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This chapter reviews how personality disorder assessment, conceptualization, and treatment can be enhanced by considering interpersonal models. Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory (CIIT) provides conceptual grounding to interpersonal models, which are often constructed around the two dimensions of agency and communion. Agency captures the theme of achievement, status, control, and differentiation, whereas communion captures the theme of connectedness, union, solidarity, and friendship. The authors discuss how personality disorder patients often struggle with agency and communion, and review research articulating how personality disorders are associated with specific impairments in agency and communion in cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. They also propose a fifth assumption to CIIT to integrate emerging literature on pathological interpersonal patterns in personality disorders. This assumption emphasizes the importance of context in characterizing non-normative social exchanges beyond simple deviations from complementarity. They conclude by discussing how concepts in interpersonal models can be used to inform and implement therapy for patients with a personality disorder.
This rejoinder discusses four areas for growth articulated by the commentaries provided on the initial chapter. The authors add greater specificity for how interpersonal styles can inform therapy approaches. They discuss how static and dynamic conceptualizations of personality disorder can be approached from an interpersonal framework. They agree with Durbin about the importance of relationship context and discuss how interpersonal models can be applied to specific relationship contexts. Finally, they reassert the importance of context in understanding interpersonal processes, while recognizing that “context” is embedded through many of the interpersonal assumptions.
The behaviors, thoughts, and feelings related to psychopathology are often not of a static nature, but rather change and fluctuate over time in response to changes in daily life situations. Therefore, clinical psychology research can benefit from focusing on how psychopathological features behave over time, as this can provide new perspectives and insights concerning the phenomenology and mechanisms underlying psychopathology. The collection of intensive longitudinal data, consisting of many repeated measurements from single participants, allows for the investigation of several dynamic properties of single or multiple symptoms (and their interrelations). This chapter presents an overview of some major dynamic properties that can be studied with intensive longitudinal data. First, it focuses on several univariate approaches, allowing the examination of one single feature over time. Then it discusses some methods and models to further examine the dynamic relationships between two or more symptoms. For each approach, information is provided on how to calculate simple indices on a more descriptive level, as well as how to model the dynamic features using more complex models.
We consider here a certain class of groupoids obtained via an equivalence relation (the so-called subgroupoids of pair groupoids). We generalize to Haar systems in these groupoids some results related to entropy and pressure which are well known in thermodynamic formalism. We introduce a transfer operator, where the equivalence relation (which defines the groupoid) plays the role of the dynamics and the corresponding transverse function plays the role of the a priori probability. We also introduce the concept of invariant transverse probability and of entropy for an invariant transverse probability, as well as of pressure for transverse functions. Moreover, we explore the relation between quasi-invariant probabilities and transverse measures. Some of the general results presented here are not for continuous modular functions but for the more general class of measurable modular functions.
this chapter explores the medium through which the Nigerian population addressed and contested the series of rules, restrictions, and regulations imposed by the British to address the crisis generated by the war. In this context, the letters and petitions Nigerians wrote provided opportunities to locate African voices, as they confronted the new political and economic system introduced during the war. This chapter reveals that, although support for the war cut across class lines, most of the upper class and political elite were less concerned with the issues of daily survival, such as food insecurity and matters of daily subsistence, that lay at the root of these petitions. It concludes that the richness of these petitions allows for a better understanding of the impacts of the war on rural families and urban communities and situates the civilian experience within the larger context of the war and colonial society while creating a space for petitioners to participate in the larger discourse. It argues that Nigerian petitions reveal how local economic conditions and production systems linked a broad range of people, classes, and spatial categories and allowed them to move into the realm of public discourses on war, colonialism, and policy.
Scholars up until the middle of the twentieth century saw Roman warfare as restrained and disciplined. At that point the consensus changed to one that viewed it as fierce and bellicose. This view, in turn, has been challenged in the early twenty-first century, with the argument that Roman conflict was typical for ancient states. Rome’s rise from city-state to empire certainly involved considerable violence, but the available evidence cannot conclusive demonstrate either that it was particularly brutal and aggressive or that its military actions were ordinary for the period. Sources report that Roman battle was especially bloody, but this can be interpreted as a result of culture or of weaponry. We read of large numbers of civilians killed and enslaved, but such accounts need to be viewed critically and compared to the ancient norm. Additionally, the reality and nature of the imperial Pax Romana continues to be debated. The apparent decline in uprisings against Roman rule is worthy of note, but there may have been revolts and wars we do not know about. At this point in time historians are not in a position to definitively state what the nature of Roman military violence was.
