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This chapter first considers the existing academic evidence that private equity-backed companies outperform their peers and then looks at standard explanations for this outperformance. It is argued that existing explanations are inadequate.
Performing a stressful task under pressure is challenging. Strategies to optimise our training must focus on learning a skill correctly, and then practising that skill deliberately to avoid compromising that performance in the cauldron of the clinical environment. This chapter discusses ways of learning and training better: the techniques are based on practical strategies employed in anaesthesia, but developed primarily from practical cognitive psychology, elite sport and the military. It involves taking a skill, practising it until it becomes a habit and over time making it part of normal behaviour. The philosophy is simple (but difficult to apply): control what you can control and always do your best. The best summary of this strategy is: learn it right, practise it right, perform it right.
Chapter 5 is concerned with the ways in which Synge’s plays engage with and interrogate the temporal disjunctions of Edwardian Ireland. It highlights the specifically performative means to which Synge has recourse and implicitly contrasts the plays with the ethnographic dimension of his prose record in The Aran Islands. The chapter explores the moments of disrupted linearity in plays such as Riders to the Sea, The Playboy of the Western World and Deirdre of the Sorrows and highlights the ways in which they give theatrical expression to the sense of temporal disjunction, which modernity fostered and which Edwardian Ireland’s colonial situation accentuated. Even though the narratives of Synge’s plays follow a linear pattern and, in that sense, appear to endorse the conception of chronology and time upheld by a dominant modernity, they also leave room for other, alternative temporalities to be explored. Through discordant bodily movements, linearity and its corollary, progress, can be questioned; alternative sequencing can be envisaged and different rhythms allowed to unfold concurrently. Now and again vignettes erupt in Synge’s plays which disrupt the linear flow of time and open up the possibility of other temporal configurations.
Chapter 6 focusses primarily on Synge’s interest in the productive potential of the counterfactual. By embracing what modernity regards as failure ‒ social outcasts, for instance ‒ or as illogical ‒ a community welcoming a man who says he killed his father ‒ Synge’s plays challenge the dominant ideas of rationality that underpin modernity’s overarching frame. By ending on the exclusion of the characters that stand for other, non-rational, non-productive modes of being and knowing and by presenting the death of the cultural formation they represent as impending, the narratives of plays such as The Well of the Saints and The Shadow of the Glen highlight the depleting effects of the suppression or annihilation of these alternate epistemologies. Contrary to such narratives, however, the performance practices that are embedded within the plays advocate for the coexistence of a diversity of modes of vision and of knowledge. Embodied behaviour, which is at the heart of the theatrical performance, functions itself as an alternative epistemology. Through the shift of epistemology which they encourage, Synge’s plays celebrate the wonderful, utopian possibilities and alternatives to a capitalist modernity that performance opens up.
Chapter 2 looks into the ethical and political issues attached to the performance of ethnicity. It relates Synge’s engagement with Ireland’s national theatre project to the larger historical and cultural context in which performances of ethnicity were given: international exhibitions, for instance. This is all the more relevant as Ireland itself was still at the time the objects of such performances. The chapter starts by considering the 1907 Dublin International Exhibition at Herbert Park as a public display of Ireland’s modernity. It then ties Synge’s adaptation to the modern stage of a ritual performance practice such as keening to his interest in the ethnographic sideshow of the Somali Village that he witnessed as he visited the Dublin International Exhibition. The chapter reads Synge’s fascination for the war-song of the Somali performers, which in a letter to Maire O’Neill he compares to 'some of the keens on Aran', as evidence of his preoccupation with the capacity of ritual performance to undermine the potentially subjugating structures within which such performance is sometimes framed, whether those structures be the stage of a national theatre or the performance space of a native village in an international exhibition.
