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The common-sense model of self-regulation delineates cognitive and emotional processes influencing motivations to engage in adaptive behaviors. Originally developed to account for reactions to health-related threats, the common-sense model also holds utility for interventions to change behavior in other domains involving threats to performance and well-being. This chapter provides an overview of the common-sense model and how specific mechanisms such as threat representations, emotion regulation processes, imagery processes, and appraisal processes influence behaviors. The chapter reviews research on approaches for eliciting behavior change through psychoeducational approaches, communication skills training for practitioners, communications arousing worry and fear, training in emotion regulation skills, action planning, and appraisal skills. Specific behavior change strategies (e.g., fear arousal, action planning, self-monitoring) have been tested extensively, although studies testing interventions specifically guided by the common-sense model and targeting multiple model components remain limited. The chapter concludes with considerations of future directions for intervention developments and research on applying the model to promote adaptive behaviors in multiple life domains.
Mental imagery is defined as the mental representation of future events, actions, or tasks. Imagery techniques have been frequently used as means to change behavior. Numerous strategies have been used including guided imagery, mental simulations, and functional imagery training. Several theories explain how mental imagery may change behavior, including social cognitive, emotion regulation, and elaboration intrusion theories. Key mediators of imagery interventions include self-efficacy and outcome expectancies, emotion regulation, cue accessibility, and desires and intrusive thoughts. Imagery interventions are effective in changing behavior, typically with small-to-medium effect sizes. Imagery interventions are more effective in older populations, when detailed instructions are provided, and if they are longer in duration. Practitioners considering using imagery to change behavior should consider (1) imagery intervention content and format; (2) selection of the appropriate target audience; (3) identification of means to promote imagery intervention effectiveness; (4) identification of training and skills required for the type of imagery; (5) the appropriate dose of imagery; (6) inclusion of methods to evaluate imagery intervention fidelity; and (7) means to evaluate the efficacy and theory-based processes of imagery interventions. More high-quality experimental and intervention research evaluating imagery techniques on behavior change in diverse behaviors, contexts, and populations is required.
This chapter discusses alternative policy approaches that may be pertinent to digital platform markets at large. It evaluates the strengths and limits of ex ante regulation, franchise bidding, public ownership, and competition policy enforcement, and highlights critical institional constraints that set the limits of desirable policy approaches in digital industries. This chapter suggests in particular the neeed to support ex post enforcement with complementary forms of ex ante intervention.
This chapter provides an overview of economic and behavioral economic approaches to behavior change. The chapter begins with a description of the traditional or neoclassical economic view of decision-making using expected utility theory as its basis. Attempts by an external party (e.g., a government or agency) to change behavior are viewed as justifiable in a limited number of circumstances, such as when there are externalities or coordination failures. When behavior change is warranted, neoclassical economics has focused on four options: provide information, increase incentives, reduce prices, or increase subsidies, or impose regulations. To be successful, the approach must change the net benefits of the promoted behavior. The chapter then describes the rationale behind behavioral economic approaches to behavior change, emphasizing the role that “nudges” play in behavior change. Examples are provided of common heuristics and associated decision errors that can result, and how nudges are designed to overcome these decision errors. The underlying rationale and steps for developing nudges are summarized. Current evidence suggests that some nudges can be effective in changing behavior, but more research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of many nudge strategies. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the likely long-term impact of nudges in the field of behavior change.
To what extent does inadequate market regulation contribute to poor health outcomes? A series of prominent scandals involving harmful medical devices has made improving the regulation of these devices an urgent problem for the European Union (EU). This is, however, a specific example of a general phenomenon. The EU remains first and foremost a large and integrated market within which the EU institutions have considerable regulatory authority. Even if there is little EU commitment to a health or social policy agenda, its use of that regulatory authority shapes health care cost and quality and should be understood as health policy. We use data from EU-level and national policy documents to analyse the EU's current regulatory framework for medical devices and assess its likely future efficacy. Despite revising the medical devices directive to require more stringent pre-authorization requirements for high-risk medical devices and improvements in post-market surveillance, the key underlying problems of market fragmentation and patient safety persist. Without strong and consistent support for the implementation of the new directive, the likely result is the status quo, with significant consequences for health in Europe.
We review basic science research on neural mechanisms underlying emotional processing in individuals of differing socioeconomic status (SES). We summarise SES differences in response to positive and negative stimuli in limbic and cortical regions associated with emotion and emotion regulation. We discuss the possible relevance of neuroscience to understanding the link between mental health and SES. We hope to provide insights into future neuroscience research on the etiology and pathophysiology of mental disorders relating to SES.
The effect of working memory training (WM-T) has been found to transfer to emotional wellbeing, despite some debate on whether an affective component in training is necessary to achieve specific emotion-related benefits. These novel cognitive trainings have not yet been tested in highly anxious individuals, who have deficits in implicit and explicit emotional regulation and should be the potential beneficiaries of these trainings.
