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Visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra are used in laboratory, field, and airborne studies to characterize geologic materials. This chapter covers the region 0.3–5 µm and describes the species responsible for the absorption of radiation at specific wavelengths that create spectral features used to identify minerals, rocks, and other geologic materials. Fe contributes greatly to VNIR spectral signatures, producing features near 1 and 2 µm for Fe2+ in spectra of pyroxene and glass, while a broad, strong band from ~0.9 to 1.3 µm is characteristic of Fe2+ in olivine, carbonate, and many sulfates; a weak band near 1.2 µm is due to Fe2+ in feldspar; and bands near 0.6 and 0.9 µm arise from Fe3+ in ferric oxides/hydroxides. Water bands occur near 0.96, 1.15, 1.4, 1.9, and 2.9 µm, depending on the mineral structure, while structural OH bands occur near 1.4, 2.1–2.5, and 2.7 µm. Additional features are observed for carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, phosphates, chlorides, and perchlorates. The spectral signatures of geologic samples are also affected by how photons interact with particles in the sample. Factors such as grain size, coatings and mixtures influence the reflectance, transmittance, and absorption of photons at grain boundaries and contribute to the VNIR spectral properties of geologic materials.
Doveweed is a problematic weed species in many agricultural ecosystems as well as on roadsides and rights-of-way. Effective POST chemical control options for doveweed are limited in many cropping systems. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of metsulfuron-methyl dose and the impact of mixtures and sequential applications of either trifloxysulfuron-sodium or bentazon with metsulfuron-methyl for doveweed control. By 14 d after the initial treatment, applying 0.04 kg ai ha−1 metsulfuron-methyl, either once or sequentially, provided 100% control of doveweed. Application of trifloxysulfuron-sodium at 0.04 kg ai ha−1 alone or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) did not provide consistent doveweed control nor did it reduce biomass. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium applied alone at 0.08 kg ha−1 or in a mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided consistent doveweed control (>80%). A single application of bentazon (0.56 kg ai ha−1) was ineffective at controlling doveweed. A single application of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) or sequential applications of either bentazon alone (0.56 kg ha−1) or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided excellent doveweed control (100%) by 35 d after treatment. Overall, single applications of metsulfuron-methyl (0.02 to 0.17 kg ha−1) or mixtures of metsulfuron-methyl with trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.04 + 0.08 kg ha−1, respectively) or bentazon (0.04 + 0.56 kg ha−1, respectively) controlled doveweed and may be useful for enhancing the control spectrum for other weeds. Sequential applications of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) provided doveweed control and are a resistance-management strategy for doveweed.
A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate quizalofop at 120 g ai ha−1 applied independently or in a mixture with clomazone, pendimethalin, clomazone plus pendimethalin, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin when PVLO1 rice reached the two- to three-leaf stage. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was applied 21 d after the initial application. At 7 days after treatment (DAT), antagonism of quizalofop occurred when mixed with clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1, clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1 plus pendimethalin at 810 g ai ha−1, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin at 334 plus 810 g ai ha−1, respectively, when applied to barnyardgrass. At 7 DAT, a neutral interaction occurred with a mixture of quizalofop plus pendimethalin at 810 g ha−1. These data indicate the antagonism of quizalofop was overcome at 14, 28, and 42 DAT with a neutral interaction for barnyardgrass control, 94% to 98%, with all herbicide mixtures evaluated. A neutral interaction occurred for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control when treated with all the herbicide mixtures evaluated across all evaluation dates. Rice yield decreased when not treated with the initial quizalofop application.
Sample preparation techniques for radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater, as well as CO2 and CH4 in gas mixtures are presented. Focused efforts have been on developing a robust and low-background wet oxidation extraction method for DOC in freshwater, following routine methods developed for stable carbon isotope analysis and adapted for radiocarbon (14C) analysis. DIC (by acidification) and DOC (by wet oxidation) are converted to CO2 in pre-baked septum-fitted borosilicate bottles, where the resulting CO2 is extracted from the dissolved and headspace portions on a low-flow He-carrier flow-through system interfaced to a vacuum extraction line. A peripheral CH4 extraction line interfaces to the flow line to separate CH4 from environmental samples following the methods of Pack et al. 2015. High sample throughput and low blanks are achievable with this method. DIC and DOC blanks are consistently <0.7 pMC, while CO2 and CH4 blanks are typically <0.1 pMC.