The customary prescription for handling “problems without passports” is to work through international intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), act collectively for humanity's future, and build up specialized knowledge. But around the world, patterns from the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic defied the prescription. IGOs were blamed, narrow or short-term interests were prioritized, and divided reactions to experts were on display. International Relations (IR) scholarship helps explain why: (1) research on bureaucracy and institutional design examines the challenge of making IGOs accountable to member-states but also insulated from them; (2) research on delegation and socialization explores commonplace problems involving time-inconsistency and credible commitments; and (3) research on epistemic communities and anti-elitism describes the rationale and fears of permitting public policy to be guided by unelected experts. The initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic reflect how the world can look when it lacks resolute leadership to overcome commonplace aversions to IGOs, to broader or longer-term interests, and to experts. Yet while IR scholarship makes sense of these patterns, it does not say enough about why resolute leadership wanes, or what to do about IGO performance when it does. Answers to such questions are crucial not only for recovering from the COVID-19 crisis, but for dealing with whatever global crises lie ahead.
It was aimed to simultaneously study standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan (Trp) and lysine (Lys) for gilts. A digestibility assay was previously conducted to determine the SID amino acid in the basal diet (low levels of SID Trp and Lys). Sixty-four gilts (15.04 ± 1.44 kg) were allotted to 16 diets in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement (1.55, 1.85, 2.15 and 2.45 g/kg SID Trp and 9.72, 11.12, 12.52 and 13.92 g/kg SID Lys) with four replicates per treatment. Performance, longissimus muscle (LM), backfat thickness (BF) and blood variables were evaluated. An interaction was observed for G:F, and by response surface model, the optimum Trp level was achieved at 2.15 g/kg (0.159 g/MJ of ME). A quadratic effect of Trp was observed on body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG); the daily feed intake increased linearly as Trp increased. The optimum Trp levels of 2.25 and 2.24 g/kg were estimated for BW and ADG, respectively. The BF increased with increasing levels of Trp. There was a quadratic and linear effect of Trp and Lys, respectively, on the LM, in which the optimum Trp level was determined as 2.05 g/kg in the diet. Plasma urea nitrogen decreased as Trp and Lys levels increased. Using estimates provided by response surface, maximized G:F ratio was obtained at 2.15 g SID Trp/kg of diet and at least 13.92 g SID Lys/kg of diet is necessary to optimize the G:F for 15–30 kg gilts, providing a Trp:Lys ratio of 15.4:100.
The chapter seeks to demonstrate that Shakespeare had two rather different – though not completely unrelated – conceptions of happiness. One is the Aristotelian eudaimonistic conception, which Shakespeare understood well and to which (as with everything he touched) he gave memorable expression. He understood its relation to virtue, to ‘proper pride’, and to social status. The other conception of happiness is more distinctive, and is a conception for which, as far as I know, there is not a standard designation. It might be called (usefully, if anachronistically) the Blakean or Nietzschean conception. Yeats called it the property of being ‘self-delighting’. Eudaimonia includes this property, but in itself this property has nothing to do with any conception of moral virtue, and can – though it need not – stand in sharp contrast with such. It may, on the other hand, have some relation to Machiavellian virtù. Pleasure in performing the self is part of it. It is as strongly manifested in some outright villains as it is in some admirable characters, and it is manifested in some characters who are hard to locate on such a scale.
In this essay I consider how an early modern understanding of the passions might inform the practice and analysis of acting in the theatre today. Taking the idea of being ‘moved’ quite literally, I argue that early modern subjects were ‘moved’ when the humours moved through the body, and the body moved passionately about the world. ‘A woman moved is like a fountain troubled’, says Kate in her final, notorious speech of gendered conformity in The Taming of the Shrew, in which she describes men moving about in the world while women must stay, unmoved, at home. I argue that recent, inward, and static conceptions of the emotions tend to occlude the relationship between the emotional and the political in the theatre now. I suggest instead that rehearsal room consideration of early modern ideas about dynamic emotion/motion might recuperate the political agency and import of emotional life in the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries. In making this argument, I move between analysis of a Shakespearean comedy and a tragedy (The Taming of the Shrew and Coriolanus), considering both plays in performance and making suggestions for rehearsal practices.
