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To determine feasibility and efficacy of an Emergency Department Violence Intervention Program (EDVIP) to reduce violence related injuries in youth.
One hundred and thirty youth aged 14–24 presenting to an emergency with violence related injury were randomized in parallel to receive EDVIP for 1 year (n = 65) or a waitlist control (n = 65). The primary outcome was to determine feasibility. Secondary outcomes are incidence, number/severity of repeat violence related injury, justice and education systems interactions, substance misuse and mental health presentations, and ED length of stay (LOS).
This study established feasibility in recruitment, outcomes collection and safety. Fidelity and adherence measures required optimization during the study. Efficacy analysis of EDVIP vs. the control group demonstrates an absolute decrease of 10.4% in repeat violence related injury (13.7% vs. 24.1%) (p = 0.15), reduction in new interactions in the justice system (OR = 0.36 (0.07–1.77)), improved engagement in education (11.8% EDVIP vs. 7.6% control, p = 0.42) and no change in repeat visits for substance or mental health. LOS decreased by 59.5 min (p = 0.21).
This program is feasible for ED implementation and for completion of a future RCT to measure effectiveness.
Mental disorders in children are a significant and growing cause of morbidity worldwide. Although interventions to help overcome barriers along the pathway to accessing health care for children with mental disorders exist, there is no overview of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on these interventions as yet. This study aimed to systematically identify RCTs of interventions to improve access to mental health care for children and synthesise them using a conceptual framework of access to health care.
This systematic review was performed following a predefined protocol registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42018081714). We searched the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL for RCTs up to 15 May 2019 using terms related to the concepts ‘young people,’ ‘mental disorders’ and ‘help-seeking interventions’ and scanned reference lists from relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened all identified articles in a two-stage process, extracted results on outcomes of interest (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, help-seeking, accessing care, mental health outcomes and satisfaction), assessed the risk of bias and conducted meta-analyses where deemed appropriate.
After screening 5641 identified articles, 34 RCTs were eligible for inclusion. Eighty per cent of universal school-based interventions measuring knowledge (n = 5) and 67% measuring attitudes (n = 6) reported significantly better results compared with controls on those outcomes, whereas 20% measuring access to care (n = 5) and none measuring mental health outcomes (n = 7) did. In contrast, 71% of interventions targeting at-risk individuals (n = 21) reported better access to care compared with controls, while just 33% (n = 6) did for mental health outcomes. For satisfaction with care, this proportion was 80% (n = 5). Meta-analyses of interventions measuring initial appointment attendance yielded combined odds ratios of 3.11 (2.07–4.67) for appointment reminder interventions and 3.51 (2.02–6.11) for treatment engagement interventions. The outcomes for universal school-based interventions were heterogeneous and could not be summarised quantitatively through meta-analysis.
To have a population-level effect on improving children's access to mental health care, two-stage interventions that identify those in need and then engage them in the health-care system may be necessary. We need more evidence on interventions to target contextual factors such as affordability and infrastructural barriers.
A 10-year-old female with heterotaxy-asplenia and complex CHD developed pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with associated cyanosis after Fontan completion. She underwent orthotopic heart transplantation, but her pulmonary arteriovenous malformations persisted with progressive worsening cyanosis. Elective transcatheter left pulmonary artery embolisation was performed 2 years post-transplant, which successfully normalised her oxygen saturation without a significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure.
Haematogenous non-contiguous metastatic spread of remote solid tumours to the heart is rare. We describe a previously healthy 5-year-old girl who presented with extensive intracardiac involvement by metastatic pelvic sarcoma.
Paediatric hearing loss rates in Ghana are currently unknown.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana; children (aged 3–15 years) were recruited from randomly selected households. Selected children underwent otoscopic examination prior to in-community pure tone screening using the portable ShoeBox audiometer. The LittlEars auditory questionnaire was also administered to caregivers and parents.
Data were collected from 387 children. After conditioning, 362 children were screened using monaural pure tones presented at 25 dB. Twenty-five children could not be conditioned to behavioural audiometric screening. Eight children were referred based on audiometric screening results. Of those, four were identified as having hearing loss. Four children scored less than the maximum mark of 35 on the LittleEars questionnaire. Of those, three had hearing loss as identified through pure tone screening. The predominant physical finding on otoscopy was ear canal cerumen impaction.
