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By June 1964, Unficyp had done much to contain military action and prevent a recurrence of open fighting. In addition to its traditional military functions, which were meant to deter a resumption of hostilities, it had also performed non-traditional roles: helping to restore public services, including the courts, and assisting trade and commerce by reopening factories and enabling agricultural work to continue. Moreover, it escorted the transportation of food, essential material, and people on the island’s roads, constructed shelters at refugee camps and reduced fortifications across Cyprus. In spite of this good work, however, its presence had not yet stopped communal violence between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, nor had it made any progress towards disarming civilians.
Introduction: Inter-disciplinary interaction in the Emergency Department (ED) is critical for good patient care. The perception of paramedics’ experience in this interaction is not well described in the literature. This project gives voice to paramedics’ understanding of their role in the ED. Methods: Qualitative thematic framework analysis of digitally recorded, semi-structured, telephone interviews of 11 paramedics from one urban and one rural Paramedic Service in southwestern Ontario. Recordings and field notes were repeatedly reviewed and discussed by two researchers. A conceptual framework was constructed from themes emerging from the data. Results: Paramedics interviewed had 7-33 years of primary, advanced, or critical care experience. Three major themes emerged. (1) Patient advocate – Paramedics present the patient pre-hospital context and course of care information. They feel this information is essential and must be communicated. (2) Communication – Concerns raised that information is not listened to and valuable information is lost or ignored. A formal 30-second ‘pause’ for a structured paramedic to ED staff handover was seen as beneficial. Paramedics also want clinical feedback and outcome information from ED staff. No formal mechanism exists to obtain this. (3) Respect – When it exists, it is often based upon personal relationships between individuals. Paramedics feel when ED staff don't understand their scope of practice, their skills and abilities are ignored. In smaller EDs, paramedics also see themselves as a resource to help the ED staff with technical procedures. They need respect to do this. Conclusion: Paramedics’ perceive themselves as providing valuable information and advocacy for their patients in the Emergency Department. In order to present this information, they require uninterrupted time, as short as 30-seconds, for communication. Their relationship with the ED staff is further strengthened by mutual respect and understanding of each discipline's scope of practice and interdisciplinary teamwork. Paramedics would like more feedback on clinical outcomes and on their pre-hospital care. Some areas for practice change suggested by this study include: time for un-interrupted communication of pre-hospital information, formal feedback, and reflection on how to improve interdisciplinary interactions.
Meaning and Purpose (MaP) therapy aims to enhance meaning-based coping through a life review that focuses on the value and worth of the person, key relationships, sources of fulfillment, roles, and future priorities in living life out fully. We sought to test the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session model of MaP therapy against a wait-list control cohort in a pilot study seeking effect sizes on measures of adaptation.
We randomized patients with advanced cancer to MaP therapy or wait-list control, with measures administered at baseline and after 6–8 weeks. Wait-list patients could then crossover to receive therapy, with further measures collected postintervention. Adherence to the manualized model was sustained through weekly supervision and fidelity coding of recorded sessions. We used generalized estimating equations to control for baseline and any correlation of data.
From 134 eligible participants, 57 (43%) consented, and 40 of 45 (89%) offered therapy completed 6 sessions. Key barriers to consenting patients were poor health (15 refusers and 4 withdrawals) and death intervened in 6 participants. MaP therapy generated adequate effect sizes in posttraumatic growth (new possibilities, appreciation of life, and personal strength) and life attitudes (choices and goal seeking) to permit calculation of power for a formal randomized, controlled trial.
Significance of results
Delivery of this model of existentially oriented therapy is feasible and acceptable to patients. A properly powered randomized controlled trial is justified to examine the efficacy of this intervention.
To identify education priorities for practice nursing across eight London Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs); to identify the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses in undertaking current and future roles.
The education needs of practice nurses have long been recognised but their employment status means that accessing education requires the support of their GP employer. This study scopes the educational requirements of the practice nurse workforce and working with educational providers and commissioners describes a coherent educational pathway for practice nurses.
A survey of practice nurses to scope their educational attainment needs was undertaken. Focus groups were carried out which identified the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses to fulfil current and future roles.
A total of 272 respondents completed the survey. Practice nurses took part in three focus groups (n=34) and one workshop (n=39). Findings from this research indicate a practice nurse workforce which lacked career progression, role autonomy or a coherent educational framework. Practice nurses recognised the strength of their role in building relationship-centred care with patients over an extended period of time. They valued this aspect of their role and would welcome opportunities to develop this to benefit patients.
This paper demonstrates an appetite for more advanced education among practice nurses, a leadership role by the CCGs in working across the whole system to address the education needs of practice nurses, and a willingness on the part of National Health Service education commissioners to commission education which meets the education needs of the practice nurse workforce. Evidence is still required, however, to inform the scope of the practice nurse role within an integrated system of care and to identify the impact of practice nursing on improving health outcomes and care of local populations.
