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After presenting the fundamentals of Weberian-institutionalist and Gramsciian-culturalist approaches to understanding the state, this introduction suggests that it is possible to combine the two. Focusing on the unusually successful cases of state building of the “revolutionary” People’s Republic of China in Sunan and the “conservative” Republic of China in Taiwan in the early 1950s, it suggests that the “hows” of state building policy implementation are as important as the “whats.” Both regimes resorted to overlapping and shifting modalities of bureaucratic rule making and campaign mobilization, differing substantively in how these repertoires were performed and communicated to citizens at large.
Literary magazine culture of the 1880s created a rich environment for interrogating the relationship between masculinity, fiction and seriousness. Increasing diversity and eclecticism in periodicals promoted the conditions for experiment and the development of styles of self-conscious performativity, exaggeration, and irony that we might describe as ‘camp’. Reading Oscar Wilde’s essays and dialogues alongside work by Robert Louis Stevenson, James Payn, H.H. Johnston, and Andrew Lang, this chapter explores the interest of 1880s journalism in theatricality, artifice, gender inversion, and an aesthetic of pleasurably ‘failed seriousness’. It argues that the literary magazine, where – as one contemporary critic noted – ‘the style is the essay’, offers a platform for developing notions of identity as fluid performance and all literary forms as inevitable modes of pastiche. Lang’s He, a neglected parody of H. Rider Haggard’s adventure novel She, is revealed as a text that is both fascinated by contemporary debate regarding female higher education and enjoys unpicking the self-ironising and knowingly comic aspects of Haggard’s imperial quest narrative. Like so many other works of the 1880s, it uses anthropological and literary self-awareness to bring terms once associated with masculine authority into liberating play.
This chapter describes how, over the course of the fourth century, Christians took over the role that was traditionally ascribed to the pagan court philosopher, who was defined (at least in the public imagination) by his freedom of speech, disregard for wealth and social conventions, equanimity, and an uncompromising attitude towards political authority. It discusses biographies and histories from the fourth and fifth centuries AD, which recount the lives and deeds of pagan philosophers and Christian holy men. It also analyses one ceremonial speech delivered by the court philosopher Themistius to Emperor Constantius II, showing that a speech of praise could also be a vehicle for advice and criticism. The chapter focuses on the cultural construction, performance and narrative representation of two varieties of political parrhesia, to wit, ‘bold speech’ and ‘privileged access’, that were relevant to the pagan philosopher and later to the free-speaking bishop who followed in his footsteps.
This chapter investigates narrative representations of free speech in early Christian martyr acts written between c. 150 and the end of persecution in 313. It discusses both pagan and Christian models that inspired authors of early Christian martyr acts to represent the speech and behaviour of martyrs in a certain manner. One of the issues the authors addressed was how a Christian should behave when he or she stood trial before secular authorities, and what measure of frank speech was appropriate in this situation. Early Christian martyrs are often presented as respectful, polite and reticent towards authorities during interrogation. We also see a clear preference for plain speech over studied rhetoric. The chapter addresses the question of whether new interpretations of parrhesia that we find in these martyrdom narratives should be seen as indicative of a growing reluctance among Christians to criticise those in power, or as part of a process of acculturation.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing essential fatty acids (FA), during late gestation and the preweaning and early weaning periods on passive immunity, growth, health, rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, and behavior of dairy calves. During the last 3 weeks of pregnancy, cattle (n = 120), within parity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets (DD) with different fat supplements, no supplemental fat (CON), supplement rich in C18:2n-6 (CSO), or supplement rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (CFO). Eighty-four newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned, within the prepartum diets, to one of 2 calf starter (CS) diets: no fat supplement (FC-0) or 2% Ca-Salt of unsaturated FA (FC-2). Overall, the interaction between DD and CS did not affect calf performance and other measured parameters. Plasma concentrations of IgG and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption were improved (P < 0.01) in calves born from dams fed fat (n-6 or n-3) compared with those not fed fat. Calves born from cattle fed fat prepartum had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with calves born from cattle fed no fat supplement prepartum (597 vs. 558 g/d, P = 0.02). Calves fed the FC-2 CS had greater (P < 0.01) ADG, feed efficiency, and weaning weight compared with those fed the FC-0 CS. Prepartum supplementation with fat reduced rectal temperature (RT) during pre-weaning time, but calves fed FC-2 CS had lower (P ≤ 0.04) RT during pre- and postweaning periods. Calves in the FC-2 CS groups had fewer (P < 0.001) days with diarrhea. Time spent on eating, ruminating, standing, lying, and nonnutritive oral behavior exhibited no differences across treatments. Similarly, DD and CS did not affect ruminal fermentation parameters. Calves fed FC-2 CS had greater hip and wither heights (P = 0.01) during both pre- and postweaning periods. At 28 and 77 d of life, concentrations of plasma albumin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.02) were increased but, urea N decreased at the same time and alkaline phosphatase was greater only at the end of the study for calves fed FC-2. The findings suggest that moderate feeding of long-chain polyunsaturated FA during the last weeks of uterine life or during the preweaning time improve growth performance, health indices, and some blood components of calves.