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Social interaction in the twenty-first century involves dynamic use of multilingual and multimodal semiotic resources and is often characterized by the transient, momentary occurrence of creative features. This chapter aims to present Translanguaging as an analytical framework for such dynamic use and creative features in social interaction. The chapter begins with an outline of the diverse phenomena of dynamic and creative practices involving multiple languages and multimodal semiotic resources. Special attention is paid to new media mediated interaction. The characteristics of such practices are identified and discussed. And theoretical issues such as temporality and momentarity are addressed. The chapter then reviews the various analytic concepts, frameworks and approaches that may help to understand these practices, their characteristics and the theoretical issues herein. It focuses specifically on those that have the capacity to offer new insights into the dynamics at the interface of the temporal and spatial dimensions of human social interaction and the creativity of multilingual language users. Perspectives from social semiotics and multimodality, as well as the traditional sociolinguistic and discourse analytic approaches are included. Thus, concepts such as creativity and criticality are also critiqued. The theoretical motivations for the translanguaging perspective and the methodological implications of adopting such a perspective are then discussed and highlighted. It aims to show the added value of translanguaging as an analytic framework for social interaction in the linguistically and culturally diverse world today.
This chapter analyses the South African language policies in relation to the use of African languages in South African banks. The study argues that the legislative efforts to achieve multilingualism within the banking sector fall very short of their goal. While the language policies are good on paper, the practicality of attaining their goal is far from being achieved. South Africa is a multilingual country with eleven official languages, including the sign language. However, the current language practices in the South African banks do not resonate with the multilingualism envisaged in the Constitution of 1996 and national language policies. This is evident in banks where only English is used as the sole language of communication and record, a predicament that elevates it to being the ‘language of business’. The irony, however, is that the majority of customers in banks are speakers of indigenous African languages.
English language only as the medium of instruction often creates a barrier for students whose first language is not English. It has proven to be difficult for students to understand and apply the academic discourse that is used in their course materials, assignment tasks and course assessments. There is considerable evidence about the value of using home languages as language of learning, or as languages of support and intervention in different disciplinary context. The chapter explores language-related interventions meant to provide academic support to first-year Law of Contract students through the usage of online multilingual glossaries. Details of the methodology pertaining to the development, verification, dissemination and academic usage of the online multilingual glossaries are discussed with a view to uncover students’ perceptions regarding (i) the use of this teaching and learning facility (online multilingual glossaries), (ii) the extent to which student’s home languages may impact their access into the academic discourse and (iii) the potential for success. From a theoretical perspective, this study draws on Cummins’s theoretical model of basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP).
This chapter focuses on a particular aspect of South African history in which European men were incorporated into Bomvana and Mpondo societies living along the southeast coast of the former Transkei, where they subsequently founded new clans. With reference to the collection of oral traditions from contemporary members of these clans by various scholars including the author, the role of oral traditions as accurate repositories of historical information and as the products of dynamic social and historical processes is discussed and evaluated. Oral traditions are not only bodies of knowledge but also multidimensional in that they frequently include song, dance, gesture, intonation and other audiovisual elements. As such, they are particularly suited for digitisation and dissemination on the Internet. Oral traditions that have already been documented, and others yet to be accumulated, provide essential educational and scholarly resources in the development of decolonised curricula, and potentially serve as tools for the promotion of multilingualism and multiculturalism in the classroom and beyond.
This article reflects on the challenges that arise when the comparative literature classroom, especially in the Netherlands, is increasingly multilingual and simultaneously increasingly monolingual in its focus on English as a primary language. In view of moving comparative literary studies beyond its Eurocentric framework, what opportunities lie in teaching translated texts in “English(es)” in such a multilingual setting? What are the effects of such an interplay of mono- and multilingualism in view of a commitment to decolonizing the literary curriculum and pedagogical practice? What attention to language and linguistic difference might be available given the diverse linguistic and cultural literacies of students? Less interested in questions of translating texts, the article pursues how teaching literary texts in translation can foster listening to linguistic difference and encourage relational attunement when degrees of literacy and illiteracy are shared at varying levels of competence across students and teachers.
This chapter examines the narratives (media, policy and statistical) around the notion of the ‘linguistic other’ in England and elsewhere in Europe. We argue that these narratives are closely bound up with the way nation states define their policies for social integration of migrant communities and, in particular, migrant children in schools. At the heart of the debates around conflicting narratives about the role of schools in this context is the question of linguistic diversity and second (or host) language development. Also in this chapter we review, from a sociological perspective, how researchers and policy-makers have endeavoured to understand the concept and practice of social integration in this context. In particular, we highlight the tensions between the focus on micro-level experience and on the macro-level socio-political implications. We provide a review of recent empirical studies on EAL internationally and reflect on current issues in light of recent policy developments. We discuss the variations that can be found across Europe in terms of mainstreaming and inclusion.