Sets out the book’s critical framework and methodology. Outlines the current scholarly consensus regarding the Posthomerica and its place within imperial Greek epic. Emphasises the strong relationship between these readings and the ‘supplementary’ poetics attached to Roman, and particularly silver Latin, poetry. It then demonstrates the ways in which this book will depart from these readings. Introduces the concept of the ‘poetics of the interval’ as the key aspect of this departure: Quintus’ new formative poetics. Sets this poetics within and against various relevant traditions: pseudoepigraphia, the epic cycle, Latin literature. And sets up the political and cultural implications of this new framework: shows Quintus’ politically engaged interaction with imperial Greek performance culture, declamation and rhetoric, and other imperial Greek epic. Ends by establishing the ‘terms of engagement’: the book’s approach to key concepts such as intertextuality, allusion, postmodernism and ‘metapoetics’.
Analyses the re-animating culture of imperial Greek culture, focusing on sophistic declamations, ethopoetic exercises, ‘close encounter’ descriptions and Homeric performance. Suggests how all these spaces reveal a strong and very textually engaged awareness of the concept of ‘doubleness’ (being and not being the subject of one’s impersonation). By reading these modes alongside depictions of performance from within the Posthomerica (Nestor’s song, the song of the bards and the debate between Ajax and Odysseus) argues for the direct influence that they exerted on Quintus’ composition, providing models for how to expand creatively within the boundaries of a canonical, traditional text.
On December 10, 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Drafted by a panel of notables chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, the Declaration is framed in the language of dignity from its first sentence. Four months later, black singer, actor, and activist Paul Robeson’s invocation of dignity fatally damaged his career. Robeson asserted that the Soviet Union guaranteed the dignity of blacks. On first glance, Robeson would seem to be echoing the UN language, but in fact, Robeson had been speaking and writing about dignity continuously since his 1919 graduation speech from Rutgers. Black Americans, led by Robeson, would use the language of dignity in their petitions imploring the UN to investigate the oppression of African Americans as well as informally, in black social spaces. This chapter tracks the efforts of Robeson (himself often described as personifying dignity in his artistic performances) to advance a notion of dignity that subversively mimicked regnant liberal and Christian understandings of the concept. In doing so, he recovers a vernacular sense of dignity with a quite different provenance than the European Christian tradition – but closely connected with the instincts of African American Christians such as Robeson’s preacher father.
This chapter analyzes Native performers’ visits to London in the nineteenth century, their mobility, and their self-conscious negotiations with the modern world. It emphasizes their resistance to the stereotypes through which impresarios, audiences, and commentators sought to circumscribe them. It considers the visits made by the Ojibwe who traveled with George Catlin in the 1840s, and the performers who appeared with Buffalo Bill later in the century, among others, discussing how they pushed back against the framing narratives of “savagery” and the “vanishing Indian.” It explores in detail the two London visits made by Pauline Johnson, her social and cultural interactions, and the apparent ease with which she navigated the slippage between her Mohawk heritage and London drawing rooms and theatres at Empire’s high point. Distinctive as Johnson was, she comes at the end the end of a long line of visitors who both exploited, and destabilized, familiar cultural stereotypes.
Chapters 2 and 3 focus on Frederick Douglass’ transatlantic journey to Britain between 1845 and 1847. Douglass epitomized the successful exploitation of adaptive resistance and showed that his employment of each triad’s element simultaneously could court significant fame. He recognized the essential importance of print culture, however, and as a result altered his relationship with that triad to place it center stage. Hence, Chapter 2 discusses Douglass’ performative strategies and his relationship with print culture. He incorporated both favorable and negative reviews of his lectures into his repertoire, and courted endless debate in the press. His invocation of strategic anglophilia was balanced with a chastisement of British policy that championed liberty without actively seeking to help the enslaved in America. Unlike Roper, Douglass was a virtuoso who could balance assimilationist and dissonant language effectively. As a result, Douglass caused a furor toward slavery that was unrivaled by any other African American within a similar time period.
