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Crises are socially constructed. Affected stakeholders of an organizational crisis conceive complex associations between their perceptions of the implicated company's response and about the company itself. The study moves away from a simple cause–effect view by deriving alternative configurations of these associations. This approach allows for a better understanding of how stakeholders attribute responsibility for a critical event and the resulting crisis faced by the company that caused it. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we analyze insights of 325 families affected by an environmental incident in 2018 involving Colombia's largest company. We establish a correlation between stakeholders' perceptions of crisis response timeliness and credibility. Accordingly, we expand on how perceptions affect organizational judgments. Finally, we propose that trustworthiness and reputation are antecedents to how organizational crisis response is perceived and how these antecedents affect the degree of the severity of the company crisis.
Differentiated instruction (DI) is an inclusive teaching approach that recognises and values student differences. Teachers teaching in inclusive schools practise DI to accommodate students with special educational needs and disabilities. However, no research has yet been conducted to explore teachers’ perceptions of DI in Bhutan. The purpose of this quantitative study is to explore teachers’ perceptions of DI and the differences in their perceptions based on demographic variables. Data were collected via an online survey from 185 teachers in 19 inclusive schools and were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that the majority of teachers had favourable perceptions of DI. No significant perceptual differences were found on qualifications and teaching experiences. However, special education teachers’ perceptions of DI were significantly higher than general education teachers (M = 4.14, SD = .37), (M = 3.89, SD = .41), respectively, t(183) = 4.194, p = .000, and trained teachers’ perceptions of DI were also found to be significantly higher than untrained teachers (M = 4.09, SD = .39), (M = 3.81, SD = .40), respectively, t(183) = 4.090, p = .000. The implications of the research findings are discussed with recommendations for further research in this area.
This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental and macrosystem influences on dietary behaviours among primary school children in Singapore.
A qualitative interpretive approach was used in this study. Focus group discussions guided by the socio-ecological model (sem), of which transcripts were analysed deductively using the sem and inductively using thematic analysis to identify themes at each sem level.
Two co-educational public primary schools in Singapore.
A total of 48 children (n 26 girls) took part in the semi-structured focus group discussions. Their mean age was 10·8 years (sd = 0·9, range 9–12 years), and the majority of the children were Chinese (n 36), along with some Indians (n 8) and Malays (n 4).
Children’s knowledge of healthy eating did not necessarily translate into healthy dietary practices and concern for health was a low priority. Instead, food and taste preferences were pivotal influences in their food choices. Parents had a large influence on children with regards to their accessibility to food, their attitudes and values towards food. Parental food restriction led to some children eating in secrecy. Peer influence was not frequently reported by children. Competitions in school incentivised children to consume fruits and vegetables, but reinforcements from teachers were inconsistent. The proximity of fast-food chains in the neighbourhood provided children easy access to less healthy foods. Health advertisements on social media rather than posters worked better in drawing children’s attention.
Findings highlighted important factors that should be considered in future nutrition interventions targeting children.
Owing to the anytime-anywhere-anyhow nature of mobile learning, together with the ubiquity of affordably priced mobile phones, learning has become a mobigital practice, as termed by Şad and Göktaş (2014). Consequently, language teaching/learning is gradually shifting from computer-assisted language learning to mobile-assisted language learning (MALL). In response, the current study examined the impact of MALL training on preservice and in-service EFL teachers’ perceptions and use of mobile technology (MT). For this purpose, two groups of preservice (N = 33) and in-service (N = 31) EFL teachers were randomly selected and exposed to MALL training. The pretest-posttest experimental mixed-methods design was used as a framework for collecting and analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data (using closed- and open-ended-question surveys). Quantitative results revealed that both preservice and in-service teachers had similar perceptions of MT before and after training. The only exception is that, after training, in-service teachers were more interested in MT than preservice teachers. However, both groups demonstrated an overall (and subfactor) improvement in their perceptions after MT training, except for their perceived ease of use. In-service teachers’ use also improved after training and, due to the yielded positive correlation, their perceptions were a significant predictor of use. Qualitative findings showed that in-service teachers used MT more in listening and speaking (for synchronous communication) than in reading and writing, selecting social media and translation apps as the least useful ones. Moreover, they regarded technical and digital literacy problems as the ones most challenging to the use of MT.
