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Chapter 3 explores the ways in which states subvert international legal institutions and norms in pursuit of their own security and political interests. This chapter argues that the use of self-referrals to the ICC stems from political calculations that allow political leaders to advance their own domestic and international agendas at the expense of furthering the goals of the international justice regime. Chapter 3 is a story of political calculations, political power, and security interests, and the agency of (African) states in creating and shaping the delivery of international justice. The Ugandan case is studied in depth to hightlight the ways in which self-referrals to the ICC stem from strategic calculations that allow states to use the Court to defeat rebel leaders, warlords, and/or political opponents.
The ICC becomes a transposed arena where domestic politics are meted out and enmeshed with the rule of law and legal procedures. Chapter 6 describes Côte d’Ivoire as a prime example of the ICC becoming involved in a highly politically charged crisis that was set off by contested electoral results in December 2010. The Ouattara administration outsourced justice to the ICC for the purpose of handling political adversaries. In doing so, it followed the lead of other states who had previously used the self-referral mechanism.
The proliferation of a wide variety of family forms has challenged the centrality and necessity of the traditional nuclear family as a context for successful socialization. Views of the importance of the gender of parents, sexual orientation of parents, biological relatedness of family members, and new routes to parenthood are challenged. Increases in divorce, the rise in the number of stepfamilies, cohabitating couples, single parents, and adoption raise further questions about the links between both the number of parents and the biological ties among family members. The gender, sexual orientation, or biological relatedness of the agent of delivery of the critical ingredients for socialization (i.e., stimulation, nurturance ,guidance, limit setting) or the family form in which these processes are enacted are less important than the processes themselves. Second, an interdependent model of family functioning is proposed, which reflects the increasing degree of outsourcing of tasks and responsibilities. To maximize assistance available to a full range of family forms, it is critical that policy makers recognize the diversity of family forms and develop suitable policies.
The goal of this chapter is to address how urban dynamics at the neighborhood level are linked to children’s development. We first review trends in the spatial concentration of poverty and inequality in the United States in recent decades. Then, we turn to theoretical models describing how local communities, with a focus on urban settings, influence children’s development. We then cover methodological issues and focus on one critical issue, selection bias, and then briefly review study designs as related to this challenge. Finally, we provide an overview of empirical studies linking neighborhood, socioeconomic conditions, and children’s development, notably their educational, behavioral, and socioemotional outcomes.
This chapter looks at a least-likely case of highly immaterial and deeply relational services. It provides an in-depth analysis of India’s achievement as the top business service offshoring location in the world and of the significant role played by standards. It offers a historical reconstruction, with an emphasis on how standards played a crucial role in the emergence of a wider spectrum of market institutions than those usually accounted for by the State–market divide of the existing literature. It then analyses the rise and range of international standards and certified management tools used in business process outsourcing in India. In contrast to conventional accounts that relational and intangible services are hard to standardise and, hence, internationalise, the analysis sheds light on the prominence of service standards in India and their ambiguous authority. Finally, the chapter focuses on the particular role of Nasscom, the voice of the Indian IT service industry, including its successful sponsorship of the adoption of a new ISO standard for business process outsourcing services.
Standards set by bodies such as the International Organization for Standards (ISO) have long been perceived as narrow technical specifications for organising production, protecting consumers and facilitating international trade in domains such as measurements, performance and related effects of manufactured goods. Today, their scope has been extended to non-physical fields such as labour, environment, education, risk and security, or management systems and business models. While the ISO might not be the best known organisation of global governance, it fiercely competes with other bodies in a jungle of labels, certifications, and benchmarks. This chapter introduces how the book focuses on the role of standards in the global expansion of services as a new form of power in contemporary global political economy. It reviews the contribution to the existing literature in five interrelated debates, often at the crossroads of several disciplinary fields. It presents the methodology and briefly outlines the subsequent chapters.
This chapter examines the relationship among globalisation, the expansion of the tertiary sector and the growing authority conferred on standards. It outlines the contextual and conceptual background on services and situates opposing arguments on the potential role of standards in supporting the globalisation of services. There is a common understanding that trade in services differs from goods and relies on standards (for quality, safety, protection of consumers, etc.) often embedded in domestic regulation and likely to impede market access. This makes the internationalisation of services dependent on sectorial and institutional specificities – a restrictive hypothesis that rejects broader power configurations. I contend that an international political economy perspective allows for a more extensive hypothesis by assuming that issues of quality and security, conventionally seen as the heart of the regulation of services, should be understood as social institutions, whose qualification remains highly political. Appraised as particular instances of transnational hybrid authority, service standards can accommodate opposing political economy objectives and power configurations across sectorial and institutional specificities.