This study aims to examine team goal orientation composition regarding the different roles of a leader’s and team members’ collective goal orientation, and the effects of these on team outcomes. Data included 268 respondents from 64 teams. Results showed team members’ learning goal orientation has positive effect on team performance, mediated by team efficacy. Further, for the role of team leader, the results also revealed the same pattern. Study also showed a leader’s performance goal orientation has negatively related on team performance, mediated by team efficacy. Finally, taking both roles simultaneously, study indicated the interaction between a leader’s and members’ performance goal orientation has negatively related to team efficacy, and the interaction between a leader’s and members’ learning goal orientation has negatively related to team performance. This research contributes to the existing goal orientation theory by taking the different roles of team leader and members into consideration.
Zinc (Zn) is an important nutrient in poultry and its deficiency has been linked with various disorders, in addition to depressed growth and performance. It is now recognised that Zn has a major role in antioxidation, growth and development, production, immunity and stress related issues. Supplementation of Zn can improve growth, augment immunity, enhance antioxidant capacity, increase endocrine secretion and interact with other minerals in the gut. In this review, some of the basic information regarding the importance and activity of Zn within the body and the addition of Zn in poultry diets is discussed.
The aim of this study was to explore the factors affecting role development in practice nursing in the United Kingdom.
General practice is currently central to National Health Service reform, producing favourable conditions for the practice nurse role to be further strengthened and developed. However, the literature has continued to describe evidence that practice nurses are a disempowered, isolated group with many constraints reducing their ability to respond to opportunities to develop their role. The rationale for conducting the study was therefore to provide a greater understanding about the constraining factors and their influence on practice nurses wishing to develop their role.
The method used to conduct the research followed a case approach, as the subject being investigated was complex with multiple inter-related factors and the approach was exploratory. The cases comprised six UK general practices and the participants within each case were a practice nurse, a GP and a practice manager.
A combination of factors was found to contribute to the way the practice nurse role evolves. These are education, practice culture, practice nurse personal characteristics and empowerment. Empowerment holds the key to maximising the conditions favourable to practice nurse role evolution. This is not, however, a ‘single’ factor; it represents the combined synergistic effects of practice culture and practice nurse personal characteristics on creating an empowering environment. The inter-relationship between these was captured in a framework and given the title ‘empowering employment principles’.
The ‘empowering employment principles’ illustrate the features most conducive to role evolution, thus providing a tool for practice nurses and their employers to enhance opportunities for nurses to develop their role.
Retirees' encounter with time has long interested social scientists, especially the negotiation of such an open-ended status. Pursuing theoretical suggestions that daily activities anchor a narrative of self-identity, this project examined the coherence of retirees' representations of their time use. Information is drawn from interviews with 30 retirees in the Midwestern United States of America who were invited to discuss their daily lives and activities. The retirees valued time sovereignty and accounted for their time use by describing schedules of activities in some detail. Daily time was not presented as improvised but rather as structured into routines. Recurring behaviours flowed from situations and structures in which people were implicated, such as body care and living with others. Even in replies to a specific question about the preceding day, people slipped into language about what they typically do. Retirees' ready narratives about routines were also accounts of who they are not. Our findings suggest, first, that daily routines are instrumental for retirees in economising thought and behaviour. Second, the assertion of a routine is an assurance that one's life is ordered and proceeds with purpose, thus solving the task of time. Third, routines can be a means to signal conformity with ideals of active ageing.
An earthquake and tsunami hit the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. Nurses were actively involved in the health response to this disaster and, subsequently, many authors have reported on the role nurses played in these efforts in Japanese nursing professional journals.
To describe the role of nurses who assisted in the 2011 Great East Earthquake of Japan by reviewing Japanese literature and reporting the findings in English.
This research used an integrative literature review methodology. Manuscripts were obtained from the Japanese database Ichushi Ver. 5 (Japan Medical Abstracts Society, Tokyo, Japan). A total of 44 manuscripts were identified and included in a thematic analysis.
Three main themes were identified: (1) nursing roles, (2) specialized nursing roles, and (3) preparedness education. Nurses fulfilled different roles in the period after the disaster (ie, as a clinician, a communicator, a leader, and a provider of psychosocial support). Additionally, the specialized nurse role was identified, along with the need for preparedness education to support the nurse's role in a disaster.
The understanding of the role of nurses in disasters is expanding. There is a need to further explore the roles of specialized nurses in disasters. Further disaster education opportunities should be available as a part of continuing education for all nurses. Radiation aspects of disaster assistance should be included in disaster education programs where there are radio-nuclear hazards present in the environment.
KakoM, RanseJ, YamamotoA, ArbonP. What Was the Role of Nurses During the 2011 Great East Earthquake of Japan? An Integrative Review of the Japanese Literature. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-5.