Herbicides are the foundation for row-middle weed control in Florida plasticulture production. Paraquat is commonly used as a burndown herbicide, and resistance issues have subsequently developed. Halosulfuron is mixed with PRE and POST herbicides to provide additional control of nutsedge. The objective of the study was to determine glufosinate efficacy on weeds emerging in the row-middle and suitability in mixture with halosulfuron for nutsedge control. For total weed control, the high dose of glufosinate (983 g ai ha–1) gave the highest overall control (98% and 64% at 4 wk after treatment for experiments 1 and 2, respectively), and the low rate of glufosinate (656 g ha–1) (67% and 39%) gave results comparable to paraquat (57% and 44%). The high glufosinate dose and paraquat gave comparable control of Brazil pusley (74% to 77% control). Glufosinate + halosulfuron mixture had lower efficacy on Brazil pusley than halosulfuron + paraquat mixture. Glufosinate application reduced grass densities, whereas paraquat did not. Increasing the glufosinate dose did not further decrease grass densities. Similar trends in grass control were also demonstrated in their respective mixtures. Mixing halosulfuron with glufosinate or paraquat did not provide consistent reductions in nutsedge densities, nor did adding paraquat or glufosinate further reduce densities compared with halosulfuron alone for the 4-wk study period. Both paraquat and glufosinate antagonized halosulfuron and reduced efficacy on nutsedge. Compared to controls, there was a reduction between expected and actual nutsedge control for paraquat and glufosinate (25% and 36%), respectively. For total weed control, glufosinate is a suitable alternative to paraquat for row-middle weed management in vegetable production.
Cultivar mixtures of winter barley and spring barley, together with their component monocultures, were grown in field trials to assess the effect of cultivar combinations on both straw and grain yield. The overall grain yields for all trials were significantly higher for the cultivar mixtures than for the corresponding component monocultures. Also, significant decreases in rhynchosporium disease severity for cultivar mixtures were recorded for most non-fungicide treatments. The size of these responses was often significantly correlated with the component number of the mixtures. The amount of straw produced in mixtures was sometimes changed significantly, but not always in a positive direction and it was only correlated with increasing mixture component number in two environments. No correlation of straw yield potential of cultivars with performance in mixtures was found. Cultivar × cultivar mixture × environment interactions appeared to affect the relative yield of grain and straw differentially and therefore it was not possible to predict the effect of mixtures on the harvest index.
Weed management in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is accomplished primarily with soil-residual herbicides, cultivation, and hand removal. Management practices that reduce weed emergence, like reduced tillage and cover crop mulches, may improve weed management efficacy. Depending on cover-cropping goals, growers face trade-offs in species selection and management priorities—producing weed-suppressive mulches may lead to transplanting difficulties and soil-residual herbicide interception. Managing more complex cover crop mixtures may result in different challenges. We established on-farm trials across 4 site-years to study impacts of cover crop composition [wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture or mixture], termination treatment (early or late chemical termination or removing aboveground biomass), and soil-residual herbicides on weed density and biomass. The cover crop mixture contained cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), with canola (Brassica napus L.) at 1 site-year. The mixture typically produced more biomass than monoculture wheat, although composition had few impacts on weed density or biomass. With residual herbicides, termination treatment had few impacts on weed density, suggesting that residues did not adversely affect herbicide efficacy. Without residual herbicides, early-season weed density was often higher following the late-terminated cover crop compared with other termination treatments, though midseason weed density was typically lower. When termination treatment affected final weed biomass, it was lower following late termination, with one exception—crop establishment was reduced at 1 site-year, leading to reduced weed–crop competition and greater weed biomass. Our results suggest that growers can use mixtures and, if well-timed to a rainfall event for incorporation, still effectively use soil-residual herbicides to maintain adequate weed control in tobacco regardless of how the cover crop is managed. Later termination, resulting in more residue, may lead to less weed biomass accumulation in the absence of herbicide use.
