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Drawing on narrative theory, performance studies and the history and philosophy of science, this chapter explores the distinct kinds and functions of what we might call plant narratives – the stories we tell about botanical life, but also the stories that plants tell us. Charles Darwin’s botanical studies developed various techniques to study plant behaviour and record their movements in time. These methods drew scientific observers into an experimental ‘dance’ that aligned human and plant actions in order narratively to reconstruct evolutionary histories, especially histories of exaptation. These culminated in his last study, The Power of Movement in Plants (1880), which uses extensive illustrations to record and then reconfigure these individual micro-histories as what Darwin termed the ‘life history of a plant’. Ultimately, its holistic account integrates these individual narratives and evolutionary history through a unified narrative, a conclusive Bildungsroman detailing a generic plant’s experiences over the course of its life.
Storytelling can be understood as a performative social event that instantiates a specific relationship between storyteller and audience. This relationship supports inferences of narrative causation in hearers, both locally (episode x caused episode y) and globally (repeated patterns of causation at a more abstract level). This applies to passages of performative speech in a narrative event that are non-narrative, such as description or digression. Scientific writing is often conceived as non-performative and impersonal, with causation expressed explicitly. However, I suggest in this chapter that discourse of this kind can make the task of configuring global patterns of causation more difficult. Performative narrative discourse, on the other hand, offers support for readers in the task of remodelling existing theoretical causal structures through reconceptualization. I illustrate this argument through an analysis of narrative and non-narrative performative discourse in the field of cognitive psychology.
This chapter addresses the nature of the data we use in corpus linguistics and what we believe corpus data represents. In doing so, we draw not only on Popper’s framework, but also on uses of that framework by other linguists in the Prague School, Systemic Functional Linguistics and Axiomatic Functionalism. We consider a range of issues including performance errors, repairs and learner language.
Placing peripheral intravenous catheters (“IV lines”) is a standard procedure for health care professionals in acute and emergency medicine. The study aimed to determine the learning curve and success rates in applying IV lines during a three-year paramedic training and the factors influencing successful placement.
This was a prospective and noninterventional observational study to determine the influencing factors, learning outcomes, and performance in the placement of IV lines by trainees and experienced paramedics. Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register, ID DRKS00024631.
From February 1, 2016 through December 31, 2021, a total of 3,547 peripheral venous accesses attempts were performed: 76.5% (n = 2,712) by trainees and 23.5% (n = 835) by experienced practitioners. The trainee group had one-to-three years of training and the experienced group had 11 (SD = 11) years of work experience after training (one-to-35 years). The learning or success curve in the successful placement of peripheral venous accesses was 85.2% in the first year of training, 88.5% in the second year of training, and 92.5% in the third year (and the end of training). It was then 94.3% in the fourth year (first year of being experienced). Successful insertion of peripheral venous accesses in the experienced group was up to 97.0%. The first-attempt success rate was 90.4% across the entire trainee group versus 95.9% in the experienced group (P <.0001).
Significant factors influencing successful placement of IV lines were puncture site (P = .022), catheter size (OR = 0.600; P = .002), and number of attempts (OR = 0.370; P <.001). The time of day (or night) was not influential. Work experience, patient age, or blood pressure were also not significant.
The book's Conclusion turns to a context which is seemingly unrelated to early modern drama: twenty-first-century professional football. It suggests that present-day culture's pervasive fascination with the skilled, youthful bodies of professional football players finds a corollary in early modern playwrights' and spectators' demonstrable interest in the physical skills of the boy actors who have been the subject of this book. The Conclusion recapitulates the book's central argument for the valuable physical skills boy actors developed and showcased, suggesting that an enhanced appreciation of those skills will allow us more readily to imagine their important contribution to early modern theatrical culture.
Many twentieth and twenty-first century composers have written music with rhythmic structures that must be understood through a framework distinct from even, periodic meter, which has been a salient musical feature of Western classical music for centuries. This Element's analytical system outlines structure and phrasing in sections of music without even perceptible meter. Instead of entrainment to meter, Bryan Hayslett theorizes that listeners perceive rhythm in similar ways to how they perceive the rhythm of language. With gesture as the smallest organizational grouping unit, his analytical system combines Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff's generative theory of tonal music with Bruce Hayes's metrical stress theory from linguistics. The listener perceives the shape of a gesture according to the structure of its constituents, and larger-level phrasing is perceived through the hierarchical relationship of gestures. After developing a set of rules, the author provides analyses that outline temporal structure according to perceptual prominence.
The Pursuit of Style in Early Modern Drama examines how early modern plays celebrated the power of different styles of talk to create dynamic forms of public address. Across the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, London expanded into an uncomfortably public city where everyone was a stranger to everyone else. The relentless anonymity of urban life spurred dreams of its opposite: of being a somebody rather than a nobody, of being the object of public attention rather than its subject. Drama gave life to this fantasy. Presented by strangers and to strangers, early modern plays codified different styles of talk as different forms of public sociability. Then, as now, to speak of style was to speak of a fantasy of public address. Offering fresh insight for scholars of literature and drama, Matthew Hunter reveals how this fantasy – which still holds us in its thrall – played out on the early modern stage.