Jan D ten Thije addresses the spectrum of scientific and societal issues referred to as intercultural communication by pointing out five different theoretical and methodical approaches. First, he discusses the interactive approach which investigates intercultural (face-to-face) interaction. He then focuses on approaches that compare and contrast cultural and linguistic systems, before discussing those that consider collective and national images of ‘self’ and ‘other’ by analysing cultural representations in various forms of (computer-mediated) communication. A fourth approach comprises studies into multilingualism and linguistic diversities, and finally, the transfer approach integrates knowledge, attitudes, capacities, reflectivity and motivation in learnable intercultural competencies. Ten Thije elaborates on the interfaces and interrelations of these approaches in how they address the notion of ‘intercultural mediation’.
The modern North Germanic languages family consists of mutually intelligible languages spoken in mainland Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) and the insular languages Faroese and Icelandic. The languages have a common origin but have now diverged to such an extent that there are three different language continua with a large number of dialects. This chapter provides an overview of the history of the North Germanic languages leading to the present-day situation. Results of research are presented that quantify the linguistic differences between the languages and dialects in the language area and the consequences of these differences for mutual intelligibility. Finally, some directions for future research are suggested.
This paper sets out to discuss the monolingual problem within computer-assisted language learning (CALL) research and CALL product development, namely a lack of knowledge about how CALL products and projects can support learners in using all their linguistic resources to achieve language-learning- and language-using-related goals, and a lack of CALL products and projects that realize this potential, or that support specific plurilingual skill development. It uses an analysis of CALL-related papers to demonstrate how far CALL is impacted by a monolingual bias that it inherited from language learning pedagogy. An analysis of articles from four CALL journals across 10 years shows that although the words bilingual and multilingual appear in these journals fairly regularly, terms such as plurilingual, third language, tertiary language, L3, translanguaging, and translingual are extremely rare. Also, only eight articles could be identified that use any of these eight keywords in their title. Trends across those papers are identified. In a discussion of existing CALL products and projects that incorporate more than one language, it is argued that while commercial products often include more than one language, this is frequently in a behaviorist or grammar-translation tradition, while innovative plurilingual products and projects tend to be non-commercial and often EU/EC-funded initiatives. The article argues that CALL research and product development can not only avoid this monolingual bias, but also actively contribute to our knowledge of how all linguistic resources can be used for language learning. It makes suggestions for relevant future research areas related to multilingual computer-assisted language learning (MCALL).
One of the root causes of the poor economic performance and fragility in Africa is the marginalization of the majority of the people, due to the absence of efficient and effective language policy and planning. Language policy and planning in Africa will need to focus on the management of multilingualism as a fundamental tool to achieve sustainable and long-term endogenous development. This chapter explores the nexus between language and the economy, and presents an economic situation that is directly impacted by the current language policies on the continent.
This chapter takes at its starting point a theoretical perspective that links language, signs, and sign-making firmly to the material world, and the inequalities that shape this world. The visibility, and invisibly, of linguistic diversity online is a function of these larger socioeconomic processes, and the digital social inequalities they give rise to. The internet and associated networking applications might be “new” technologies, but they reflect and reproduce historical continuities of structural inequality, reinforcing the imbalances, silences, and marginalizations that define the global world system.
Building on Ramazani’s notion of the ‘translocal’, this chapter maps the multiple voices and ‘mobile positionings’ of an early generation of poets from the Caribbean, South Asia, and Africa who were performing and publishing in 1950s and 1960s Britain. Though some, such as Kamau Brathwaite (Barbados), Wole Soyinka (Nigeria), or Louise Bennett (Jamaica) did not settle in Britain permanently, their respective explorations with a variety of literary/vernacular/oral influences and forms had significant impact on the themes and writings of later generations of British-born diasporic poets. The main emphasis in this chapter lies on the richness of these individual contributions, which derived from diverse contexts as well as a range of different literary, cultural, and political influences. It also shows how their respective visions – whether Lord Kitchener’s calypsonian evocation of London, Louise Bennett’s vernacular colonisation of Britain in reverse, Wole Soyinka’s sardonic commentary on the ‘colour bar’, the hybrid influences of Dom Moraes’s quiet modernism, or E. A. Markham’s various personae – coincided and made a series of significant waves across the landscape of British poetry.
Taking its title from Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s puzzling claim that the “Genius of India is to divide,” Chapter 6 tracks the career of linguistic difference in the making of modern India. I show how the effacement of adivasi pasts in the imagination of Odisha was mirrored in the way linguistic difference was managed through the language based division of Indian territory. I analyze writings on multilingualism by three influential leaders of the Indian nationalist movement–Mohandas Karamachand Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. Representing three radically different perspectives on the question of language and nation, these writings allow me to track the passions, ideologies, and anxieties inherent in imagining a nation with multiple mother tongues. The chapter ends with a short discussion of the adivasi critique of linguistic provinces through a reading of speeches given by Jaipal Singh, the leader of the movement for the formation of the adivasi majority province of Jharkhand. The effacement of adivasi difference became established in both the imagination of modern Indian citizens and in the physical, territorial divisions of the emerging Indian nation. As vernacular languages became the foundational category for understanding representation and subjectivity in India, the concomitant exclusion of aboriginal peoples and the downplaying of alternative political possibilities were institutionalized into the very definition of the modern Indian community.