The victim State of an unlawful cyber operation may have recourse to extrajudicial measures to compel the wrongdoing State to fulfil its obligations. This chapter analyses the main forms of self-help that may be used by the victim State, namely retorsion, countermeasures and self-defence. Generally, the literature dealing with self-help and cyber operations focuses on self-defence. The conclusion that most cyber operations fall short of an armed attack has led some scholars to, alternatively, consider the possibility of countermeasures as a response to state-sponsored cyber operations. The approach should be reversed, and countermeasures should be considered the primary and preferred form of self-help against cyber operations. This would then mean that self-defence is only considered in exceptional cases. The argument is not that self-defence should be totally discarded, but that applying it as the primary form of remedy should be avoided. Only in some limited cases might self-defence constitute the best, if not the only, option available to the victim State of a cyber operation.
This chapter reconstructs and analyzes the Libyan crisis and the international response from February 26, 2011, to March 17, when the Security Council adopted resolution 1973. The chapter examines how the violence in Libya escalated and analyzes the Libyan regime’s approach as well as the manner in which the opposition operated. Subsequently, it assesses the response of the international community to the deteriorating crisis in Libya. While the UN continued to mount pressure on the Qadhafi regime, other international actors also played a prominent role, notably the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and a number of regional organizations such as the Arab League. The analysis demonstrates that the decision President Obama ultimately took to approve the use of “all necessary measures” in order to protect civilians, was inspired by the principles of the "just war," and was of crucial importance for the Security Council’s authorization to use military force. The chapter examines the decision-making processes leading to the adoption of resolution 1973, and analyzes the substance of the resolution – as well as its inherent ambivalence.
We prove that for any countable group
, there exists a free minimal continuous action
on the Cantor set admitting an invariant Borel probability measure.
We consider a certain two-parameter family of automorphisms of the affine plane over a complete, locally compact non-Archimedean field. Each of these automorphisms admits a chaotic attractor on which it is topologically conjugate to a full two-sided shift map, and the attractor supports a unit Borel measure which describes the distribution of the forward orbit of Haar-almost all points in the basin of attraction. We also compute the Hausdorff dimension of the attractor, which is non-integral.
Design is inherently affected by human-related factors and it is of no surprise that the fine-tuning of instruments capable of measuring aspects of human behavior has attracted interest in the design field. The recalled instruments include a variety of devices that capture and quantitatively assess people's unintentional and unconscious reactions and that are generally referred as neurophysiological or biometric. The number of experimental applications of these instruments in design was extremely limited as of 2016, when Lohmeyer and Meboldt published a first report on relevant measures and their interpretation in design. In the last few years, the number of relevant publications has increased dramatically and this determines the opportunity to carry out a comprehensive review in the field. The reviewed contributions are analyzed and classified according to, among others, instruments used, the kind of stakeholders involved and the supported design research activities. The role of biometric measures with respect to traditional research methods is emphasized too. The discussed instruments can represent supports or substitutes for traditional approaches, as well as they are capable of exploring phenomena that could not be addressed hitherto. The intensity of research concerning experiments with biometric measurements is discussed too; a particular focus of the final discussion is the individuation of obstacles that prevent them from becoming commonplace in design research.
The local organizational life of political parties displays notable variation that merits systematic examination. The purpose of this chapter is to document the divergent trajectories of subnational organizational units, providing the basis for the subsequent analysis of developmental variation. The first section analyzes the basic characteristics of all local party organizations the Golden Dawn (GD) set up, laying the groundwork for the subsequent analysis of variation in their organizational evolution. The second section provides insights into local organizational life by analyzing the range of activities they have undertaken over a period of twenty-three years. The third section uses these data to show the distinct trajectories of the various local units of the GD and analyze variation in organizational outcomes. It first presents evidence regarding the degree of continuity these local structures display bringing to the surface cases of organizational persistence and fatality. It then delves deeper into the organizational life of local party branches and presents data regarding their activism.
This chapter describes noncognitive assessments that measure skills and traits such as leadership, moral character, empathy, social consciousness, and civic responsibility that may be used in admissions decisions. The traditional measures of noncognitive factors, such as letters of recommendation, as well as more modern tools such as situational judgment tests and biodata, are described, and existing research, possible sources of bias, and concerns related to their use reviewed. Recommendations for using practice for the various assessments are discussed.
Protected area systems include sites preserved by various institutions and mechanisms, but the benefits to biodiversity provided by different types of sites are poorly understood. Protected areas established by local communities for various reasons may provide complementary benefits to those established by large-scale agencies and organizations. Local communities are geographically constrained, however, and it remains unclear how effectively they protect biodiversity. We explored this issue by focusing on protected areas established through direct democracy via local ballot initiatives whereby communities vote to tax themselves for open space preservation. We compared the effectiveness of local ballot-protected areas to areas protected by a large-scale conservation actor, The Nature Conservancy (TNC). We evaluated how well the two protected area types correspond with amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and special status elements of natural diversity. Local ballot-protected areas differed from those of TNC in terms of size, location, proximity to urban areas and habitat diversity. In terms of potential habitat coverage, local ballot-protected areas outperformed TNC sites for all species groups with the exception of special status elements of natural diversity. While not necessarily targeting wildlife and habitats, we conclude that locally established protected areas can make an important contribution to biodiversity conservation.