Stage talk is a style that makes theater out of one’s own mastery of talk by generating a density of formal coherence in place of the messiness that ordinary conversation entails. As Erving Goffman has proposed, “[e]very transmission … is necessarily subject to ‘noise.’” In conversation, this noise manifests as interruptions, overlaps, false starts, rewinds, and other influencies. And yet we manage to filter out such static as extraneous to the conversation at hand, often with such success that we might be surprised to discover their inclusion in a transcript of what we had just experienced. Stage talk aestheticizes the idealization of form that subtends representations of speech: It purifies the noise that defines ordinary talk – interruptions, false starts, gaffes are gone – in order to impart utterance a conspicuous poetic coherence. The actor who delivers this language to audiences assembled at a playhouse constitutes the early modern period’s animating fantasy of publicness, which is the fantasy that a style of talk can turn one from a stranger into a spectacle for other strangers to imitate.
Boy Actors in Early Modern England: Skill and Stagecraft in the Theatre provides a new approach to the study of early modern boy actors, offering a historical re-appraisal of these performers' physical skills in order to reassess their wide-reaching contribution to early modern theatrical culture. Ranging across drama performed from the 1580s to the 1630s by all-boy and adult companies alike, the book argues that the exuberant physicality fostered in boy performers across the early modern repertory shaped not only their own performances, but how and why plays were written for them in the first place. Harry R. McCarthy's ground-breaking approach to boy performance draws on detailed analysis of a wide range of plays, thorough interrogation of the cultural contexts in which they were written and performed, and present-day practice-based research, offering a critical reimagining of this important and unique facet of early modern theatrical culture.
Focusing in part on the distinction between action and performance, this chapter pursues the implications of post-Kantian metaphysics for our understanding of the nature of political endeavor, properly conceived.
During military operations, soldiers are required to successfully complete numerous physical and cognitive tasks concurrently. Understanding the typical variance in research tools that may be used to provide insight into the interrelationship between physical and cognitive performance is therefore highly important. This study assessed the inter-day variability of two military-specific cognitive assessments: a Military-Specific Auditory N-Back Task (MSANT) and a Shoot-/Don’t-Shoot Task (SDST) in 28 participants. Limits of agreement ±95% confidence intervals, standard error of the mean, and smallest detectable change were calculated to quantify the typical variance in task performance. All parameters within the MSANT and SDST demonstrated no mean difference for trial visit in either the seated or walking condition, with equivalency demonstrated for the majority of comparisons. Collectively, these data provided an indication of the typical variance in MSANT and SDST performance, while demonstrating that both assessments can be used during seated and walking conditions.
Though Civil War battle reenactment is widely viewed as a set of regressive practices defined by a preoccupation with the past, African American-centered performances highlight its transformative potential in terms of offering counternarratives to dominant memories of the era and connecting the war and its legacies to the present. Traditional reenactment, as performed primarily by white men, focuses more on authenticity, masculine gunplay, and battle minutiae, which has the impact of divorcing the practice from its causes and consequences. Black reenactments focus more on the pedagogical goals of recentering visitors’ focus on slavery as the primary cause and emancipation as its most important consequence. This recovery of African American memory alters the meanings assigned to the sacred space of the battlefield and offers a critical interrogation of many of the core assumptions about contemporary Blackness, both of which further enhance the practice’s resistant potential.
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a movement condition that affects three to five students in the average primary school classroom in Australia. If left untreated, it has long-term impacts on development: physically, socially, emotionally, and cognitively. This chapter is concerned with preparing teachers working across a range of schooling levels and contexts to understand DCD, appreciate the impact it has on the development of children, and to provide assistance for gaining appropriate diagnosis and intervention. Information provided in this chapter will assist generalist teachers, generalists/specialists and physical education specialists in identifying children suspected of having movement difficulties. Strategies are provided for teachers, both in the classroom and during physical education,to modify teaching and learning environments and to respond to and support the needs of children with movement difficulties.
A considerable historiography now details the racism upon which immigration restrictions are formed. My first argument here is that disabled people were also refused entry first to the colonies in the British empire and then to Britain itself, exclusions which have often continued to be naturalised. Secondly, I argue that exclusions of disabled peoples should not just be added onto our understanding of restrictive legislation on racial grounds, but that disability and race intersected. Disability was used to justify racial exclusions, and differences of disability were often raced. Particular kinds of bodies were being constructed as ‘valuable’ to the nation. These bodies were to be white and North European, but they were also to be mentally and physically ‘fit’ and that ‘fitness’ was defined in rigid terms. The values attached to race, ability and gender were mutually constituted. Masculine bodies were to be independent, working bodies. Whether or not a deaf or disabled person could work, their body was read as dependent, incapable and as a liability. Feminine bodies were read in terms of their reproductive value. Disabled women, infantilised and desexualised were not always read as capable of reproduction. And when they were, this too had frightening potential.