By 2040, the predicted global cancer burden is expected to be more than 27 million new cancer cases per year. Understanding primary health care workers’ (HCWs) perception on cancer can highlight new ways in which cancer advocacy can be increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of primary HCWs in Lautoka, Fiji, towards common cancers with focus on knowledge, risk perceptions, barriers and preventive approaches.
The study used a qualitative method approach. The study was conducted among primary HCWs at four purposively selected health centres in Lautoka Subdivision, Fiji, from 1 March 2021 to 1 April 2021. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with primary HCWs. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data, and the FGDs were audio-recorded. These audio recordings were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis.
The responses from the four FGDs with six primary HCWs in each group emerged four major themes. These themes were cancer knowledge, health professional training, barriers and challenges and awareness strategies. Primary HCWs were not fully aware about common cancers and were not confident to discuss about cancer with their patients which is an important role of primary HCWs in cancer management. This lack of knowledge was attributed to less training received in primary care setting. Barriers to accessing cancer screening included misconceptions about cancer, negative attitudes from patients, stigmatization, lack of resources at health facility and less informed health staff. Community outreach programmes, opportunistic screening, community HCWs and the concept of a cancer hub centre were awareness strategies highlighted by primary HCWs.
Lack of knowledge about common cancers among primary HCWs is a concern that is depicted well in this study. This low knowledge was attributed to lack of training on cancers received by primary HCWs. Guidelines on cancer screening and diagnosis can be developed by the health ministry to assist primary HCWs in detecting patients at pre-cancerous stage.
To identify factors influencing Black immigrant mothers’ perceptions and concerns about child weight and to compare children’s diet quality according to these perceptions and concerns.
Mothers’ perceptions and concerns about child weight were assessed with sex-specific figure rating scales and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, respectively. Participants’ weights and heights were measured and characterised using WHO references. Children’s dietary intakes were estimated using a 24-h dietary recall. Children’s diet quality was evaluated using the relative proportion of their energy intake provided by ultra-processed products, which were identified with the NOVA classification. χ2 tests, multivariate logistic regressions and t tests were performed.
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Black immigrant mothers of Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean origin (n 186) and their 6–12-year-old children.
Among mothers, 32·4 % perceived their child as having overweight while 48·4 % expressed concerns about child weight. Girls and children with overweight or obesity were significantly more likely to be perceived as having overweight by their mothers than boys and normal-weight children, respectively. Mothers of children living with obesity, but not overweight, were significantly more likely to be concerned about their child’s weight than mothers of normal-weight children. Children’s diet quality did not differ according to mothers’ perceptions and concerns.
Children’s gender and weight status were major determinants of perceptions and concerns about child weight among Black immigrant mothers. Including knowledge about mothers’ perceptions and concerns about child weight will help nutrition professionals develop interventions tailored to specific family needs within the context of their cultural backgrounds.
Sacred forests or groves are patches of forest vegetation that are traditionally protected by local communities because of their religious or cultural significance. The ecological aspects of sacred forests have been the focus of most of the scholarly discourse; little scholarship has examined how local people perceive their sacred areas. This scholarly lacuna is especially pronounced with respect to women, as the majority of sacred forests have traditionally been the domain of the men. Until recently, the sacred forests tradition in most regions endured with minimal participation of women, but with changing socio-economic and cultural conditions, sacred forests are declining. By examining women's perspectives regarding their relationship with their sacred forests, this research informs the scholarship on gender and sacred forests, and explores the role women can play in forest conservation. In 2015–2017, we conducted village meetings and in-depth interviews in four villages located in and around the Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra state, India. We found that apart from rules and taboos governing the protection of these sacred forests, taboos also revolve around the access and interaction of women with the sacred forests, with women having less control and decision-making power than men. Nevertheless, women expressed interest in continuation of the tradition of sacred forests, and the younger generation wants some of the gendered rules to change. We recommend including women in management and decision-making processes to strengthen the institution of sacred forests.
