressed patients present for treatment, or they may emerge during ongoing treatment. In some patients, treatment with antidepressant medication might precipitate the emergence of mixed states. It would therefore be useful to systematically inquire into the presence of manic/hypomanic symptoms in depressed patients. We can anticipate that increased attention will likely be given to mixed depression because of changes in the DSM–5. In the present article, I review instruments that have been utilized to assess the presence and severity of manic symptoms and therefore could be potentially used to identify the DSM–5 mixed-features specifier in depressed patients and to evaluate the course and outcome of treatment. In choosing which measure to use, clinicians and researchers should consider whether the measure assesses both depression and mania/hypomania, assesses all or only some of the DSM–5 criteria for the mixed-features specifier, or assesses manic/hypomanic symptoms that are not part of the DSM–5 definition. Feasibility, more so than reliability and validity, will likely determine whether these measures are incorporated into routine clinical practice.
Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We aimed to investigate the association between self-reported lifestyle factors and subsequent survival in 347 Danish twin pairs aged 70 years and older and, additionally, to investigate the reliability of these self-reports. The twins were interviewed in 2003 and followed for mortality until 2015. They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa values for the inter-twin agreement on who ate the most were 0.16 to 0.34 in different life stages, and for physical activity 0.19 to 0.26, corresponding to a slight-to-fair agreement. Approximately, 50% of the twin pairs were not in agreement regarding physical activity, and of these twins 75% (95% CI: 67–82%) considered themselves the most active twin. These findings indicate a still-existing tendency of answering according to social norms, even in a twin study designed to minimize this.
Many adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain undiagnosed. Specialist assessment clinics enable the detection of these cases, but such services are often overstretched. It has been proposed that unnecessary referrals to these services could be reduced by prioritizing individuals who score highly on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report questionnaire measure of autistic traits. However, the ability of the AQ to predict who will go on to receive a diagnosis of ASD in adults is unclear.
We studied 476 adults, seen consecutively at a national ASD diagnostic referral service for suspected ASD. We tested AQ scores as predictors of ASD diagnosis made by expert clinicians according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria, informed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) assessments.
Of the participants, 73% received a clinical diagnosis of ASD. Self-report AQ scores did not significantly predict receipt of a diagnosis. While AQ scores provided high sensitivity of 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–0.82] and positive predictive value of 0.76 (95% CI 0.70–0.80), the specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.20–0.38) and negative predictive value of 0.36 (95% CI 0.22–0.40) were low. Thus, 64% of those who scored below the AQ cut-off were ‘false negatives’ who did in fact have ASD. Co-morbidity data revealed that generalized anxiety disorder may ‘mimic’ ASD and inflate AQ scores, leading to false positives.
The AQ's utility for screening referrals was limited in this sample. Recommendations supporting the AQ's role in the assessment of adult ASD, e.g. UK NICE guidelines, may need to be reconsidered.
Measurement error in self-reported total sugars intake may obscure associations between sugars consumption and health outcomes, and the sum of 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake.
The Study of Latinos: Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS) was an ancillary study to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) cohort. Doubly labelled water and 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were used as biomarkers of energy and sugars intake, respectively. Participants’ diets were assessed by up to three 24 h recalls (88 % had two or more recalls). Procedures were repeated approximately 6 months after the initial visit among a subset of ninety-six participants.
Four centres (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) across the USA.
Men and women (n 477) aged 18–74 years.
The geometric mean of total sugars was 167·5 (95 % CI 154·4, 181·7) g/d for the biomarker-predicted and 90·6 (95 % CI 87·6, 93·6) g/d for the self-reported total sugars intake. Self-reported total sugars intake was not correlated with biomarker-predicted sugars intake (r=−0·06, P=0·20, n 450). Among the reliability sample (n 90), the reproducibility coefficient was 0·59 for biomarker-predicted and 0·20 for self-reported total sugars intake.
