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This chapter argues that, during the First World War, personal, partial, emotive and literary practices were fundamental to how transatlantic discourses about the war were managed, maintained, and ultimately resolved in favor of the Anglo-American alliance. It examines the different ways writers - for example, Rupert Brooke, John Masefield, Bertrand Russell, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound and Robert Frost - were mobilized by institutions like Wellington House, universities, newspapers and publishers. It considers writers’ and poets’ contributions to overlapping official and unofficial propaganda networks, and how this cultural exchange worked to “sell” particular interpretations and experiences of the conflict to reading publics.
In this chapter, we study how the CPSU legacy affects the levels of income inequality in Russian regions. Equality is one of the key elements of the Communist ideology; yet after the collapse of the USSR former Communists were relatively successful in adjusting to the new market economy, which could make them less willing to support redistribution. Our analysis shows that, controlling for the differences in income per capita, the CPSU legacy is associated with lower levels of inequality. However, these differences are not driven by public redistribution or by charitable activity. We hypothesize that the effects of the CPSU legacy are connected to the development of informal networks in regional societies, which could serve as a redistribution device.
Michael Zürn's Theory of Global Governance is an original, bold, and compelling argument regarding the causes of change in global governance. A core argument is that legitimation problems trigger changes in global governance. This contribution addresses two core features of the argument. Although I am persuaded that legitimacy matters, there are times when: legitimacy appears to be given too much credit to the relative neglect of other factors; other times when the lack of legitimacy has little discernible impact on the working of global governance; and unanswered questions about how the legitimacy of global governance relates to the legitimacy of the international order of which it is a part. The second feature is what counts as change in global governance. Zürn reduces change to either deepening or decline, overlooking the possible how of global governance. In contrast to Zürn's map of global governance that is dominated by hierarchies in the form of international organizations, an alternative map locates multiple modes of governance: hierarchies, markets, and networks. The kinds of legitimation problems that Zürn identifies, I argue, can help explain some of the movement from hierarchical to other modes of global governance.
This chapter examines other aspects of the shifting structure of honor that defined Han society. First, it traces the evolution of the bravo (xia) associations in local communities. In the Western Han these were defined by killing or dying for one’s fellows, insisting on honoring one’s word, and devotion to duty. In the Eastern Han, the xia were increasingly defined through forming social networks—often including officials and nobles—in place of the violence that had been central. The chapter also examines how the family was increasingly declared to be both honorable and politically significant. Locally powerful families increasingly claimed the status of scholar or “man of service (shi),” and secured recognition as authorities in their communities. Thus kin-based elements of local society that were not formally part of the state became crucial to its functioning, and remained so in all later empires in continental East Asia. The importance of honor to these families was articulated in the emergent genre of the funerary inscription, which claimed to bestow immortal fame and celebrated the new ideal type of the retired social hermit who served and morally transformed his local community.
A number of theoretical results have provided sufficient conditions for the selection of payoff-efficient equilibria in games played on networks when agents imitate successful neighbors and make occasional mistakes (stochastic stability). However, those results only guarantee full convergence in the long-run, which might be too restrictive in reality. Here, we employ a more gradual approach relying on agent-based simulations avoiding the double limit underlying these analytical results. We focus on the circular-city model, for which a sufficient condition on the population size relative to the neighborhood size was identified by Alós-Ferrer & Weidenholzer [(2006) Economics Letters, 93, 163–168]. Using more than 100,000 agent-based simulations, we find that selection of the efficient equilibrium prevails also for a large set of parameters violating the previously identified condition. Interestingly, the extent to which efficiency obtains decreases gradually as one moves away from the boundary of this condition.
Investigating the nature, drivers and sources of innovation in Africa, this book examines the channels for effective diffusion of innovation in and to Africa under institutional, resource and affordability constraints. Fu draws on almost a decade of research on innovation in Africa to explore these issues and unpack the process, combining a rigorous statistical analysis of a purposely designed multi-wave, multi-country survey with in-depth studies of representative cases. Building on this research, Fu argues that African firms are innovative but unsupported. Those 'under-the-radar' innovations that widely exist in Africa as a result of the constraints are not sufficient to enable Africa to leapfrog the innovation gap in the era of the fourth Industrial Revolution. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the creation and diffusion of innovation in low income countries. It also provides the first survey-based analysis of innovation in the informal economy.