Clay-mineral type and content, bulk mineralogical composition and alteration of bentonite are very important factors for the ultra-long-term stabilization of barriers and backfills in radioactive waste disposal. This study investigates the effects of clay-mineral type and content on the swelling characteristics and permeability of bentonite–sand mixtures with clay minerals using one-dimensional swelling-pressure and constant-pressure permeability tests. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite–sand–clay mineral mixtures increased with increasing content of non-swelling alteration products of montmorillonite. Furthermore, hydraulic conductivity was comparable to that determined with the Kozeny–Carman equation for a specific surface area, suggesting that hydraulic conductivity may be estimated based on the abundance of expected alteration products of montmorillonite. This study provides a basis for evaluation of the hydraulic conductivity of bentonite–sand mixtures with known quantities of expected alteration products of montmorillonite.
It has been nearly 70 years since the discovery that strict adherence to a diet low in phenylalanine prevents severe neurological sequelae in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (phenylketonuria; PKU). Today, dietary treatment with restricted phenylalanine intake supplemented with non-phenylalanine amino acids to support growth and maintain a healthy body composition remains the mainstay of therapy. However, a better understanding is needed of the factors that influence N balance in the context of amino acid supplementation. The aim of the present paper is to summarise considerations for improving N balance in patients with PKU, with a focus on gaining greater understanding of amino acid absorption, disposition and utilisation. In addition, the impact of phenylalanine-free amino acids on 24 h blood phenylalanine/tyrosine circadian rhythm is evaluated. We compare the effects of administering intact protein v. free amino acid on protein metabolism and discuss the possibility of improving outcomes by administering amino acid mixtures so that their absorption profile mimics that of intact protein. Protein substitutes with the ability to delay absorption of phenylalanine and tyrosine, mimicking physiological absorption kinetics, are expected to improve the rate of assimilation into protein and minimise fluctuations in quantitative plasma amino acid levels. They may also help maintain normal glycaemia and satiety sensation. This is likely to play an important role in improving the management of patients with PKU.
This work presents the synthesis of minerals with a layered structure in supercritical water/ethanol mixtures to decrease the critical coordinates of the solvent regarding water. Depending on the water/ethanol ratio of the solvent, we obtained three different minerals adopting an octahedral brucitic sheet: (1) without a Si-tetrahedral sheet (O); (2) associated with one Si-tetrahedral sheet (T-O); or (3) intercalated between two Si-tetrahedral sheets (T-O-T). We have thus shown that ethanol in a supercritical water/ethanol mixture changes the solubility of silicon with a direct consequence on the formation of the tetrahedral silicon sheets and thus makes it possible to control the structure of the synthesized layered material.
There is a lot of evidence that chicory could be a highly palatable and nutritious source of forage for ruminants, well adapted to climate change and dry conditions in summer, thanks to its resistance to drought and high water content. This study aimed to describe the effect of incorporating chicory to ryegrass or to a ryegrass–white clover mixture on feeding behaviour, digestive parameters, nitrogen (N) balance and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep. In total, three swards of ryegrass, white clover and chicory were established and managed in a manner ensuring the forage use at a constant vegetative stage throughout the experiment. In all, four dietary treatments (pure ryegrass; binary mixture: 50% ryegrass–50% chicory; ternary mixture: 50% ryegrass–25% white clover–25% chicory; and pure chicory) were evaluated in a 4×4 replicated Latin square design with eight young castrated Texel sheep. Each experimental period consisted of an 8-day diet adaptation phase, followed by a 6-day measuring phase during which intake dynamics, chewing activity, digestibility, rumen liquid passage rate, fermentation end-products, N balance and CH4 emissions were determined. Data were analysed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts were used to detect the potential associative effects between ryegrass and chicory. The daily voluntary dry matter intake was lower for pure ryegrass than for diets containing chicory (P<0.001) and increased quadratically from 1.39 to 1.74 kg/day with increasing proportion of chicory. Huge positive quadratic effects (P<0.001) between ryegrass and chicory were detected on eating time and eating rate just after feeding indicating an increase of the motivation to eat with mixtures, whereas rumination activity decreased linearly with the proportion of chicory (P<0.001). The organic matter digestibility was similar among treatments (around 80%), but a strong positive quadratic P<0.001) effect was observed on liquid passage rate suggesting that chicory allowed fast particle breakdown in the rumen. Animals fed with the ryegrass–white clover–chicory mixture had the higher urinary N losses (P<0.001), whereas retained N per day or per g N intake was greater when the proportion of chicory was at least 50% (P<0.001) being ~40% greater than for the other treatments. The CH4 yield was lower with pure chicory than with the other treatments (P<0.001) for which emissions were similar. In conclusion, mixing ryegrass and chicory in equal proportions produces a synergy on voluntary intake and an improved N use efficiency likely due to complementarity in chemical composition, increased motivation to eat and faster ruminal particle breakdown.