The knowledge of genetic parameters of performance traits is crucial for any breeding programme in dairy animals. The present study was conducted to use a Bayesian approach for estimation of genetic parameters of production and reproduction traits in Jersey crossbred cattle. Data of Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at Eastern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute, West Bengal spread over a span of 41 years were utilized. The marginal posterior medians of heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY), total milk yield (TMY), peak yield (PY), lactation length (LL), calving interval (CI), total milk yield per day of lactation length (TMY/LL) and total milk yield per day of calving interval (TMY/CI) were 0.31 ± 0.07, 0.29 ± 0.07, 0.27 ± 0.06, 0.16 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.27 ± 0.06, respectively. Moderate heritability estimates for 305MY, TMY, PY and production efficiency traits indicate the presence of adequate additive genetic variance in these traits to respond to selection combined with better herd management. Repeatability estimates for 305MY, TMY, PY, LL, CI, TMY/LL and TMY/CI were 0.57 ± 0.08, 0.58 ± 0.08, 0.51 ± 0.07, 0.34 ± 0.06, 0.31 ± 0.06, 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. Repeatability estimates for 305MY, TMY and PY were high in the current study, suggesting the use of first lactation records for early evaluation of Jersey crossbred cattle for future selection. Genetic correlations varied from 0.21 to 0.97 and maximum genetic correlation was observed between 305MY and TMY indicating that consideration of 305MY instead of TMY in breeding programmes would suffice. Positive genetic correlations of CI with 305MY and TMY indicated the antagonistic association between production and reproduction traits.
This chapter provides an overview of how to use focus groups in order to elicit language attitudes. Focus groups allow access to the collective discourse practices of a specified group of participants and can be used as a way of eliciting more natural and spontaneous responses. However, participants may feed off each other’s ideas rather than express their own original thoughts, and certain minority opinions may be downplayed, repressed, or withheld by the participants. Nevertheless, this method can be viewed as an attempt to analyse salient social representations in a communicative conversational situation and can yield otherwise unrevealed strands of research participants’ narratives. After an exploration of the advantages and disadvantages of using focus groups to investigate language attitudes, this chapter offers an overview of key practical issues of planning and research design. The analysis of the data resulting from focus group discussions is explored, particularly from a critical sociolinguistic perspective, involving mapping/categorisation of the data, tracing the circulation of people and resources over space and time, finding meaningful connections, and making valid claims. The chapter concludes with a case study of attitudes towards Breton and Yiddish in a variety of settings.
Between 1562 and 1579, the third Mughal emperor Akbar undertook 17 pilgrimages to the Sufi shrine of Muinuddin Chishti in Ajmer in western India. This article analyses them as a form of peripatetic kingship. It studies specific actions of the emperor in and around Ajmer to show how they articulated a specific understanding of monarchy, one that derived legitimacy from the spiritual authority of Sufi masters and sacred sites. It then shows how the strategic location of the town of Ajmer allowed the young emperor to use it as a base for military expansion and political consolidation in western and central India. It also discusses how the journeys allowed Akbar to carry out vital facets of imperial governance, like exploring the realms, forging alliances with local chieftains, and creating public infrastructure. They also served as a public site for the performance of kingship and sovereignty. The final portion of the article explains how a paradigmatic shift in the conceptualisation and performance of Mughal kingship—whereby the ideal of monarchy as a product of Sufi charisma and Islamic piety made way for more universalist and millenarian ideals—brought a sudden end to the pilgrimages after 1579.
In the decades of the 1960s and 1970s, sound recording technologies—including radio and cassettes—proliferated in Afghanistan and reached transnational lengths. While the state came to dominate these technologies, it could not prevent users from circumventing its censors with alternative perspectives and discourses. This article highlights the examples of Farīda ʿUsmān Anwarī, a noted radio announcer, producer, and journalist, and Aḥmad Ẓāhir, Afghanistan's most popular musical icon to date, to showcase the ways in which the Persianate literary canon served as the medium for sounding dissent amid the changing social and political dynamics of the time. Pushing the boundaries of recorded speech created an alternative space where dissent became possible and the strategic use of mass media paved the way for transnational sonic solidarities among a diverse community of listeners across the Persian-speaking world and beyond.
Seneca's Characters addresses one of the most enduring and least theorised elements of literature: fictional character and its relationship to actual, human selfhood. Where does the boundary between character and person lie? While the characters we encounter in texts are obviously not 'real' people, they still possess person-like qualities that stimulate our attention and engagement. How is this relationship formulated in contexts of theatrical performance, where characters are set in motion by actual people, actual bodies and voices? This book addresses such questions by focusing on issues of coherence, imitation, appearance and autonomous action. It argues for the plays' sophisticated treatment of character, their acknowledgement of its purely fictional ontology alongside deep – and often dark – appreciation of its quasi-human qualities. Seneca's Characters offers a fresh perspective on the playwright's powerful tragic aesthetics that will stimulate scholars and students alike.
This chapter explores cultural practices of reenacting the past in the present. How have understandings of reenactment, embodiment, and lived experience shaped, constrained, and misdirected interpretations of people’s actions in the present that purposefully reference the past? What is the state of this scholarship? What are the principal critiques and new directions?