Symptoms of serious mental illness are multidimensional and often interact in complex ways. Generative models offer value in elucidating the underlying relationships that characterise these networks of symptoms.
In this paper we use generative models to find unique interactions of schizophrenia symptoms as experienced on a moment-by-moment basis.
Self-reported mood, anxiety and psychosis symptoms, self-reported measurements of sleep quality and social function, cognitive assessment, and smartphone touch screen data from two assessments modelled after the Trail Making A and B tests were collected with a digital phenotyping app for 47 patients in active treatment for schizophrenia over a 90-day period. Patients were retrospectively divided up into various non-exclusive subgroups based on measurements of depression, anxiety, sleep duration, cognition and psychosis symptoms taken in the clinic. Associated transition probabilities for the patient cohort and for the clinical subgroups were calculated using state transitions between adjacent 3-day timesteps of pairwise survey domains.
The three highest probabilities for associated transitions across all patients were anxiety-inducing mood (0.357, P < 0.001), psychosis-inducing mood (0.276, P < 0.001), and anxiety-inducing poor sleep (0.268, P < 0.001). These transition probabilities were compared against a validation set of 17 patients from a pilot study, and no significant differences were found. Unique symptom networks were found for clinical subgroups.
Using a generative model using digital phenotyping data, we show that certain symptoms of schizophrenia may play a role in elevating other schizophrenia symptoms in future timesteps. Symptom networks show that it is feasible to create clinically interpretable models that reflect the unique symptom interactions of psychosis-spectrum illness. These results offer a framework for researchers capturing temporal dynamics, for clinicians seeking to move towards preventative care, and for patients to better understand their lived experience.
According to the Kardashev scale, possible Type-II and above civilizations could use energy sources of the universe in different ways. Self-replicator von Neumann probes believed to invade any galaxies in various studies could also have uses for gaining energy, in which Dyson swarm structures are likely to consist of probes that could emit energy from any luminous celestial object is to be considered first. On addressing some possible dynamical properties of probes, the study has examined in which size and populations they could enfold a star and how they could have observational evidences according to relevant star's energy output. On the basis of our solar system, it has also been shown using a weighted-directed network structure what kind of population and route they could have in case of spreading to the nearest-neighbouring stars.
Kazakhstan is a relatively new country that has been a nation-state since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The country has been transitioning to a market economy, with property rights being established and private entrepreneurship being encouraged. The transition has led to some firms making inroads into international markets. For this study, we chose five companies – Air Astana, Sberbank Kazakhstan, Kamaz Kazakhstan, Sportmaster, and Tsesna. Of these, Sberbank and Kamaz originated in Soviet times; Sport Master evolved in the immediate aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union; and Air Astana and Tsesna are relatively new domestic firms that have tried to develop specific competitive advantages. Some of the capabilities that these companies initially developed were in product innovation, branding, distribution, and human resources. A more general competency that all these companies developed, first in their home market but then in foreign markets, is the ability to survive and succeed in institutional conditions that are still evolving and changing. While new institutions were still developing and building credibility, networks and political connections were still important and played a role in most of these markets.
In 1757, officials in Fort St. Jean Baptiste at Natchitoches, Louisiana initiated a criminal investigation to look into the theft of textiles and other goods stolen from French settlers. According to the court record, the accomplices in the robbery were all working under the direction of an enslaved woman named Marion who deployed goods both as a business (which spanned French and Spanish settlements), and as a form of patronage. The scale and brazenness of her commercial activities expands the definition of freedom. Marion secured an impressive measure of autonomy all the while remaining legally enslaved. Her freedom may well have been relative, temporary and impermanent, yet for an unspecified number of years she succeeded in establishing herself as a formidable entrepreneur with liberty to trade between French and Spanish settlements, and with authority over many others, both slave and free. While her reign lasted, she made room for enslaved men and women in Natchitoches, and some free ones, to earn additional funds, to procure and design apparel to their own taste, and to feast with conviviality on beignets, grilled chicken and wild game washed down with suitable libations.