Paediatric hearing loss is prevalent in Ghana, and should be treated as a public health problem warranting further evaluation and epidemiology characterisation.
Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in childhood is associated with poor social outcomes. This study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) as a mediator of the relation between TBI and peer rejection/victimization and reciprocated friendships, as well as the moderating effect of parental nurturance on those relationships. Method: Participants were children of 8–13 years old (M = 10.45, SD = 1.47), including 13 with severe TBI, 39 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 children with orthopedic injuries. Data on peer rejection/victimization and friendship were collected in school classrooms using the Extended Class Play and friendship nominations. Parents rated parental nurturance using the Child-Rearing Practices Report. Finally, ToM was measured based on children’s average performance across three tasks measuring different aspects of ToM. Results: Severe TBI was associated with poorer ToM, greater peer rejection/victimization, and fewer reciprocated friendships. ToM mediated the relation between severe TBI and peer rejection/victimization (i.e., severe TBI predicted poorer ToM, which in turn predicted greater rejection/victimization). Parental nurturance significantly moderated this relation, such that the mediating effect of ToM was significant only at low and average levels of parental nurturance, for both severe and complicated mild/moderate TBI groups. Neither the mediating effect of ToM nor the moderating effect of parental nurturance was significant for reciprocated friendships. Conclusion: High parental nurturance may mitigate the negative effects of ToM deficits on risk of peer rejection/victimization among children with TBI. Interventions designed to increase parental nurturance or ToM may promote better social outcomes among children with TBI.
This literature review provides an overview of the research using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pediatric migraine and compares findings with the adult migraine literature. A literature search using PubMed was conducted using all relevant sources up to February 2019. Using MRI methods to categorize and explain pediatric migraine in comparison with adult migraine is important, in order to recognize and appreciate the differences between the two entities, both clinically and physiologically. We aim to demonstrate the differences and similarities between pediatric and adult migraine using data from white matter and gray matter structural studies, cerebral perfusion, metabolites, and functional MRI (fMRI) studies, including task-based and resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent studies. By doing this we identify areas that need further research, as well as possible areas where intervention could alter outcomes.
The Bonebridge is an active transcutaneous bone conduction implant recommended as a surgical option for adults and children (aged 5–18 years). Successful implantation of the Bonebridge is often restricted by an insufficient amount of temporal bone to house the transducer in the paediatric patient.
Method and results
In this unique paediatric case, bilateral Bonebridge devices were implanted simultaneously in the right sinodural angle and the left middle cranial fossa.
The simultaneous implantation of bilateral Bonebridge devices was well tolerated in this paediatric patient, with significant improvement in her hearing. The middle cranial fossa is a viable option for housing the transducer.
Introduction: Vasopressors are routinely utilized to treat systemic shock, a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Local tissue ischemia has been classically implicated with peripheral use of these medications. However, peripheral administration (PVC) has theoretical benefits, and avoids many of the risks associated with central venous catheter (CVC) placement. There appears to be paucity of literature in pediatrics examining this subject. We conducted a systematic review investigating local tissue complications and extravasations of both PVC and CVC administration in the pediatric population. Specifically we examined the type of vasopressor used, the site used, the duration of the infusion, and finally the overall outcome for patients. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Terms for IV administration, specific vasopressor use, complication of interest, and pediatric population were combined. We included studies that satisfied our predetermined criteria. All search results were imported into Covidence software where the primary author conducted an initial title and abstract review. Papers that met the pre-identified criteria were selected for full text review. Papers selected for full text review were independently reviewed by two of the authors. Agreement between the authors was measured utilizing a κ statistic. Results: Our search yielded 14784 results, of which 237 were assessed for full text review. The κ between the authors is pending. 13 studies were selected for final inclusion. There were 14 patients with 15 total events. 13 were from PVC use while 2 occurred with CVC's. 11 of the 13 complications associated with PVC administration occurred through extravasation, with 2 events from local ischemia. 9 children were administered dopamine, 1 norepinephrine, and 14 were on multiple vasopressors. 3/13 events were “proximal” or occurring at or above the AC or popliteal fossa while 10/13 events were “distal”. The average time to ischemic injury or extravasation peripherally was 56.1 hours with a range of 1.5 to 360 hours. 9 of the total patients did not have any long-term sequelae. One patient had toe amputations, while two others died because of illness. One CVC patient died as a result extravasation leading to asphyxiation. Conclusion: There is a lack of significant literature reporting serious adverse events related to peripheral or central administration of vasopressors in the pediatric population.
