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Implementation of laser-plasma-based acceleration stages in user-oriented facilities requires the definition and deployment of appropriate diagnostic methodologies to monitor and control the acceleration process. An overview is given here of optical diagnostics for density measurement in laser-plasma acceleration stages, with emphasis on well-established and easily implemented approaches. Diagnostics for both neutral gas and free-electron number density are considered, highlighting real-time measurement capabilities. Optical interferometry, in its various configurations, from standard two-arm to more advanced common-path designs, is discussed, along with spectroscopic techniques such as Stark broadening and Raman scattering. A critical analysis of the diagnostics presented is given concerning their implementation in laser-plasma acceleration stages for the production of high-quality GeV electron bunches.
A novel method to generate shock waves in small tubes is demonstrated. A femtosecond laser is applied to generate an optical breakdown an aluminum film as target. Due to the sudden appearance of this non-equilibrium state of the target, a shock wave is induced. The shock wave is further driven by the expanding high-pressure plasma (up to 10 Mbar), which serves as a quasi-piston, until the plasma recombines. The shock wave then propagates further into a glass capillary (different square capillaries with hydraulic diameter D down to 50 µm are applied). Shock wave propagation is investigated by laser interferometry. Although the plasma is an unsteady driver, due to the geometrical confinement of the capillaries, rather strong micro shocks can still propagate as far as 35 times D. In addition to the experiments, the initial conditions of this novel method are investigated by hydrocode simulations using MULTI-fs.
Solar radio astronomy is a fast developing research field in Colombia. Here, we present the scientific goals, specifications and current state of the First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer consisting of two log-periodic antennas covering a frequency bandwidth op to 800 MHz. We describe the importance and benefits of its development to the radioastronomy in Latin America and its impact on the scientific community and general public.
We use satellite radar interferometry to investigate changes in the location of the Petermann Glacier grounding line between 1992 and 2011. The grounding line location was identified in 17 quadruple-difference interferograms produced from European Remote Sensing (ERS)-1/2 data – the most extensive time series assembled at any ice stream to date. There is close agreement (20.6 cm) between vertical displacement of the floating ice shelf and relative tide amplitudes simulated by the Arctic Ocean Dynamics-based Tide Model 5 (AODTM-5) Arctic tide model. Over the 19 a period, the groundling line position varied by 470 m, on average, with a maximum range of 7.0 km observed on the north-east margin of the ice stream. Although the mean range (2.8 km) and variability (320 m) of the grounding line position is considerably lower if the unusually variable north-east sector is not considered, our observations demonstrate that large, isolated movements cannot be precluded, thus sparse temporal records should be analysed with care. The grounding line migration observed on Petermann Glacier is not significantly correlated with time (R2 = 0.22) despite reported ice shelf thinning and episodes of large iceberg calving, which suggests that unlike other ice streams, on the south-west margin of the Greenland ice sheet, Petermann Glacier is dynamically stable.
The construction of a prototype telescope is now reaching the stage of mirror polishing and building the active cell. Three blanks have already been produced. Two polishing methods are tested, utilizing the stressing technics, or involving excentered polishing strokes. A working model of one leg of the telescope translator has been built.
A new method to reconstruct the phase of bidimensional interferograms, obtained through pupil-plane interferometry is presented. We compute the average complex phasor components of the cross-spectrum on a data set to reconstruct the original unperturbed phase. We present preliminary results on simulated images which visibility phases are distorted using a model of atmospheric perturbed wavefronts.
The spatial distribution of dust around a sample of well-known late-type stars has been studied with the Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) located at Mt. Wilson. Currently operating with a single baseline as a heterodyne interferometer at 11.15 μm, the ISI has obtained visibility curves of these stars. Radiative transfer modeling of the visibility curves has yielded estimates of the inner radii of the dust shells, the optical depth at 11 μm, and the temperature of the dust at the inner radii. For stars in which the dust is resolved, estimates of the stellar diameter and temperature can also be made. Broadly speaking two classes of stars have been found. One class has inner radii of their dust shells very close to the photospheres of the stars themselves (3–5 stellar radii) and at a higher temperature (~ 1200 K) than previously measured. This class includes VY CMa, NML Tau, IRC +10216, and o Ceti. For the latter two the visibility curves change with the luminosity phase of the star and new dust appears to form at still smaller radii during minimum luminosity. The second class of stars has dust shells with substantially larger inner radii and very little dust close to the stars, and includes α Ori, α Sco, α Her, R Leo, and χ Cyg. This indicates sporadic production of dust and no dust formation within the last several decades.
Four existing millimeter arrays have been very productive in the last few years and are currently being expanded in their capabilities. Recent technical developments in these arrays as well as the prospects for submillimeter interferometry and larger arrays are presented.
We made aperture masking optical interferometry experiments using up to 30 apertures and with a tip-tilt correction of wavefront error. We examined the performance of minimum redundant configurations of 11–30 sub-apertures on the pupil plane mask. These configurations have two advantages; the redundancy noise is as small as realized in non-redundant masking method, and the uv-coverage is as high as in speckle interferometry enabling to get reconstructed images without mask exchange. We also examined the effect of tip-tilt wavefront correction within a telescope pupil in front of the aperture masking optics. The light coherency between sub-apertures was shown to increase by the correction.