The course of the epidemics such as COVI9 -19 and SARS has taught us that the management of the epidemic depends primarily on people’s adherence to and implementation of the recommended measures.
This study aimed to determine the knowledge and opinions of individuals about COVID-19 and transmission methods, sources of information, application status about protection measures and related factors.
1444 people participated into the digital survey between March 22-April 6, 2020 for this descriptive study. For data collection, a 12-questions questionnaire consisting of questions about the sociodemographic characteristics, information sources they used about the COVID-19, their thoughts the practices to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 was conducted. Using descriptive statistics and comparison tests, individuals’ perceptions about methods of protection from Covid-19 and related variables were investigated.
The participants have had sufficient knowledge about Covid-19 and measures.They were using social media platforms, official web sites and TV news to get information about the COVID-19. The rates of believing and applying measures such as staying distant from people, washing hands, staying at home, avoiding from public transportation, using alcohol disinfectants were quite high. The women, people living in large cities, healthcare workers, regular commuters to work believed in measures more, however, their level of anxiety and seeing themselves and their environment at risk were higher.
Despite all the positive results regarding coronavirus infection and protection measures, the fact that the epidemic is spreading rapidly indicates the need for studies to continuously evaluate what has changed in the process and as time increases.
There is growing interest in conceptualizing and diagnosing frailty. Less is understood, however, about older adults’ perceptions of the term “frail”, and the implications of being classified as “frail”. The purpose of this scoping review was to map the breadth of primary studies; and describe the meaning, perceptions, and perceived implications of frailty language amongst community-dwelling older adults. Eight studies were included in the review and three core themes were identified: (1) understanding frailty as inevitable age-related decline in multiple domains, (2) perceiving frailty as a generalizing label, and (3) perceiving impacts of language on health and health care utilization. Clinical practice recommendations for health care professionals working with individuals with frailty include: (1) maintaining a holistic view of frailty that extends beyond physical function to include psychosocial and environmental constructs, (2) using person-first language, and (3) using a strengths-based approach to discuss aspects of frailty.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of training on learning disabilities (LD) on school counsellor candidates’ perceptions related to students with LD. The study group was comprised of 51 students in the Counselling and Psychological Guidance Department. The participants responded to an open-ended question: ‘Students with learning disabilities are like … Because …’. A content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data. Based on the study results, it was determined that before being trained on LD, the majority of the participants considered students with LD as problematic or never progressing. Following the training, a majority of the participants started using metaphors indicating that students with LD may progress and learn.
We investigate gender differences across multiple dimensions after 3 months of the first UK lockdown of March 2020, using an online sample of approximately 1,500 Prolific respondents’ residents in the UK. We find that women's mental health was worse than men along the four metrics we collected data on, that women were more concerned about getting and spreading the virus, and that women perceived the virus as more prevalent and lethal than men did. Women were also more likely to expect a new lockdown or virus outbreak by the end of 2020, and were more pessimistic about the contemporaneous and future state of the UK economy, as measured by their forecasted contemporaneous and future unemployment rates. We also show that between earlier in 2020 before the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic and June 2020, women had increased childcare and housework more than men. Neither the gender gaps in COVID-19-related health and economic concerns nor the gender gaps in the increase in hours of childcare and housework can be accounted for by a rich set of control variables. Instead, we find that the gender gap in mental health can be partially accounted for by the difference in COVID-19-related health concerns between men and women.
This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators of the provision of dairy and plant-based dairy alternatives (PBDA) by parents of preschool-age children, a previously unexplored area of research.
Five focus groups of parents were conducted and audio-recorded. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis.
University of Guelph, in Guelph, ON, Canada in 2019.
Thirty-two (n 19 mothers, 13 fathers) parents of preschool-age children. Most (59 %) were university or college educated.