Possible explanations for the lack of association between biomarker-predicted and self-reported sugars intake include measurement error in self-reported diet, high intra-individual variability in sugars intake, and/or urinary sucrose and fructose may not be a suitable proxy for total sugars intake in this study population.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs frequently during child and early adulthood, and is associated with negative outcomes including increased risk of drug abuse, mental health disorders and criminal offending. Identification of previous TBI for at-risk populations in clinical settings often relies on self-report, despite little information regarding self-report accuracy. This study examines the accuracy of adult self-report of hospitalized TBI events and the factors that enhance recall.
The Christchurch Health and Development Study is a birth cohort of 1265 children born in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1977. A history of TBI events was prospectively gathered at each follow-up (yearly intervals 0–16, 18, 21, 25 years) using parental/self-report, verified using hospital records.
At 25 years, 1003 cohort members were available, with 59/101 of all hospitalized TBI events being recalled. Recall varied depending on the age at injury and injury severity, with 10/11 of moderate/severe TBI being recalled. Logistic regression analysis indicated that a model using recorded loss of consciousness, age at injury, and injury severity, could accurately classify whether or not TBI would be reported in over 74% of cases.
This research demonstrates that, even when individuals are carefully cued, many instances of TBI will not recalled in adulthood despite the injury having required a period of hospitalization. Therefore, screening for TBI may require a combination of self-report and review of hospital files to ensure that all cases are identified. (JINS, 2016, 22, 717–723)
The aims of the present study were to provide nationally representative data on fruit and vegetable consumption in Vietnam, and to assess the accuracy of the reported numbers of ‘standard servings’ consumed. Data analysed were from a multi-stage stratified cluster survey of 14 706 participants (46·5 % males, response proportion 64·1 %) aged 25−64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS) protocols. Approximately 80 % of Vietnamese people reported having less than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily in a typical week. Fruit and vegetable intake reported in ‘standard serving’ sizes was positively correlated with levels of education completed and household income (P<0·001 for trend). The correlations between summary values for each province reflect some known demographic, geographical and climatic characteristics of the country. For example, provinces at higher latitude had higher mean servings of vegetables (r 0·90), and provinces with higher proportions of urban population had higher mean servings of fruit (r 0·40). In conclusion, about eight in ten Vietnamese people aged 25–64 years did not meet WHO recommendations for daily consumption of at least five servings of fruit and vegetables. On the basis of the consistency of the data collected with other estimates and with physical and demographic characteristics of the country, the WHO STEPS instrument has construct validity for measuring fruit and vegetable intake, but with two issues identified. The issues were seasonal variation in reporting and a limitation on the usefulness of the information for associative analyses.
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Burns Anxiety Inventory (Burns-A: Burns, 1993). The sample consisted of 417 participants, 387 (29.71% male) healthy participants (control group: M = 35.5 years; SD = 8.40) and 30 (36.66% female) patients (clinical group: M = 35.8 years; SD = 12.94). The internal consistency evaluated through Cronbach’ Alpha was 0.95 for the Total Score in both subsamples. The test-retest reliability (two weeks) for Total Score was 0.86 (F = 13.2, p ≤ .001) for the non-clinical subsample, and 0.95 (F = 36.5, p ≤ .001) for the clinical subsample. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the initial three-factor model. However, modifications to the initial three-factor model improved the goodness-of-fit indices. Results showed statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the Burns-A between the clinical and control groups. This study supports the Spanish version of the Burns-A as a brief and useful tool for the screening of anxiety symptoms in adult populations. Future studies should investigate measurement invariance across cultures.
The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) is the most widely used self-report measure of adolescent attachment relationships. This study reports the development of the IPPA-45, a short-form of the IPPA that assesses the quality of mother, father, and peer attachment relationships. A hierarchical measurement model is proposed with three lower-order factors and a higher-order factor. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using a sample of 1,025 English-speaking adolescents (387 males) aged 13 to 18 years. Results support the hierarchical factor structure, and tests of model invariance demonstrated that the measurement models were similar regardless of age or sex. Differences in mean scores were found with regard to attachment target, gender and age. Overall, the IPPA-45 is supported as a psychometrically sound measure of relationship attachment across the age-range of adolescence.