‘The great rebel’, as Machiavelli now called Piero, was a fugitive for the nine years between his escape from Florence on 9 November 1494 to his death by drowning on 28 December 1503. It was a time of great turbulence. The two French expeditions to claim the kingdom of Naples in 1494 and 1499 not only exiled the Medici from Florence and the Aragonese from Naples, but also destabilised the whole of Italy as they came and went. As the Florentines predicted, Piero ‘threw himself’ wherever Florence had enemies, and these enemies in turn used the Medici as ‘instruments and, as they say, a lure’, in order to foment trouble in the city and uprisings in its territory.1 Like a matador who wears out his victim by endless prodding from different flanks, Piero constantly threatened Florence as he crossed and recrossed Italy – moving from Venice to Pitigliano, Bolsena and Narni to Rome; back to Venice, then to Milan and Pisa, before returning to Rome; to Perugia, Viterbo and Bracciano, Naples and back to Rome. His relatively few surviving letters from this period initially reflect shock and self-pity for what had happened to him, then anger and alienation. More revealing of his state of mind are the poems he wrote during his exile. The two opening poems allude more obviously to his grief, his face ‘washed with tears’ as he thinks ‘of what I am and what I was’ and his one hope, if not allowed to return, of being buried in Florence with his father, ‘who once made the city so glorious and eminent’. It is the third poem, ‘Cruel, unhappy day and full of grief’, that shows the extent of his bitterness in using the unexpected images of the two exiles Thyestes and Medea (the father who ate his children and the mother who slaughtered hers) to depict the depths to which they sank and the fate of their unhappy children – perhaps with his own children in mind. Instead of returning to Florence, he died far away in southern Italy, and all ‘the great rebel’ achieved, according to Machiavelli, was ‘the burial of five citizens’, his most loyal supporters in the city, who were executed after his failed attempt to return to Florence in 1497.2 These years offer a sad but revealing coda to his early years in power.
Intellectual assessment has a unique role in psychological assessment, as it has been front and center in public debate and policy. Measures of intelligence describe an individual’s cognitive abilities and are highly correlated with academic achievement, occupational success, health, and mortality. This chapter briefly describes the major theories of intelligence, the instruments currently used to assess intelligence, and issues surrounding the use and interpretation of intelligence measures. Guidance is provided on selecting an appropriate instrument for a particular client, with discussion of construct coverage, psychometric soundness, normative sample characteristics, and relations to other measures. Logistical issues such as administration time, material requirements, and usability are also discussed. In addition to selecting appropriate measures, examiners need to develop habits that facilitate the unbiased interpretation of results. An overview of multicultural issues is included to help guide awareness of sources of influence on test results and interpretation.
Economic activity is unevenly distributed across space, or spiky. Measuring this spikiness is not trivial. A good measure is comparable across space, comparable across sectors, unbiased regarding spatial and sector classification, and should provide a measure of significance. No measure fulfils all these criteria, but some are better than others. Once spikiness is identified the next question is ‘so what?’ Does spatial agglomeration stimulate productivity? Econometric methods to deal with this question and tackle the problem of reverse causality are: difference-in-differences, natural experiments, and regression discontinuity design. These techniques are introduced in this chapter.
This study aimed to examine: (1) patient–proxy agreement on executive functioning (EF) of patients with primary brain tumors, (2) the relationships between patient- and proxy-report with performance-based measures of EF, and (3) the potential influence of performance-based measures on the level of agreement.
Meningioma and low-grade glioma patients and their informal caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A) 3 months after surgery. The two index scores of the BRIEF-A, Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition, were evaluated. Mean scores of patients and proxies were compared with normative values and with each other. Patient–proxy agreement was evaluated with Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and Bland–Altman plots. Pearson correlation coefficients between reported EF and performance-based measures of EF were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential influence of test performance on differences in dyadic reports.
A total of 47 dyads were included. Patients reported significantly more problems on the Metacognition Index compared to norms, and also in comparison with their proxies. Effect sizes indicated small differences. Moderate to substantial agreement was observed between patients and proxies, with CCCs of 0.57 and 0.61 for Metacognition and Behavioral Regulation, respectively. Correlations between reported EF and test performance ranged between −0.37 and 0.10. Dyadic agreement was not significantly influenced by test performance.
Patient–proxy agreement was found to be moderate. No clear associations were found between reported EF and test performance. Future studies should further explore the existing and new methods to assess everyday EF in brain tumor patients.