Introduction: Needle-related procedures are considered the most important source of pain and distress in children in hospital settings. Time constraints, heavy workload, busy and noisy environment represent barriers to the use of available interventions for pain management during needle-related procedures. Therefore, the use of a rapid, easy-to-use intervention could improve procedural pain management practices. The objective was to determine if a device combining cold and vibration (Buzzy) is non-inferior (no worse) to a topical anesthetic (Maxilene) for pain management in children undergoing needle-related procedures in the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial. We enrolled children aged between 4-17 years presenting to the ED and requiring a needle-related procedure. Participants were randomly assigned to the Buzzy or Maxilene group. The primary outcome was the mean difference in pain intensity during the procedure, as measured with the CAS (0-10). Secondary outcomes were procedural distress, success of the procedure at first-attempt and satisfaction of parents. Results: A total of 352 participants were enrolled and 346 were randomized (Buzzy = 172; Maxilene = 174). Mean difference in procedural pain scores between groups was 0.64 (95%CI -0.1 to 1.3), showing that the Buzzy device was not non-inferior to Maxilene according to a non-inferiority margin of 0.70. No significant differences were observed for procedural distress (p = .370) and success of the procedure at first attempt (p = .602). Parents of both groups were very satisfied with both interventions (Buzzy = 7.8 ±2.66; Maxilene = 8.1 ±2.4), but there was no significant difference between groups (p = .236). Conclusion: Non-inferiority of the Buzzy device over a topical anesthetic was not demonstrated for pain management of children during a needle-related procedure in the ED. However, considering that topical anesthetics are underused in the ED setting and require time, the Buzzy device seems to be a promising alternative as it is a rapid, low-cost, easy-to-use and reusable intervention.
Introduction: Unplanned return visits to the pediatric emergency department contribute to overcrowding and are used as a quality measure. They have not been well characterized in the literature making it difficult to design interventions to reduce unnecessary return visits. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons for return from the caregiver and physician perspective. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey performed on a convenience sample of unplanned return visits within 72 hours at the IWK Health Centre ED between February and October 2016. Exclusion criteria were: planned return visit, admission during the index visit, or triaged as Canadian Triage and Acuity Score (CTAS) 1 on return visit. Caregiver and physician surveys were developed based on themes identified in published literature. The caregiver was approached to complete a survey after triage and the most responsible physician from the return visit was asked to complete a survey immediately after discharge of the patient from their care. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the ED record from the index and return visits. The primary outcome measure was most important reason for return from the caregiver perspective. Results: There were 461 return visits during the study period and 67 caregivers (14.5%) were included in the final analysis. The response rate for the physician survey was 71%. Caregivers and physicians reported that the most important reason for return was a perceived progression of illness requiring reassessment (79.1% and 66.7% respectively). The majority of caregivers had a family physician on record (95%) but a minority attempted to access their family physician (19.4%) or a walk-in clinic (11.9%). Of those who contacted their family physician only 3 (23%) were offered an appointment within 48 hours and of those who did not contact their family physician 21 (38.2%) stated they would not be able to get an appointment in a reasonable amount of time. Despite this 97% would have trusted their family physician to manage their child's illness. Physicians surveyed stated that the return visit was necessary in 64.6% of cases. Conclusion: Caregivers returned to the ED due to a perceived progression of disease. While some cases may have been appropriate for management in a primary care setting, perceived difficulty with timely access was a barrier. Improved caregiver education about the natural history of disease and the urgency of follow up may reduce return ED visits.
