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Dystonia is a movement disorder that can have a debilitating impact on motor functions and quality of life. There are 250,000 cases in the United States, most with childhood onset. Due to the limited effectiveness and side effects of available treatments, pediatric deep brain stimulation (pDBS) has emerged as an intervention for refractory dystonia. However, there is limited clinical and neuroethics research in this area of clinical practice. This paper examines whether it is ethically justified to offer pDBS to children with refractory dystonia. Given the favorable risk-benefit profile, it is concluded that offering pDBS is ethically justified for certain etiologies of dystonia, but it is less clear for others. In addition, various ethical and policy concerns are discussed, which need to be addressed to optimize the practice of offering pDBS for dystonia. Strategies are proposed to help address these concerns as pDBS continues to expand.
While taxonomy segregates anxiety symptoms into diagnoses, patients typically present with multiple diagnoses; this poses major challenges, particularly for youth, where mixed presentation is particularly common. Anxiety comorbidity could reflect multivariate, cross-domain interactions insufficiently emphasized in current taxonomy. We utilize network analytic approaches that model these interactions by characterizing pediatric anxiety as involving distinct, inter-connected, symptom domains. Quantifying this network structure could inform views of pediatric anxiety that shape clinical practice and research.
Participants were 4964 youths (ages 5–17 years) from seven international sites. Participants completed standard symptom inventory assessing severity along distinct domains that follow pediatric anxiety diagnostic categories. We first applied network analytic tools to quantify the anxiety domain network structure. We then examined whether variation in the network structure related to age (3-year longitudinal assessments) and sex, key moderators of pediatric anxiety expression.
The anxiety network featured a highly inter-connected structure; all domains correlated positively but to varying degrees. Anxiety patients and healthy youth differed in severity but demonstrated a comparable network structure. We noted specific sex differences in the network structure; longitudinal data indicated additional structural changes during childhood. Generalized-anxiety and panic symptoms consistently emerged as central domains.
Pediatric anxiety manifests along multiple, inter-connected symptom domains. By quantifying cross-domain associations and related moderation effects, the current study might shape views on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of pediatric anxiety.
Perinatal stroke occurs around the time of birth and leads to lifelong neurological disabilities including hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized our understanding of developmental neuroplasticity following early injury, quantifying volumetric, structural, functional, and metabolic compensatory changes after perinatal stroke. Such techniques can also be used to investigate how the brain responds to treatment (interventional neuroplasticity). Here, we review the current state of knowledge of how established and emerging neuroimaging modalities are informing neuroplasticity models in children with perinatal stroke. Specifically, we review structural imaging characterizing lesion characteristics and volumetrics, diffusion tensor imaging investigating white matter tracts and networks, task-based functional MRI for localizing function, resting state functional imaging for characterizing functional connectomes, and spectroscopy examining neurometabolic changes. Key challenges and exciting avenues for future investigations are also considered.
To determine the Final ICU Need in the 24 hours prior to ICU discharge for children with cardiac disease by utilising a single-centre survey.
A cross-sectional survey was utilised to determine Final ICU Need, which was categorised as “Cardiovascular”, “Respiratory”, “Feeding”, “Sedation”, “Systems Issue”, or “Other” for each encounter. Survey responses were obtained from attending physicians who discharged children (≤18 years of age with ICU length of stay >24 hours) from the Cardiac ICU between April 2016 and July 2018.
Measurements and results:
Survey response rate was 99% (n = 1073), with 667 encounters eligible for analysis. “Cardiovascular” (61%) and “Respiratory” (26%) were the most frequently chosen Final ICU Needs. From a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression model fitted to “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory”, operations with significantly reduced odds of having “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need included Glenn palliation (p = 0.003), total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair (p = 0.024), truncus arteriosus repair (p = 0.044), and vascular ring repair (p < 0.001). Short lengths of stay (<7.9 days) had significantly higher odds of “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need (p < 0.001). “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory” Final ICU Needs were also associated with provider and ICU discharge season.
Final ICU Need is a novel metric to identify variations in Cardiac ICU utilisation and clinical trajectories. Final ICU Need was significantly influenced by benchmark operation, length of stay, provider, and season. Future applications of Final ICU Need include targeting quality and research initiatives, calibrating provider and family expectations, and identifying provider-level variability in care processes and mental models.
In clinical and translational research, data science is often and fortuitously integrated with data collection. This contrasts to the typical position of data scientists in other settings, where they are isolated from data collectors. Because of this, effective use of data science techniques to resolve translational questions requires innovation in the organization and management of these data.