Chapter 5 concentrates solely on Black female transatlantic tours. Due to the gendered nature of adaptive resistance, a separate chapter is necessary to chart the ways they endured a double embodiment on the Victorian stage to campaign against slavery. I argue that Ellen Craft and Julia Jackson used different versions of adaptive resistance that were conditioned by gender as well as race. Craft used silence as a performative tool, an exploitation of antislavery networks, and even created her own communal networks that were based on racial pride. While in public she exploited her reputation as a “white slave,” in private she was outspoken and was tireless in her enthusiasm to promote abolitionist and other reformist causes. In contrast to Craft’s silent public performance, Julia Jackson lectured several times on the British stage alongside her husband, which possibly made her the first Black American woman to speak publicly about her experience as an enslaved individual. African American women were central to the Black protest tradition in Britain and maintained antislavery sentiment throughout the nineteenth century, decades after the British Empire had legally abolished slavery.
Chapter 3 focuses on Douglass’ relationship with abolitionist networks and print culture. He was a shrewd activist and formed friendships with newspaper editors, prominent citizens who had influence over the local press, and sometimes wrote for newspapers specifically to clarify his opinions or to cause further controversy, such as the Cambria in 1847. The constant exchange of letters and newspaper articles that reported on his speeches maintained essential momentum for the antislavery cause and enhanced a connected feeling of solidarity. This network did have its disadvantages however, as white abolitionists were not free from prejudice and Douglass – like other Black activists – struggled against a white racist schema that threatened to control Black bodies. However, Douglass left Britain more independent and determined to seek his antislavery career outside the realm of white control.
Contemporary Black activists – including those active in the #BlackLivesMatter movement – continue to protest against white supremacy and slavery’s legacies. In the conclusion to this book, I trace how Black Americans who visited Britain as a result of the Ferguson Solidarity Tour in 2015 contributed to this transatlantic tradition of protest and forged their own networks across the country to challenge racism and police brutality. Their methods of organization, protest, and awareness-raising were adapted from their historical precedents and to the contemporary world.
Chapter 8 focuses on Ida B. Wells’ transatlantic visits to Britain in 1893 and 1894. I argue that Wells, like Henson, exploited adaptive resistance in a new era, but this time redeployed its attention to the legacy of slavery, particularly lynching and racial violence. She sustained the Black protest tradition until the end of the nineteenth century and borrowed from it to create a successful tour in 1894, in particular. Learning from previous activists such as Frederick Douglass, Wells befriended newspaper editors, collected favorable coverage of her lectures, orchestrated interviews in numerous papers, and cultivated reformist networks to raise awareness of lynching. Wells also used a form of visual dissonance within her employment of adaptive resistance: she used photographs of lynched bodies to convince the British people of racial violence, and passed the image around at small meetings as a tool of truth to support her rhetoric. She intervened in traditional white spaces such as Parliament to sustain the Black American protest tradition and remind British audiences they lived and breathed a legacy of slavery.
During their transatlantic journeys to Britain throughout the nineteenth century, African Americans engaged in what I term “adaptive resistance,” a multifaceted interventionist strategy by which they challenged white supremacy and won support for abolition. Alongside my recovery of this mode of self-presentation in sources I have excavated from Victorian newspapers, I use an interdisciplinary methodology to (re)discover black performative strategies on the Victorian stage from the late 1830s to the mid-1890s. Performance was only one strand in the black activist arsenal, however. The successful employment of adaptive resistance relied on a triad of performance, abolitionist networks, and exploitation of print culture, and if an individual ensured an even balance between all three, it was likely their sojourn was successful.