Introduction: Although acute gastroenteritis is an extremely common childhood illness, there is a paucity of literature characterizing the associated pain and its management. Our primary objective was to quantify the pain experienced by children with acute gastroenteritis in the 24-hours prior to emergency department (ED) presentation. Secondary objectives included describing maximum pain, analgesic use, discharge recommendations, and factors that influenced analgesic use in the ED. Methods: Study participants were recruited into this prospective cohort study by the Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam between January 2014 and September 2017. This study was conducted at two Canadian pediatric EDs; the Alberta Children's Hospital (Calgary) and the Stollery Children's Hospital (Edmonton). Eligibility criteria included < 18 years of age, acute gastroenteritis (□ 3 episodes of diarrhea or vomiting in the previous 24 hours), and symptom duration □ 7 days. The primary study outcome, caregiver-reported maximum pain in the 24-hours prior to presentation, was assessed using the 11-point Verbal Numerical Rating Scale. Results: We recruited 2136 patients, median age 20.8 months (IQR 10.4, 47.4); 45.8% (979/2136) female. In the 24-hours prior to enrolment, 28.6% (610/2136) of caregivers reported that their child experienced moderate (4-6) and 46.2% (986/2136) severe (7-10) pain in the preceding 24-hours. During the emergency visit, 31.1% (664/2136) described pain as moderate and 26.7% (571/2136) as severe. In the ED, analgesia was provided to 21.2% (452/2131) of children. The most commonly administered analgesics in the ED were ibuprofen (68.1%, 308/452) and acetaminophen (43.4%, 196/452); at home, acetaminophen was most commonly administered (77.7%, 700/901), followed by ibuprofen (37.5%, 338/901). Factors associated with analgesia use in the ED were greater pain scores during the visit, having a primary-care physician, shorter illness duration, fewer diarrheal episodes, presence of fever and hospitalization. Conclusion: Although children presenting to the ED with acute gastroenteritis experience moderate to severe pain, both prior to and during their emergency visit, analgesic use is limited. Future research should focus on appropriate pain management through the development of effective and safe pain treatment plans.
Introduction: There is abundant evidence that in children, assessment and pharmacologic treatment of pain by prehospital providers is suboptimal. Most paediatric calls are performed by primary care paramedics who are unable to administer pharmacologic analgesia to children but can administer non-pharmacologic therapies. We sought to describe the proportion of children provided non-pharmacologic analgesia by prehospital providers. Methods: We reviewed all ambulance call reports (ACR) of children age 0-17 years with an acutely painful condition (headache, abdominal pain, possible fracture, head/ears/eyes/nose/throat pain, back pain, and unclassified pain) who were transported to the Children's Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre between 2008 and 2017. We excluded ACRs lacking data pertaining to the primary outcome. Data collection was recorded by two blinded assessors using a study-specific ExcelTM sheet. The primary outcome was the proportion of children offered non-pharmacologic analgesia. We performed a hierarchical stepwise logistic regression on the primary outcome using covariates defined a priori: age, sex, visible deformity, documentation of pain score, and complaint. Results: Of 19782 ACRS, we report the preliminary results of 500 ACRs reviewed from Jan 1 to Feb 22, 2016. Of the 403 ACRs eligible for analysis, the median (IQR) age was 13 (8) years and 174 (43.2%) were females. 309/403 (76.7%) calls involved primary (as opposed to advanced) care paramedics. Pain assessments were performed in 171/403 (42.4%) calls, most commonly the 0-10 verbal numeric rating scale [128/171 (74.8%)] and the median (IQR) score was 7 (4) (n = 128). Non-pharmacologic analgesia was offered in 72/403 (17.9%) of calls, most commonly ice (37/72, 51%) and splint (29/72, 40%). In the multivariate model, significant predictors of non-pharmacologic analgesia included older age (OR 1.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; p = 0.01) and visible deformity (OR 8.2; 95% CI: 2.5, 30.2; p = 0.001). Sex (p = 0.62), documentation of pain score (p = 0.81), and complaint (p = 0.05) were not significant predictors. Conclusion: In this preliminary analysis, the provision of non-pharmacologic analgesia to children in Southwestern Ontario by prehospital providers was suboptimal despite moderate to severe levels of pain. Less than half of patients had pain assessments documented. There is a clear need for education surrounding pain assessment and non-pharmacologic analgesic options in children among prehospital providers.
Migraine is a common neurovascular disease characterised with recurrent attacks by pain-free periods. It has been suggested that both sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunctions play a role in its pathophysiology.