We propose an operational framework that respects this important difference in how research teams are organized. To maximize the accuracy and speed of the clinical and translational data science enterprise under this framework, we define a set of eight best practices for data management.
In our own work at the University of Rochester, we have strived to utilize these practices in a customized version of the open source LabKey platform for integrated data management and collaboration. We have applied this platform to cohorts that longitudinally track multidomain data from over 3000 subjects.
We argue that this has made analytical datasets more readily available and lowered the bar to interdisciplinary collaboration, enabling a team-based data science that is unique to the clinical and translational setting.
Vomiting is common in children after minor head injury. In previous research, isolated vomiting was not a significant predictor of intracranial injury after minor head injury; however, the significance of recurrent vomiting is unclear. This study aimed to determine the value of recurrent vomiting in predicting intracranial injury after pediatric minor head injury.
This secondary analysis of the CATCH2 prospective multicenter cohort study included participants (0–16 years) who presented to a pediatric emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of a minor head injury. ED physicians completed standardized clinical assessments. Recurrent vomiting was defined as ≥ four episodes. Intracranial injury was defined as acute intracranial injury on computed tomography scan. Predictors were examined using chi-squared tests and logistic regression models.
A total of 855 (21.1%) of the 4,054 CATCH2 participants had recurrent vomiting, 197 (4.9%) had intracranial injury, and 23 (0.6%) required neurosurgical intervention. Children with recurrent vomiting were significantly more likely to have intracranial injury (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.1), and require neurosurgical intervention (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–7.9). Recurrent vomiting remained a significant predictor of intracranial injury (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9–3.9) when controlling for other CATCH2 criteria. The probability of intracranial injury increased with number of vomiting episodes, especially when accompanied by other high-risk factors, including signs of a skull fracture, or irritability and Glasgow Coma Scale score < 15 at 2 hours postinjury. Timing of first vomiting episode, and age were not significant predictors.
Recurrent vomiting (≥ four episodes) was a significant risk factor for intracranial injury in children after minor head injury. The probability of intracranial injury increased with the number of vomiting episodes and if accompanied by other high-risk factors, such as signs of a skull fracture or altered level of consciousness.
Primary pediatric cardiac tumors are extremely rare. We report a 14-year-old girl with primary cardiac Hodgkin lymphoma. The large right atrial tumor extended upward and occluded the superior caval vein and left innominate vein.
We aim to assess the diagnostic role of QRS fragmentation in children with suspected acute myocarditis.
Diagnosis of myocarditis in the paediatric population is challenging. Clinical suspicion, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests are the main diagnostic features at presentation. However, electrocardiogram in patients with myocarditis is usually considered aspecific. We have previously described QRS fragmentation in adult patients with acute myocarditis.
Patients aged less than 18 years, admitted between 2003 and 2019, and discharged with a diagnosis of acute myocarditis were included. Standard electrocardiogram, laboratory, and echocardiographic findings at admission and follow-up were reviewed. QRS fragmentation was defined by the presence of multiphasic R′ spikes. Cardiac magnetic resonance and biopsy were performed in selected patients.
Twenty-one patients were analysed, 16 males (76%), median age 9.5 (2.5–16) years. At presentation, 12 patients (57%) displayed QRS fragmentation. Median ejection fraction was 40% (27–60). Nine patients (43%) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance and displayed late gadolinium enhancement. One patient underwent biopsy that showed borderline findings. Electrocardiogram leads showing QRS fragmentation correlated with distribution of late gadolinium enhancement. Median follow-up was 600 (190–2343) days. All patients were alive at last follow-up. Six patients (33%) patients displayed persistence of QRS fragmentation. Median ejection fraction was 60% (60–65%). In three patients (14%), ejection fraction remained depressed, two of which showed persistence of QRS fragmentation.
In this cohort of children with suspected myocarditis, QRS fragmentation was confirmed as a new additional diagnostic finding to look for at admission and during follow-up.