In adopting this resistance strategy, black men and women forged a Black American protest tradition in Britain which was based on their literary, visual, and oratorical testimony. Black men and women sought to make their voices heard in a climate dominated by white supremacy; they refused to capitulate and educated thousands of people on slavery and its legacies through physically and mentally demanding tours organized across Britain.
Chapter 2 contrasts these relatively rigid pathways of bureaucratic information-gathering with the novel pathways of communication that the newly founded Economic Society provided. It demonstrates how the Society built up a network of information exchange through correspondence, as well as the publication of a newspaper, the Gazeta de Guatemala. These networks were designed to extend the reach of the Society from urban contexts into rural ones and had an active purpose: members and their associates were exhorted to grow, collect, and harvest economically useful plants. Reports from members over two decades show that, on a small scale at least, this succeeded, leading to an exchange of useful plant material. The varied social position and geographical locations of the newspaper’s subscribers also made its pages an exceptional forum for debate, creating a nascent ‘public sphere’. The networks even extended beyond the Audiencia’s borders, placing Central America in a context of global economic botany and scholarship. One manifestation of the extension of the Society’s practical network was that a member imported a collection of ‘exotic’ plants and seeds from Sumatra and Jamaica, plants which were then grown and harvested in Central America with some success.
This chapter groups discussion of TheMan of Law’s Tale into four broad topics. First is the intersecting representation of gender, race, and religious difference through which the tale complicates key questions about Christianity’s relationship to Islam, a relationship shaped as much by political and economic concerns as by theological ones. It thus opens equally complicated questions about the relationship between sacred and secular. Third is the tale’s preoccupation with the circulation of people and knowledge. Despite its generic similarity to saints’ Lives, the tale is perhaps less concerned with the truth of Christianity than with its transmission, with questions about the kind of knowledge stories produce, especially as they move across different discursive and territorial frames. The final section turns to narrative presentation and the teller’s status as a “Man of Law.” As an exploration of the impossibility of superimposing a stable system of meaning on a story about overlapping networks of mercantile, confessional, historical, and narrative practices, the tale has much to teach us about the layered, multipart narrative project of the Canterbury Tales itself.
The research literature on misinformation, disinformation, and propaganda is vast and sprawling. This chapter discusses descriptive research on the supply and availability of misinformation, patterns of exposure and consumption, and what is known about
mechanisms behind its spread through networks. It provides a brief overview of the
literature on misinformation in political science and psychology, which provides a basis for understanding the phenomena discussed here. It then examines what we know about the effects of misinformation and how it is studied. It concludes with a discussion of gaps in our knowledge and future directions in research in this area.
Why do only some newly launched rebel groups go on to become viable? This chapter examines all sixteen groups I identified as forming in Uganda since 1986, showing that only those that formed in ethnically homogeneous areas became viable. It then turns to two paired comparisons of rebel groups to understand the mechanisms behind this correlation. Examining why only one group in each pair became viable provides support for several of this book’s key claims about rebels’ rumors better influencing civilian perceptions when kinship networks have certain structures and explains the relationship between those structures and local ethnic demography. In doing so, this chapter shows the inner workings of rebel–civilian interactions at the dawn of a new rebel group forming. It also describes evidence from a field experiment that offers useful support about the role of kinship networks in spreading rebels’ rumors and distinguishes these mechanisms linking ethnicity to rebellion via local networks from those that link ethnicity to rebellion via grievances.
This chapter introduces the puzzles at the core of the book: How does rebel group formation initially start, and why do many rebellions fail before becoming viable challengers to a government? Few prior studies have systematically answered this question because rebel groups typically form in remote areas of weak states and are clandestine. These features of nascent rebellion have thus limited knowledge about conflict onset; most recent conflict onset studies rely on datasets that do not capture the start of violence. This chapter presents the book’s core argument; describes its contributions to literatures on conflict, ethnicity, and state building; describes its methodological approach of retracing all incipient rebellions in Uganda since 1986, and probes the relevance of findings from Uganda in other Eastern and Central African states.