The aim of our study was to investigate the ECG changes during attack-free period in children with migraine, in terms of QTc interval, QTc, and P-wave dispersion to evaluate the autonomic nervous system disturbance.
Sixty children who were diagnosed with migraine were included as patient group and 50 healthy, age- and body mass index-matched children who were examined for innocent murmur were included as control group. The patients’ routine ECG records were screened from the outpatient clinic files. The durations of P-wave, QT, and QTc intervals and dispersion values and heart rates (beats/minute) were compared between the patient and control groups.
P maximum and P dispersion were significantly higher, and P minimum was significantly lower in the migraine group compared with the control group. QT–QTc maximum and QT–QTc dispersion were significantly higher and QT–QTc minimum was significantly lower in the migraine group compared with the control group.
According to our findings, although migraine patients were asymptomatic and no arrhythmia was detected in the surface ECG, sympathovagal balance in the sympathetic system, which may be disrupted in favour of the sympathetic system, should continue even in the attack-free period, and we should be careful in terms of serious arrhythmias that may develop in these patients.
The purpose of this study is to understand different roles that interpreters play in a pediatric, limited English proficient (LEP) health care encounter and to describe what factors within each role inform physicians’ assessment of the overall quality of interpretation.
Language barriers contribute to lower quality of care in LEP pediatric patients compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Use of professional medical interpreters has been shown to improve communication and decrease medical errors in pediatric LEP patients. In addition, in many pediatric encounters, interpreters take on roles beyond that of a pure language conduit.
We conducted 11 semi-structured interviews with pediatricians and family medicine physicians in one health system. Transcripts were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We analyzed our data using directed content analysis. Two study team members coded all transcripts, reviewed agreement, and resolved discrepancies.
Physicians described four different interpreter roles: language conduit, flow manager, relationship builder, and cultural insider. Within each role, physicians described components of quality that informed their assessment of the overall quality of interpretation during a pediatric encounter. We found that for many physicians, a high-quality interpreted encounter involves multiple roles beyond language transmission. It is important for health care systems to understand how health care staff conceptualize these relationships so that they can develop appropriate expectations and trainings for medical interpreters in order to improve health outcomes in pediatric LEP patients.
Technological advancements in medical devices developed for adults far outpace the development of technologies designed for pediatric patients in the USA and other countries. This technology lag was previously reflected in a lack of pediatric-specific innovation within our academic institution. To address the institutional deficit of device innovation around pediatric patients, we formed unique partnerships both within our university and extending to the medical device industry, and developed novel programmatic approaches. The Pediatric Device Innovation Consortium (PDIC) bridges the medical device community and the University of Minnesota. Since 2014, the PDIC has supported 22 pediatric medical technology innovation projects, provided funds totaling more than $500,000, licensed two technologies, and advanced two technologies to patient use. Here, we describe the PDIC model and method, the PDIC approach to common challenges that arise in the development of small-market medical technologies at an academic institution, and iterations to our collaborative, multidisciplinary approach that have matured throughout our experience. The PDIC model continues to evolve to reflect the special needs of innovation for smaller markets and the unique role of clinician innovators. Our approach serves as a successful model for other institutions interested in creating support mechanisms for pediatric or small-market technology development.
Parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis are rare but very severe post-operative complications following an elective tonsillectomy. Parapharyngeal abscess as a complication to tonsilectomy is very seldom described in the literature and no cases in the paediatric population have been described.
This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first case of life-threatening parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis following elective adenotonsillectomy in an otherwise healthy, fully vaccinated 10-year-old girl.
Diagnosing parapharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis can be challenging, but should be suspected and ruled out in cases of post-operative odynophagia, fever, and/or neck swelling and thoracic pain. Diagnosis is made based on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings. Prompt broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage should be initiated. Other severe complications such as meningitis should also be considered.
A 15-month-old child underwent percutaneous expansion of a Melody transcatheter pulmonary valve in the mitral position to accommodate growth after initial surgical implantation during infancy, but transiently decompensated after valvuloplasty owing to stent malformation. The Melody valve in the mitral position of small patients can be further expanded by percutaneous dilation, but there are a number of potential complications and technical improvements to consider.