Introduction: Children with concussions presenting to emergency departments often receive very different recommendations for how to recover. In addition, there are no instructions for teachers to how children should return to learn and play after a concussion. Therefore, some children take too long to return to learn and play at school while others return too soon, thereby risking long-term problems because their brain injury is not fully healed. The purpose of this project is to determine the impact of a new integrated, standardized approach aimed to help a concussed child recover faster and whether the recovery experience for all involved has improved. Methods: Structured interviews were conducted with 11 parents of children treated for concussion at the Emergency Department of Pasqua Hospital in Regina, SK, four of whom received care after a change in practice whereby parents were provided with a return-to-school protocol form prior to discharge. Data were analyzed using an inductive qualitative content analysis approach using NVivo 12 software. Results: Three main categories were noted in the data: Parental response to the child's concussion, satisfaction with health services, and the communication amongst parents, physicians, and teachers. It was with regard to the last theme in particular that the impact of the return to school protocol was noted, helping to at least indirectly address the issue of the parent as the “middleman” in the communication triad. Most parents whose children received care prior to the introduction of the protocol suggested that providing written information at discharge to guide parents through the concussion recovery process would be helpful. Conclusion: Our initial results show a positive impact in regards to the process of children returning to learn and play after a concussion. Specifically, the increased communication between physician, teacher, and parent seems to benefit and improve the child's recovery process.
Introduction: Venipuncture is a frequent cause of pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Distraction, which can improve patient experience, remains the most studied psychological intervention. Virtual reality (VR) is a method of immersive distraction that can contribute to the multi-modal management of procedural pain and distress. Methods: The main objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility and acceptability of Virtual Reality (VR) distraction for pain management associated with venipunctures and to examine its preliminary effects on pain and distress in the pediatric ED. Children 7-17 years requiring a venipuncture in the pediatric ED were recruited. Participants were randomized to either a control group (standard care) or intervention group (standard of care + VR). Principal clinical outcome was the mean level of procedural pain, measured by the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS). Distress was also measured using the Child Fear Scale (CFS) and the Procedure Behavior Check List (PBCL) and memory of pain using the VNRS. Side effects were documented. Results: A total of 63 patients were recruited. Results showed feasibility and acceptability of VR in the PED and overall high satisfaction levels (79% recruitment rate of eligible families, 90% rate of VR game completion, and overall high mean satisfaction levels). There was a significantly higher level of satisfaction among healthcare providers in the intervention group, and 93% of those were willing to use this technology again for the same procedure. Regarding clinical outcomes, no significant difference was observed between groups on procedural pain. Distress evaluated by proxy (10/40 vs 13.2/40, p = 0.007) and memory of pain at 24 hours (2.4 vs 4.2, p = 0.027) were significantly lower in the VR group. Venipuncture was successful on first attempt in 23/31 patients (74%) in the VR group and 15/30 (50%) patients in the control group (p = 0.039). Five of the 31 patients (16%) in the VR group reported side effects Conclusion: The addition of VR to standard care is feasible and acceptable for pain and distress management during venipunctures in the pediatric ED. There was no difference in self-reported procedural pain between groups. Levels of procedural distress and memory of pain at 24 hours were lower in the VR group.
Background: Pediatric pain is often under-treated in emergency departments (EDs), causing short and long-term harm. In Alberta EDs, children's pain outcomes were unknown. A recent quality improvement collaborative (QIC) led by our team improved children's pain care in 4 urban EDs. We then spread to all EDs in Alberta using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Framework for Going to Full Scale. Aim Statement: To increase the proportion of children <12 years who receive topical anesthetic before needle procedures from 11% to 50%; and for children <17 years with fractures: to 1) increase the proportion receiving analgesia from 31% to 50%; 2) increase the proportion with pain score documentation from 24% to 50%, and 3) reduce time to analgesia from 60 to 30 minutes, within 1 year. Measures & Design: All 97 EDs in Alberta that treat children were invited. Each was asked to form a project team, attend webinars, develop key driver diagrams and perform PDSA tests of change. Sites were given a monthly list of randomly selected charts for audit and entered data in REDCap for upload to a provincial run chart dashboard. Baseline performance measurement informed aims. Measures included proportion of children <12 years undergoing a lab test who received topical anesthetic, and for children <17 years with fracture, the proportion with a pain score, proportion receiving analgesia and median minutes to analgesia. Length of stay and use of opioids were balancing measures. Control charts were used to detect special cause. Interrupted time series (ITS) was performed to assess significance and trends. Evaluation/Results: 36 sites (37%) participated, including rural and urban sites from all regions. 8417 visits were audited. 23/36 sites completed audits before and after tests of change and were analyzed. Special cause occurred for all aims. The proportion receiving topical anesthetic increased from 11% to 30% (ITS p < 0. 001). For children with fractures, the proportion with pain scores increased from 24% to 34% (ITS p = 0.21, underlying trend present), proportion receiving analgesic medication increased from 31% to 39% (ITS p = 0.41, underlying trend present) and minutes to analgesia decreased from 60 to 28 (ITS p < 0. 01). There was no increase in length of stay or use of opioid medications. Discussion/Impact: A pragmatic approach encouraging locally led change was well-received and key to success. The QIC method shows promise for improving outcomes in diverse EDs across large geographic areas. Next steps include further spread and sustainability measurement.