We designed two types of mobile phone-based training applications: (1) WMT and (2) an emotional working memory training (EWM-T) that comprised negative face distraction. Ninety-eight participants (33, WM-T; 35, EWM-T; 30, Control group) with high trait anxiety completed the 21-day intervention or placebo program and conducted pre- and post-test procedures, including questionnaires, emotional regulation and emotional Stroop tasks alongside electroencephalogram recording. Late positive potential (LPP) in emotion regulation task and P3 in the emotional Stroop task were adopted as neutral indicators for the explicit and implicit affective regulation/control processing.
Those who had received training (WM-T and EWM-T) showed enhanced explicit regulation (indexed by reduced LPP during reappraisal) compared with the control. Besides, individuals in EWM-T showed reduced behavioral attention bias and a decline of P3 in response to negative faces in an emotional Stroop task. The altered neural indicators were correlated with corresponding behavior indexes that contributed to the anxiety alleviation.
The general WM-T was effective in enhancing explicit emotional regulation, while training with emotional add-in further improved implicit emotional control. (E)WM-T shows potential as a beneficial intervention for the anxiety population.
The impact of a manipulative art therapy technique combined with an attuned therapeutic relationship which aims to replicate the experience of nurturing touch in infancy is explored in this paper. The current literature will be reviewed in relation to the interface between attachment-related trauma and the use of expressive art and play therapy in the context of relevant clinical experience. Specific experiences of clinical practice with children and associated therapeutic outcomes are used to illustrate the potential of this combination. In addition, we argue for further investigation of therapeutic benefits inherent in manipulative art and play in replication of the regulating role of touch with children who have experienced early relational trauma.
While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis currently yields modest outcomes and must be improved. Attachment imagery may be an effective means of reducing severity of paranoid beliefs and associated affect. Experimental studies have demonstrated these effects in non-clinical groups. The impact in clinical populations remains untested.
This study assessed the impact of a brief attachment imagery task on paranoia and mood, in two people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Two single case studies are presented. Both participants were working age adults with persecutory delusions. The study utilised an A-B-A design. Participants were recruited for a 6-week period, with a 2- and 3-week baseline respectively, 1-week intervention phase, and follow-up phase matched to duration of baseline. Trait paranoia and attachment were measured at the start of the baseline. State paranoia and affect were measured daily over the 6-week period.
For both participants, the baseline phase was characterised by high and variable levels of paranoia, which reduced during the intervention phase, with a return to baseline scores at follow-up. We found a similar pattern for negative affect, and the reverse pattern for positive affect.
Attachment imagery may function as an effective emotion regulation strategy for people with psychosis. Continued use is likely to be needed to maintain gains. This brief task could prove valuable to people needing skills to manage paranoia and mood, and give clinicians confidence that people can manage short-term distress in CBT for psychosis, for example when addressing past trauma.
This chapter explains the need for AI legal neutrality and discusses its benefits and limitations. It then provides an overview of its application in tax, tort, intellectual property, and criminal law. Law is vitally important to the development of AI, and AI will have a transformative effect on the law given that many legal rules are based on standards of human behavior that will be automated. As AI increasingly steps into the shoes of people, it will need to be treated more like a person, and more importantly, sometimes people will need to be treated more like AI.
This chapter defines artificial intelligence and discusses its history and evolution, explains the differences between major types of AI (symbolic/classical and connectionist), and describes AI’s most recent advances, applications, and impact. It also weighs in on the question of whether AI can “think,” noting that the question is less relevant to regulatory efforts, which should focus on promoting behaviors that improve social outcomes.
This paper maps key regulatory, governance and legal challenges associated with the UK's withdrawal from the European Union (EU) in terms of convergent and divergent pressures within the global pharmaceutical sector. These include (i) convergent regulatory pressures associated with the European framework for pre-market licensing; (ii) convergent and divergent industry pressures with regard to drug discovery and manufacturing; and (iii) divergent and convergent market pressures associated with the supply, pricing and assessment of medicines. The UK's sovereign ambitions risk a loss of influence over the licensing and surveillance of pharmaceuticals under convergent regulatory and industry pressures to engage in unilateral participation in the European regime. Further, they also risk a loss of influence over processes for pricing and assessing the effectiveness of new treatment regimens under divergent market pressures from larger pharmaceutical markets outside the EU, notably the United States.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has regulated drinking water since the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Congress directed it to achieve three conflicting goals: (i) establish stringent nationwide standards, (ii) ensure that these standards are both technologically and economically feasible, and (iii) accommodate significant differences in cost among water systems of different sizes with different water sources. USEPA chose to emphasize goal (i) at the expense of (ii) and (iii). In 1986, Congress intensified its preference for (i), was silent concerning goal (ii), and criticized USEPA for failing to achieve goal (iii). In lieu of economic feasibility, the Agency substituted “affordability,” defined as expenditures up to 2.5 % of national median household income irrespective of the benefits. This imposed deadweight losses, and substantial inequities on rural areas, low-income communities, and low-income households generally. In 1996, Congress directed USEPA to use benefit-cost analysis positively and normatively. Regulations issued since 1996 do not appear to comply, however. A review of post-1996 drinking water standards indicates that most were certified by USEPA as having benefits that justified costs, but these determinations were unsupported by the Agency’s own regulatory impact analyses. This article proposes that USEPA define by regulation that “economic feasibility” means marginal benefits exceed marginal costs for the smallest water system subject to SDWA, and that all future drinking water standards must be economically feasible. Economic efficiency would be greatly enhanced and the pervasive inequities of “affordability” greatly diminished. Unlike “affordability,” this definition is objective and compatible with lay intuition about the meaning of key regulatory terms.