Chapter 5 concentrates solely on Black female transatlantic tours. Due to the gendered nature of adaptive resistance, a separate chapter is necessary to chart the ways they endured a double embodiment on the Victorian stage to campaign against slavery. I argue that Ellen Craft and Julia Jackson used different versions of adaptive resistance that were conditioned by gender as well as race. Craft used silence as a performative tool, an exploitation of antislavery networks, and even created her own communal networks that were based on racial pride. While in public she exploited her reputation as a “white slave,” in private she was outspoken and was tireless in her enthusiasm to promote abolitionist and other reformist causes. In contrast to Craft’s silent public performance, Julia Jackson lectured several times on the British stage alongside her husband, which possibly made her the first Black American woman to speak publicly about her experience as an enslaved individual. African American women were central to the Black protest tradition in Britain and maintained antislavery sentiment throughout the nineteenth century, decades after the British Empire had legally abolished slavery.
Contemporary Black activists – including those active in the #BlackLivesMatter movement – continue to protest against white supremacy and slavery’s legacies. In the conclusion to this book, I trace how Black Americans who visited Britain as a result of the Ferguson Solidarity Tour in 2015 contributed to this transatlantic tradition of protest and forged their own networks across the country to challenge racism and police brutality. Their methods of organization, protest, and awareness-raising were adapted from their historical precedents and to the contemporary world.
Opening with a programmatic glimpse at Chris Pappan’s interventional exhibition Drawing on Tradition at the Field Museum in Chicago (2017), this chapter provides an introduction to, and a historical and thematic overview of, the genre of contemporary Indigenous drama and performance in the United States and Canada. The defining features of a fascinating and expanding genre are exemplarily highlighted with reference to plays by Spiderwoman Theater, Tomson Highway, Mary Kathryn Nagle, and Bruce King, among others. Locating Native North American drama in relation to academic approaches of the past decade, the chapter takes up Yvette Nolan’s reading of Native theater as a form of medicine and particularly examines the characteristics of multilingualism and heteroglossia, as well as a diversity of media and representational modes.
During their transatlantic journeys to Britain throughout the nineteenth century, African Americans engaged in what I term “adaptive resistance,” a multifaceted interventionist strategy by which they challenged white supremacy and won support for abolition. Alongside my recovery of this mode of self-presentation in sources I have excavated from Victorian newspapers, I use an interdisciplinary methodology to (re)discover black performative strategies on the Victorian stage from the late 1830s to the mid-1890s. Performance was only one strand in the black activist arsenal, however. The successful employment of adaptive resistance relied on a triad of performance, abolitionist networks, and exploitation of print culture, and if an individual ensured an even balance between all three, it was likely their sojourn was successful.
In adopting this resistance strategy, black men and women forged a Black American protest tradition in Britain which was based on their literary, visual, and oratorical testimony. Black men and women sought to make their voices heard in a climate dominated by white supremacy; they refused to capitulate and educated thousands of people on slavery and its legacies through physically and mentally demanding tours organized across Britain.
Heroic activity, titanic struggle, visionary power and similarly exalted descriptions are familiar enough in Beethoven reception. This essay puts those aspects of the composer’s music to one side in order to examine a musical orientation that is derived from the eighteenth-century aesthetic of sociability. Focusing on the composer’s piano sonatas, the essay deals with the interplay between the traditional and the individual in Beethoven’s musical language, an interplay that reveals a versatility of thought that can appropriately be described as gracious.
This chapter focuses on performance at the crossroads of Native and non-Native cultures in early America. It considers in particular the literary depictions of those performative cultures and the literary productions that arose from them. Sacred, militaristic, political, juridical, theatrical, and communicative performances appear throughout colonial and Indigenous archives. Their presence deeply informs Native American literary history and increasingly drives the evolution of North American literary history. The chapter considers the literary record of strategic performances of Indianness whereby Native Americans claim authority over their identity within colonialism. It then considers how this knowledge should necessarily impact the content of literary anthologies and the literary surveys they serve. Attending to the performative cultures of early America makes visible the formative and persistent influence of Indigenous culture on non-Native expression. But it should not encourage a disregard for cultural distinctions or, more specifically, for the sacred.