Liability for independent contractors generally poses few difficulties in the law of contract, whereas in tort it is a vexed question. The difficulties are only compounded by the governing concept: the so-called “non-delegable duty”. This article explains the differences and argues that no easy parallels can be drawn from the contractual position to answer the riddles in tort. Neither does “assumption of responsibility” help. There is undoubtedly a case for recognising vicarious liability for independent contractors when businesses and public bodies alike now outsource so many of their functions. This issue needs to be confronted squarely, not through unconvincing contractual analogies.
The purpose of this study is to examine whether outsourcing frontline functions warrants equivalent level of customer-orientated behaviors as provided by a principal organization, and, if not, what the causes of the differences are. A total of 753 frontline workers of a leading South Korean telecommunications company and its partner companies responded to a survey regarding their levels of customer-oriented behaviors, their supervisor's degree of customer orientation, and their organization's training on customer orientation. Structural equation models were then utilized to examine the proposed relationships. The results show that the frontline workers of the partner organizations have a significantly lower level of customer-oriented behaviors compared with those of the principal organization. The immediate supervisor's degree of customer orientation and customer-orientation training accounted for a significant amount of difference found between the principal and partner organizations.
Much has been written and discussed about the outsourcing of library staff. In the following article, Dunstan Speight, Library Manager at Berwin Leighton Paisner LLP, looks at the role of in-house information teams. Although written from the perspective of the manager of a team of researchers in a City law firm, the author hopes that elements of his experience will have a relevance to other sectors and team structures.
Within the legal library world “outsourcing” has become a hot topic, and not necessarily a welcome one. In the last 12 months there have been several law firms making the move to outsource their Information Services, so why is this happening and what are the options? Kate Stanfield, Vice President, Knowledge and Research at Integreon examines the issues. Her article is based on a presentation given at the BIALL Conference in June 2011.
In this article, Mary Lacity and Leslie Willcocks review the practice of outsourcing business and information technology services. Research finds that outsourcing can deliver value to client organisations, but that it takes a tremendous amount of detailed management by clients and providers to realise expected benefits. The proven practices that contribute to positive outsourcing outcomes can be summarised as contractual governance, relational governance, client retained capabilities, and provider capabilities. Despite outsourcing's maturity, some enduring contractual challenges remain, particularly in the areas of incentive pricing and contract adaptability.
Loyita Worley outlines recent developments among law firms where outsourcing has been embraced in relation to their library, information and knowledge functions and services. She defines the terms and themes of the subject – outsourcing, offshoring, nearshoring and onshoring – and offers some thoughts for the future of legal information services in the commercial sector.
In this article Susan Alcock examines the issues relating to outsourcing of legal information services. She reflects the many concerns felt within the industry and offers many points-of-view that have been collected from those working in the field as in-house law librarians and legal information professionals.
Loyita Worley reports on the SLA Europe1 seminar held in March 2011 on the impact of outsourcing in law firms. The panel included the perspectives of the provider companies and experiences of law firm information professionals who have already adopted outsourcing and those who are about to.
Despite the continued popularity of outsourcing amongst managers and management researchers alike, signifi cant questions arguably remain as to the adequacy of the typical framing of the outsourcing decision. An extensive review of the literature revealed a skewed, partial and fragmented conceptualisation of the option, further exacerbated by a concerning tendency effectively to rank quantitative outcomes over qualitative outcomes, even ex post. In this article it is argued that a critical analysis of the theoretical frameworks that underlie this body of work suggests a more realistic conceptualisation of outsourcing, both for management researchers and management decision makers.
The extent of forage purchasing behavior in milk production and its impact on profitability are analyzed using data from the 2000 and 2005 dairy versions of the Agricultural Resource Management Survey. Forage outsourcing is more common with hay than with silage and haylage, and is more prevalent in the western United States. Though silage and haylage outsourcing is found to impact profitability, the major profitability drivers appear to be farm size and efficiency. Evidence of significant forage contracting is found in the western United States.
Security is generally considered a core public good provided by the state. Since outsourcing military and security tasks erodes the state's monopoly of force, we would expect regulation in this area to be stronger than in areas that do not have potentially lethal consequences. But neither caution nor careful regulation is evident in state responses to the emergence of private military and security companies; instead, the industry's rapid growth has outpaced government efforts to control their activities. This article assesses whether two industry associations, the US-based International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) and the British Association of Private Security Companies (BAPSC), have adopted mechanisms necessary for effective self-regulation, and it evaluates different national approaches to self-regulation. Neither the IPOA nor the BAPSC has established self-regulatory mechanisms able to monitor or sanction member companies' behavior. The IPOA's activities correspond to American patterns of self-regulation, while the BAPSC's efforts suggest weaker linkages with the British government than seen in other self-regulatory mechanisms.