While the International Debt Crisis of the early 1980s was the most severe financial crisis since World War II and while national and international banking supervision was developing at that time, little is known about the response of supervisors to the deteriorating financial environment in the years preceding the crisis. Complementing the political and business history of the international debt situation, this article aims to unravel the international banking supervision side of the question. Based on archival material from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and various central banks, the article examines how the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), then emerging as the leading forum on international banking supervision, anticipated the International Debt Crisis through the prism of ‘country risk’. The article shows that the Committee refused to recommend strict regulations in this area. It argues that members adopted this position because of the lack of good information and the difficult position of banking supervision between macroeconomic issues and individual banks’ own responsibilities, but also because of somewhat excessive faith in market mechanisms. Their discussions on country risk shed light on critical challenges of banking supervision and, thereby, on the history of banking regulation and prudential thinking.
Fat metabolism is an important and complex biochemical reaction in vivo and is regulated by many factors. Recently, the findings on high expression of fibroblast growth factor-16 (FGF16) in brown adipose tissue have led to an interest in exploring its role in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The study cloned the goat’s FGF16 gene 624 bp long, including the complete open reading frame that encodes 207 amino acids. We found that FGF16 expression is highest in goat kidneys and hearts, followed by subcutaneous fat and triceps. Moreover, the expression of FGF16 reached its peak on the 2nd day of adipocyte differentiation (P < 0.01) and then decreased significantly. We used overexpression and interference to study the function of FGF16 gene in goat intramuscular preadipocytes. Silencing of FGF16 decreased adipocytes lipid droplet aggregation and triglyceride synthesis. This is in contrast to the situation where FGF16 is overexpressed. Furthermore, knockdown of FGF16 also caused down-regulated expression of genes associated with adipocyte differentiation including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (P < 0.01), fatty acid-binding protein-2 (P < 0.01) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (P < 0.05), but the preadipocyte factor-1 was up-regulated. At the same time, the genes adipose triglyceride lipase (P < 0.01) and hormone-sensitive lipase (P < 0.05) associated with triglyceride breakdown were highly expressed. Next, we locked the fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) through the protein interaction network and interfering with FGF16 to significantly reduce FGFR4 expression. It was found that the expression profile of FGFR4 in adipocyte differentiation was highly similar to that of FGF16. Overexpression and interference methods confirmed that FGFR4 and FGF16 have the same promoting function in adipocyte differentiation. Finally, using co-transfection technology, pc-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4, siRNA2-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4 were combined to treat adipocytes separately. It was found that in the case of overexpression of FGF16, cell lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with increasing interference concentration. In the case of interference with FGF16, lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a downward trend with the increase of interference concentration. These findings illustrated that FGF16 mediates adipocyte differentiation via receptor FGFR4 expression and contributed to further study of the functional role of FGF16 in goat fat formation.
Autocrats typically seek public support on the basis of economic growth-promotion and redistribution policies, and China is no exception. As important as these factors are for authoritarian resilience, we argue that economic legitimation is a more complex phenomenon than has previously been acknowledged. Beyond improvements in material well-being, citizens form judgements about the state's effectiveness in carrying out a variety of economic roles beyond growth promotion and they also care about the fairness of these market interventions. In this study, we use original survey data collected in late 2015 and early 2016 to evaluate Chinese citizens’ perceptions of two economic roles of the state that have been hotly debated in recent years: state ownership and market regulation. We find that while citizens view the ideas of state ownership and interventionist regulation in a generally positive light, suggesting a broad level of agreement in Chinese society about what economic functions the state ought to perform, perceptions of how the state actually carries out these roles are more mixed. Our results show that the urban young are especially inclined to critical evaluations, raising the question of how the Chinese Communist Party's legitimation strategy will fare under conditions of inter-generational value change.
Chapter 5 brings the reader to the far north to examine the importance of self-determination for Inuit in trading disputes on seals and seal products. Michael Fakhri and Madeleine Redfern focus on how the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization used trade law to construct an Indigenous exemption including a European-imposed determination of Indigenous identity for the purpose of trade in a manner that limits Inuit political and economic options and works against their rights. This chapter emphasizes the importance of Indigenous people continuing to assert their sovereign power and claims for self-determination not just through international law but, more specifically, through international trade law.