Developmental exposure to phthalates has been implicated as a risk for obesity; however, epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results and mechanisms are poorly understood. An additional layer of complexity in epidemiological studies is that humans are exposed to mixtures of many different phthalates. Here, we utilize an established mouse model of perinatal exposure to investigate the effects of three phthalates, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), on body weight and organ weights in weanling mice. In addition to individual phthalate exposures, we employed two mixture exposures: DEHP+DINP and DEHP+DINP+DBP. Phthalates were administered through phytoestrogen-free chow at the following exposure levels: 25 mg DEHP/kg chow, 25 mg DBP/kg chow and 75 mg DINP/kg chow. The viable yellow agouti (Avy) mouse strain, along with measurement of tail DNA methylation, was used as a biosensor to examine effects of phthalates and phthalate mixtures on the DNA methylome. We found that female and male mice perinatally exposed to DINP alone had increased body weights at postnatal day 21 (PND21), and that exposure to mixtures did not exaggerate these effects. Females exposed to DINP and DEHP+DINP had increased relative liver weights at PND21, and females exposed to a mixture of DEHP+DINP+DBP had increased relative gonadal fat weight. Phthalate-exposed Avy/a offspring exhibited altered coat color distributions and altered DNA methylation at intracisternal A-particles (IAPs), repetitive elements in the mouse genome. These findings provide evidence that developmental exposures to phthalates influence body weight and organ weight changes in early life, and are associated with altered DNA methylation at IAPs.
The experiments reported in this research paper describe the effects of β-galactosidase enzyme dose and cheese whey amount, on the maximum concentration and yield of galacto-oligosaccahride (GOS) and reaction time. The experimental plan was based on central composite rotational design (CCRD) and modelled by response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicate that the proposed mathematical models could adequately describe the concentration and yield of GOS and the reaction time within the limits of the factors that are being investigated. The variance analysis shows high values of coefficients of determination (>0·97) while no significant lack of fit was evident. Hence, the models could be employed to select reaction conditions applied in the manufacture of products enriched in bioactive compounds with high value-added.
Weed management systems were established near Lubbock, TX in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to assess the effectiveness of premixed 2,4-D choline+glyphosate alone and in combination with glufosinate and soil-residual herbicides for Palmer amaranth control. Systems consisted of trifluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by an early POST application followed by a mid-POST application. Palmer amaranth control 21 days after the early POST application ranged from 75 to 90% for all treatments that included 2,4-D choline+glyphosate alone or in a tank-mixture in 2013. Twenty-eight days after the mid-POST application, Palmer amaranth was controlled 86 to 99% for all herbicide systems with the exception of systems that included a mid-POST application of glufosinate alone. Combined across 2014 and 2015, Palmer amaranth control 21 days after the early POST application ranged from 96 to 98% for all systems that included 2,4-D choline+glyphosate, 2,4-D choline alone, or 2,4-D choline in a tank-mixture. Combined across 2014 and 2015, Palmer amaranth control 28 days after the mid-POST application ranged from 95 to 100% with the exception of the following: trifluralin preplant incorporated followed by glufosinate with or without acetochlor applied early POST followed by glufosinate mid-POST and trifluralin preplant incorporated followed by glyphosate early POST followed by glyphosate mid-POST. Overall, numerous effective systems were identified; however, systems containing 2,4-D choline+glyphosate or 2,4-D choline early POST and/or mid-POST were among the most effective. Glyphosate or glufosinate only systems or systems that relied on glufosinate alone at the mid-POST timing were inconsistent and often performed poorly.