In this chapter, I look at the sociolinguistic context that colonists, settlers, pioneers, convicts, and others left when embarking on their travels. It does not therefore look at the migrants themselves or their linguistic profiles per se but at the social and linguistic ecology of Britain at the time colonization began. Its aim, therefore, is, for the colonial period that peaked in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to sensitize the reader to some of the critical domains that shaped the prevailing linguistic landscape: multilingualism and multidialectalism in Britain; patterns of internal mobility and their linguistic consequences; the British education system and literacy before compulsory education and prevailing language ideologies, and the implications they had for the language use in the British Isles.
This chapter seeks to evaluate how student users of English are viewed beyond the English-as-school-subject curriculum, both in and out of classrooms. In particular, it exposes some of the tangible effects of ontologies of English in the education context, with important implications for education policy. Despite extensive scholarly work in Applied Linguistics offering positive reconceptualisations of language use in a variety of approaches, such as World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and translanguaging (e.g. Creese and Blackledge, 2010; Hornberger and Link, 2012; García and Wei, 2014; García and Kleyn, 2016), the notion of a ‘target’ for the learning and teaching of ‘good English’ for most monolingual mainstream teachers in the United Kingdom remains based on the norms of Standard English, or N-English (to adopt the categorisation terminology proposed by Hall, this volume). For more discussion on the nature of linguistic norms, see Harder (this volume). In this chapter, I show how the presentation of Standard English as the ideal, on the assumption that it is “the language we have in common” (DES, 1988, p. 14), alienates not just multilingual learners of English but also many school children who would regard themselves as first-language English speakers.
The chapter provides an overview of the ways in which English has existed within a framework of multilingualism in all countries where it is spoken. The first part considers English beyond the shores of Britain, where it was initially introduced to contexts in which indigenous populations and their languages already existed, such as America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Later, as English was introduced to countries in Africa and Asia that were colonized by the British, such as Nigeria and India, it added to the multilingual patterns that already existed in those places. English has continued to rise in importance in countries that have no links to a colonial history or where it has no official function; this is often linked to processes of globalization in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In these countries, English is often part of an individual’s multilingual repertoire. The chapter finally returns to Britain, where the myth of English monolingualism probably persists the most. Both historical and modern-day multilingualism are discussed and a case study is presented to demonstrate how multilingualism has impacted on the English variety spoken in London today.
From the start the fourteenth century was filled with crisis and change, from plague to rebellion, amid political conflict and increasing literacy. Historical writing changed accordingly, although new stable forms appeared in the Prose Brut and Higden’s Polychronicon. Elsewhere, more innovative chronicles in French and Latin jostled with new kinds of English ones, for and by secular as well as clerical readers and writers. This chapter focuses on three from the century’s first half: Robert Mannyng’s Chronicle, Geoffrey le Baker’s Chronica, and Thomas Gray’s Scalachronica. Some historical writing, however, clung to antiquated forms and outlooks down to the century’s end, when both the century’s social conflicts and historiographical diversities came to a head in the 1381 Rebellion. That revolt can best be appreciated against the earlier decades rather than as an abrupt start of major change, and it was with long familiarity with the rebels’ fundamental (and already partly successful) challenges that Thomas Walsingham denounced them using the most traditional monastic genres he could muster.
This paper summarizes scholarly approaches to varieties of South African English, mainly from the perspective of World Englishes theorizing. South Africa's complex ethnic composition has produced a range of distinctive varieties of English and has defied simplistic notions of dialect evolution. Neither Kachru's “Three Circles” model nor Schneider's “Dynamic Model” allow coherent accounts of South African English as a whole in their respective frameworks. In contrast, many South African scholars, often extrapolating from the “Dynamic Model”, have highlighted the need to focus on internal sub-varieties rather than favouring a national, overall perspective. The questions of how uniform or diverse South African English is and how these relationships can be modelled are widely addressed in scholarship, including ongoing changes, as for example the recent emergence of a pan-ethnic middle class compromise variety described primarily by Rajend Mesthrie.
In this chapter, we contextualise English within a decolonial perspective of multilingualism in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly South Africa. In so doing, we lay bare some of the historically invisibilised circuits of intellectual exchange flowing from the geopolitical South to the geopolitical north around multilingualism. After a short overview of the deep decolonial roots pertaining to discussions of African multilingualism, we move to a discussion of multilingual education with the circumstances of the early 1990s in which at least three views of multilingualism in education circulated. We conclude by drawing attention to two notions in particular with ‘southern’ origins – ‘functional multilingualism’ and ‘linguistic citizenship’ – that we believe contribute to serious discussions of North–South engagement on understandings of multilingualism and multilingual education.