Facilitators common to both dairy and PBDA provision included perceived nutritional benefits, such as dairy’s Ca, protein and fat content, and PBDA’s protein content, and the perception that PBDA adds variety to the diet. Facilitators unique to dairy v. PBDA provision included the taste of, familiarity with, and greater variety and accessibility of dairy products, specifically child-friendly products. A facilitator unique to PBDA v. dairy provision was ethical concerns regarding dairy farming practices. Barriers common to both dairy and PBDA provision included perceived cost, concerns regarding the environmental impact of production, and high sugar content. Barriers specific to dairy included use of antibiotics and hormones in dairy production. A barrier specific to PBDA was the use of pesticides.
Behaviour change messages targeting parents of preschoolers can emphasise the nutrition non-equivalence of dairy and some PBDA and can educate parents on sources of affordable, unsweetened dairy and PBDA.
Traumatic brain injury is recognised as a significant and pervasive health issue among offender populations. Despite this, no qualitative research exists exploring the experiences and perceptions of offenders with TBI in prison.
Qualitative interviews were conducted with male and female offenders housed in a UK prison. Interviews examined what participants felt led them to offend, experiences of incarceration, and post-release plans. Presence of TBI was assessed via the Brain Injury Screening Index. Data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis.
Both male and female prisoners primarily attributed their incarceration to drugs and alcohol use, with males also referencing more issues with aggression, while mental illness and past abuse were more commonly mentioned among females. A lack of recognition for the possible role of TBI was noted, with several males describing themselves as ‘stupid’ or prone to making ‘poor lifestyle choices’. Both groups indicated a desire to return to education or work post-release.
Despite significant rates of injury, there is a clear lack of understanding and consideration of the role of TBI in the behaviour and presentation of offenders. There is need for improved identification and education around TBI early in the criminal justice process.
The objective of this research was to investigate the factors of assessment that students undergoing authentic assessment perceived to be significant regarding their academic achievement. This project advanced past research by the authors which found that the academic achievement of seafarer students was significantly higher in a formatively implemented authentic assessment compared with a summative traditional assessment. The academic achievement (assessment scores) was based on the students’ performance in analysing information presented in a real-world context (authentic assessment) as opposed to the analysis of information presented devoid of a real-world context (traditional assessment). Using the data obtained from students undergoing the authentic assessment, this project correlated their perceptions of authenticity for factors of assessment to their scores in the associated task. Stage 1 focused on deriving the factors conceptually from the definition of the authentic assessment by the authors, based on which a perception survey questionnaire was designed. Stage 2 extracted new factors through a factor analysis conducted using the software SPSS. Both stages of investigation found that the factor of transparency of criteria was a significant predictor of the students’ academic achievement.
This article draws on qualitative data collected over a five-year period as part of a longitudinal mixed methods research project at a tertiary music institution in Australia. Forty tertiary string students consistently identified factors specific to the one-on-one instrumental teaching environment as influencing their perceptions as to the nature and causes of their playing-related discomfort pain. Student perceptions of individual teacher’s attitudes to pain and injury, experiences with regards to asking and receiving advice and the perceived influence of the first instrumental teacher are discussed using six examples. The paper concludes with several recommendations for instrumental music teachers and music institutions.
For the past 4 years, as part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) grant award number UL1TR001436, the Clinical Translational Science Institute of Southeast Wisconsin (CTSI) has used process engineering approaches to identify and understand barriers that local researchers and other stakeholders face when engaging in clinical and translational science. We describe these approaches and present preliminary results. We identified barriers from published and unpublished work at other CTSA hubs, supplemented by surveys and semi-structured interviews of CTSI faculty. We then used a multifaceted approach to organize, visualize, and analyze the barriers. We have identified 27 barriers to date. We ranked their priority for CTSI to address based on the barrier’s impact, the feasibility of intervention, and whether addressing the barrier aligned with CTSI’s institutional role. This approach provides a systematic framework to scope and address the “barriers to research problem” at CTSI institutions.