We consider phase-type scale mixture distributions which correspond to distributions of a product of two independent random variables: a phase-type random variable Y and a non-negative but otherwise arbitrary random variable S called the scaling random variable. We investigate conditions for such a class of distributions to be either light- or heavy-tailed, we explore subexponentiality and determine their maximum domains of attraction. Particular focus is given to phase-type scale mixture distributions where the scaling random variable S has discrete support – such a class of distributions has been recently used in risk applications to approximate heavy-tailed distributions. Our results are complemented with several examples.
Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Constitutive equations, based on continuum mechanics and representing behavior of a mixture of two elastic solids, can be used for modeling of materials such as particulate composites. In this study, the behavior of continuum of a mixture occupying half-space under axisymmetric loads is calculated using Fourier and Hankel transform methods. For this purpose, Love's strain functions are used and the general solution of problem under proper boundary conditions is presented. By applying the results obtained to the sinusoidal distributed vertical load and Boussinesq problems that require the use of Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems, displacement vectors, diffusive force vector and components of stress tensors are calculated. At the end of the study, the experimental results of a special particulate composite are used to check the accuracy of the solutions obtained.
Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg/day), milk solids production (+0.04 kg/day) and pasture DM intake (+1.5 kg DM/day) were observed for MSS than for mixed swards. These positive effects of MSS were observed for all seasons, but particularly during summer where chicory proportion was the highest. In conclusion, advantages of grazing MSS on cow performance were due to the cumulative effect of improved pasture nutritive value and increased pasture DM intake that raised milk production and milk solids production.
Sicklepod and pitted morningglory are two of the most important weed species in row-crop production in the southeastern United States. The upcoming introduction of soybean and cotton varieties resistant to 2,4-D and dicamba will increase the reliance on these auxinic herbicides. However, it is not clear how these herbicides will affect sicklepod and pitted morningglory control. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Jay, FL to determine whether 2,4-D (560 and 1,120 g ae ha−1), dicamba (420 and 840 g ae ha−1), and glyphosate (1,060 g ae ha−1) alone or in combination applied when weed shoots were 11 (early POST [EPOST]) and 22 (late POST [LPOST]) cm long effectively control and prevent seed production of sicklepod and pitted morningglory. LPOST provided more effective control of sicklepod than EPOST. This was attributed to emergence of sicklepod seedlings after the EPOST application. When glyphosate was tank mixed with 2,4-D or dicamba, sicklepod control was higher (78 to 89% and 87 to 98% in 2013 and 2014, respectively) than for single-herbicide treatments (45 to 77% and 38 to 80% in 2013 and 2014, respectively) 6 wk after treatment (WAT). Pitted morningglory control was not affected by application timing, and 2,4-D provided 91 to 100% 6 WAT, which was equivalent to treatments with tank mixtures containing glyphosate. Dicamba applied at 420 g ha−1 had the lowest pitted morningglory control (44 to 70% and 82 to 86% in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Sicklepod and pitted morningglory plants that survived and recovered from herbicide treatments produced the same number of viable seeds as nontreated plants in most treatments. The results of the present study indicated that the use of 2,4-D and dicamba alone will not provide adequate extended control of sicklepod, and the use of tank mixtures that combine auxinic herbicides with glyphosate or other POST herbicides will be necessary to manage sicklepod adequately in 2,4-D- or dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton. Because sicklepod plants that survived a single herbicide application are capable of producing abundant viable seeds, integrated approaches that include PRE herbicides and sequential POST control options may be necessary to ensure weed seed bank reductions.