Introduction: Discharge communication in the pediatric emergency department (ED) is an important aspect of successful transition home for patients and families. The content, process, and pattern of discharge communication in a pediatric ED encounter has yet to be comprehensively explored. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize elements and patterns of discharge communication occurring during pediatric ED visits between health care providers (HCPs) and families. Methods: We analyzed real time video observations (N = 53) of children (0-18) presenting to two Canadian pediatric EDs with fever or minor head injury. We used a revised version of an existing coding scheme, PEDICSv2, to code all encounters. PEDICSv2 includes 32 elements capturing discharge communication. Inter-rater reliability was established with a second coder. Descriptive statistics reflecting the rates of delivery of each communication content element was reported to assess repetition at four stages of the visit (introduction/planning, actions/interventions, diagnosis/home management plan and summary/conclusion). Communication content was analyzed to depict behaviors of individual HCPs and the total communication delivered to the patient and caregiver by the healthcare team. Results: Results show 55.6% of families were asked to repeat their main concern by multiple HCPs during their ED visit. However, only 14.8% of families had comprehension of delivered discharge information assessed by more than one HCP. When involved in care, physicians were the most likely HCP to perform a comprehension assessment. Most of the communication delivered by nursing staff were elements involved in the introduction/planning and action/intervention stages of the visit. Conclusion: Findings indicate that most repetition occurs while eliciting a main concern during the introduction and planning stage of a pediatric ED encounter. In contrast, communication elements focusing on understanding the home management plan are less likely to be repeated by multiple HCPs. Future work focusing on structuring team workflow to minimize repetition during the introduction and planning stage may allow for clearer discharge teaching and more frequent comprehension assessment.
This review provides an overview of the prevalence and treatment of agitation and aggression, and focuses on the use of risperidone to treat these symptoms in patients from different age groups.
MEDLINE® and EMBASE® databases were used to identify controlled studies of risperidone in the treatment of disruptive behavior disorders and pervasive developmental disorders in pediatric patients, acute agitation or aggression in adults, and psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia in the elderly. Additionally, key open-label, long-term trials assessing the efficacy and safety of risperidone were considered.
The results of the 19 double-blind studies identified showed that risperidone is effective in treating agitation and aggression in the different populations, regardless of age. The safety and tolerability of risperidone appear to be good overall but certain safety issues, such as a higher risk of cerebrovascular adverse events in the elderly with dementia, were highlighted.
Risperidone is useful for treating aggression and agitation associated with various psychiatric disorders in patients from different age groups.
The Sort, Access, Life-saving interventions, Treatment and/or Triage (SALT) mass-casualty incident (MCI) algorithm is unique in that it includes two subjective questions during the triage process: “Is the victim likely to survive given the resources?” and “Is the injury minor?”
Given this subjectivity, it was hypothesized that as casualties increase, the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the tool would decline, due to an increase in the number of patients triaged as Minor and Expectant.
A pre-collected dataset of pediatric trauma patients age <14 years from a single Level 1 trauma center was used to generate “patients.” Three trained raters triaged each patient using SALT as if they were in each of the following scenarios: 10, 100, and 1,000 victim MCIs. Cohen’s kappa test was used to evaluate IRR between the raters in each of the scenarios.
A total of 247 patients were available for triage. The kappas were consistently “poor” to “fair:” 0.37 to 0.59 in the 10-victim scenario; 0.13 to 0.36 in the 100-victim scenario; and 0.05 to 0.36 in the 1,000-victim scenario. There was an increasing percentage of subjects triaged Minor as the number of estimated victims increased: 27.8% increase from 10- to 100-victim scenario and 7.0% increase from 100- to 1,000-victim scenario. Expectant triage categorization of patients remained stable as victim numbers increased.
Overall, SALT demonstrated poor IRR in this study of increasing casualty counts while triaging pediatric patients. Increased casualty counts in the scenarios did lead to increased Minor but not Expectant categorizations.