This article explores subjective perceptions of retirement in France, using original quantitative data on the customers of a not-for-profit insurance company. The sample contains individuals aged 40–84, who are either in the labour force (N = 923) or retired (N = 705). Perceptions of retirement are measured using closed questions on views of the retirement transition (these views can be positive, negative or neutral) and definitions of retirement (retirement can be interpreted as a period of freedom, boredom, greater risk of precariousness, etc.). Using a number of different social indicators, we examine whether differences in social conditions translate into heterogeneous perceptions. We also investigate whether social differences in perceptions fade away with increasing age. Both working-age individuals and retirees generally have a positive view of the retirement transition and often define retirement as a period of freedom. Perceptions of retirement are shaped by social conditions: a higher level of education and income, greater wealth, better health and stronger social involvement go hand in hand with rosier perceptions. Moreover, we uncover a strengthening of this social gradient with increasing age. Finally, perceptions are positively correlated with satisfaction in various domains, for retirees.
Frailty is increasingly used in clinical settings to describe a physiological state resulting from a combination of age-related co-morbidities. Frailty also has a strong ‘lay’ meaning that conjures a particular way of being. Recent studies have reported how frail older people perceive the term frailty, showing that frailty is often an unwanted and resisted label. While there are many scores and measures that clinicians can use to determine frailty, little has been published regarding how health-care professionals use and make sense of the term. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored how health professionals perceive frailty. Forty situated interviews were conducted with health-care professionals working in an emergency department in the English Midlands. The interview talk was analysed using discourse analysis. The findings show that the health professionals negotiate an ‘ideological dilemma’ – a tension between contradictory sets of meanings and consequences for action – based on their ‘lay’ and clinical experience of the term frailty. It is concluded that this dilemma could have a negative impact on the assessment of frailty depending on the system of assessment used.
Slavery casts a long shadow over American history; despite the cataclysmic changes of the Civil War and emancipation, the United States carried antebellum notions of slavery into its imperial expansion at the turn of the twentieth-century. African American, Chinese and other immigrant labourers were exploited in the name of domestic economic development, and overseas, local populations were made into colonial subjects of America. How did the U.S. deal with the paradox of presenting itself as a global power which abhorred slavery, while at the same time failing to deal with forced labour at home? Catherine Armstrong argues that this was done with rhetorical manoeuvres around the definition of slavery. Drawing primarily on representations of slavery in American print culture, this study charts how definitions and depictions of slavery both changed and stayed the same as the nation became a prominent actor on the world stage. In doing so, Armstrong challenges the idea that slavery is a merely historical problem, and shows its relevance in the contemporary world.
Chapter 3 focuses entirely on the reparation system at the ICC. The purpose of this chapter is to engage in an in-depth discussion of the development of reparative justice at the ICC, from theory to practice. This chapter analyzes some of the key challenges that the court is facing or will likely encounter in dealing with reparative justice within the context of international criminal prosecutions and trials. This chapter is devoted to fully engaging with the issues emerging from adding a reparative dimension in a primarily criminal process and how the criminal and civil dimension are intertwined, since reparations are dependent upon criminal conviction, and how both dimensions are reconciled in practice by the court and how they should be reconciled in the future. It also aims to provide a timely and original in-depth discussion of the first four cases dealing with reparations, which will pave the way and lay the foundation for the reparation system at the ICC for years to come. These cases are: the first case before the ICC (The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo), which established principles of reparations, and its concrete impact for the development of reparations at the court; the case of the The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga, which presented a unique set of issues, including individual reparations of a modest amount; the case of the The Prosecutor v. Al Mahdi, which presented original questions such as the concept of victims of cultural heritage; and the case of the The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba, which is close to being decided at the time of writing, and will present unique challenges for the adjudication of reparations by the ICC considering the high number of victims authorized to participate in proceedings (more than 5,000). This in-depth analysis of cases is original and precisely one of the factors that distinguishes this volume from previous books in the field. A comparison of this ground-breaking jurisprudence informs how the decisions of the court align and diverge on key issues, shed light on unique challenges the court is facing and provides room for some recommendations for future development, based on concrete experiences.