This book begins with an introduction to the role of mental health clinicians in working with children and adolescents with presenting concerns associated with medical needs. Readers will first explore the foundational principles and theoretical underpinnings of pediatric psychological care. Following a review of the current research on these aforementioned topics, the reader will then be provided with anecdotal “golden nuggets” that provide practical tips and strategies for clinicians new to working with pediatric medical conditions, as well as an emphasis on common ethical dilemmas that may arise in this context. Readers subsequently will be provided with a sample intake template to help guide the types of questions and information that should be solicited for assistance in creating holistic treatment plans and case conceptualizations.
Childhood obesity is a complex and multi-faceted problem, with contributors ranging from individual health behaviors to public policy. For clinicians who treat pediatric obesity, environmental factors that impact this condition in a child or family can be difficult to address in a clinical setting. Community-clinic partnerships are one method to address places and policies that influence a person’s weight and health; however, such partnerships are typically geared toward community-located health behavior change rather than the deeper social determinants of health (SDH), limiting effective behavioral change. Community-engaged research offers a framework for developing community-clinic partnerships to address SDH germane to obesity treatment. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between SDH and pediatric obesity treatment, use of community-clinic partnerships to address SDH in obesity treatment, and how community engagement can be a framework for creating and harnessing these partnerships. We present examples of programs begun by one pediatric obesity clinic using community-engagement principles to address obesity.
The importance of palliative care education for nurses has been recognized worldwide. The study aims to explore the experiences of nurses working with children with palliative care needs and to identify any related educational needs.
The electronic databases of CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed, OVID, Social Care Online, Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest were searched for the period 2000–2015.
Finding revealed that working with children with palliative care needs is an emotionally struggling job for nurses, especially when they try to manage the transition of pediatric patients from curative to palliative care. Staffing level and time constraints comprise a major obstacle in pediatric palliative care. Focusing on invasive treatment and technology in spite of the feelings that it will not improve patients' health status intensifies the feeling of guilt and helplessness for nurses. Finally, nurses asserted the importance of receiving pediatric palliative care education, especially how to communicate with children with palliative care needs and their families.
Significance of results
Further research is recommended with regard to nurses' experience in communication with children with palliative care needs. Nursing education in pediatric palliative care is significantly important, especially how to communicate with children with palliative care needs and their families.
Diaphragm dysfunction following surgery for congenital heart disease is a known complication leading to delays in recovery and increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with diaphragm plication in children undergoing cardiac surgery and evaluate timing to repair and effects on hospital cost and length of stay.
We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective observational cohort study. Forty-three hospitals from the Pediatric Health Information System database were included, and a total of 112,110 patients admitted between January 2004 and December 2014 were analysed.
Patients less than 18 years of age who underwent cardiac surgery were included. Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery was utilized to determine procedure complexity. The overall incidence of diaphragm dysfunction was 2.2% (n = 2513 out of 112,110). Of these, 24.0% (603 patients) underwent diaphragm plication. Higher complexity cardiac surgery (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery 5–6) and age less than 4 weeks were associated with a higher likelihood of diaphragm plication (p-value < 0.01). Diaphragmatic plication was associated with increased hospital length of stay (p-value < 0.01) and increased medical cost.
Diaphragm plication after surgery for congenital heart disease is associated with longer hospital length of stay and increased cost. There is a strong correlation of prolonged time to plication with increased length of stay and medical cost. The likelihood of plication increases with younger age and higher procedure complexity. Methods to improve early recognition and treatment of diaphragm dysfunction should be developed.
Objectives: We conducted joint analyses from five randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of online family problem-solving therapy (OFPST) for children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to identify child and parent outcomes most sensitive to OFPST and trajectories of recovery over time. Methods: We examined data from 359 children with complicated mild to severe TBI, aged 5–18, randomized to OFPST or a control condition. Using profile analyses, we examined group differences on parent-reported child (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, executive function behaviors, social competence) and family outcomes (parental depression, psychological distress, family functioning, parent–child conflict). Results: We found a main effect for measure for both child and family outcomes [F(3, 731) = 7.35, p < .001; F(3, 532) = 4.79, p = .003, respectively], reflecting differing degrees of improvement across measures for both groups. Significant group-by-time interactions indicated that children and families in the OFPST group had fewer problems than controls at both 6 and 18 months post baseline [t(731) = −5.15, p < .001, and t(731) = −3.90, p = .002, respectively, for child outcomes; t(532) = −4.81, p < .001, and t(532) = −3.80, p < .001, respectively, for family outcomes]. Conclusions: The results suggest limited differences in the measures’ responsiveness to treatment while highlighting OFPST’s utility in improving both child behavior problems and parent/family functioning. Group differences were greatest at treatment completion and after extended time post treatment.