The existence of circumstellar disks around young stellar objects like T Tauri stars is now well accepted. Such disks would have solar system sizes and, at the distance of the nearest star forming cloud, an angular diameter of 0.01 to 1 arcsecond at most, requiring very high angular resolution to be detected. Due to the nature of the emission process in circumstellar disks and to chromatic properties of ground based observations, disk imaging is expected to be more efficient in the near infrared. Also, multi-aperture interferometry in this wavelength range (1 – 10 μm) is expected to bring considerable insight into the disks properties and evolution in revealing their inner physical structure.
In this paper, we present synthetic images of circumstellar accretion disks. The images have been computed from a complete disk vertical structure model.
In an optical interferometer, the delay lines compensate the optical path difference between the different arms of the interferometer, so that the interference patterns, which contain the information, can be observed. Thanks to the phase closure technics, the phase information can be extracted, despite the random phase shifts introduced by the atmospheric turbulence. As we used the redundant spacing calibration to reconstruct an image, the telescopes of the interferometer have to be arranged according to a given iterative procedure. The advantage of this technics is to enable the reconstruction of an image without any a priori knowledge on the object. But this implies constraints on the configurations of the telescopes array, and therefore on the offsets and on the kinematics of the delay lines. Their motion have been studied to define the future layout of the 3 telescopes optical interferometer of the Calern's Observatory (CHARON III project) and also to define the operational procedure.
Radio astronomy began with one array (Jansky's) and one paraboloid of revolution (Reber's) as collecting areas and has now reached the point where a large number of facilities are arrays of paraboloids, each of which would have looked enormous to Reber in 1932. In the process, interferometry has contributed to the counting of radio sources, establishing superluminal velocities in AGN jets, mapping of sources from the bipolar cow shape on up to full grey-scale and colored images, determining spectral energy distributions requiring non-thermal emission processes, and much else. The process has not been free of competition and controversy, at least partly because it is just a little difficult to understand how earth-rotation, aperture-synthesis interferometry works. Some very important results, for instance the mapping of HI in the Milky Way to reveal spiral arms, warping, and flaring, actually came from single moderate-sized paraboloids. The entry of China into the radio astronomy community has given large (40-110 meter) paraboloids a new lease on life.
Leaf stomatal characteristics of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) were investigated by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. On the basis of average annual precipitations, two types of tree specimens were collected from Korea, China, and Mongolia: (1) trees under normal environmental conditions and (2) trees under arid conditions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed oval-shaped stomata on the lower surface, and they were ca. 20 μm in width. In-lens secondary electron imaging showed differences in electron density and stomatal pore depth between the two types. According to the line profile analysis by white light scanning interferometry, stomata under arid conditions appeared to have higher levels of the stomatal pore depth than ones under normal conditions. Focused ion beam–field emission electron microscopy supported the increased stomatal pore depth with the increasing drought stress gradient. These results suggest that complementary microscopy can be employed to unravel the adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Siberian elm in response to drought stress.
The interaction between planetary formation and protostellar disks is among the most critical remaining pieces in the puzzle of solar system assembly. Leading theoretical models are constructed around two distinct scenarios: gravitational instabilities and core accretion. The physics of each applies to quite different epochs of formation, and exhibits complex dependencies on parameters like disk density and viscosity. Untangling the effects such processes have on the final planetary statistics necessitates direct observation of exoplanets in their primordial state, prior to orbital migration. Furthermore, detailed study of the environment, such as the way the planets shape the protostellar disk by driving accretion streams across disk gaps, will also constrain formation models. Aperture masking interferometry has demonstrated a unique ability to probe the gaps within stellar disks. It has twin advantages of a higher dynamic range at the diffraction limit (λ/D) than differential imaging, while at the same time giving very extensive UV coverage compared to long baseline interferometry.
There has been much debate in recent decades as to what fraction of ionising photons from star-forming regions in the Galactic disk escape into the halo. The recent detection of the Magellanic Stream in optical line emission at the CTIO 4 m and the AAT 3·9 m telescopes may now provide the strongest evidence that at least some of the radiation escapes the disk completely. We present a simple model to demonstrate that, while the distance to the Magellanic Stream is uncertain, the observed emission measures (εm ≈ 0·5 – 1 cm−6 pc) are most plausibly explained by photoionisation due to hot, young stars. This model requires that the mean Lyman-limit opacity perpendicular to the disk is τLL ≈ 3, and the covering fraction of the resolved clouds is close to unity. Alternative sources (e.g. shock, halo, LMC or metagalactic radiation) contribute negligible ionising flux.
This paper presents the evaluation of the uncertainty for the length measurement of gauge blocks by optical interferometry. In order to improve the gauge block calibration method and to decrease measurement uncertainty the old Zeiss-Kösters gauge block interferometer has been modified and improved by DMDM (Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals of Serbia). The main modification of the interferometer covers introduction of two laser sources, as new wavelength standards, as well as new hardware system and interferometer software, developed to completely automate the calibration process. The validation of the new measurement procedure details the uncertainty budget. The measurement method and model equation, which serves as the basis for the uncertainty evaluation is described. The uncertainty evaluation is performed in accordance with the document JCGM 100:2008-Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM).
Radio and mm observations play an important role in determining the star formation properties of high redshift galaxies. However, most galaxies at high redshift are too faint to be detected individually at these wavelengths. A way to study this population of galaxies is to use stacking. By averaging the emission of a large number of galaxies detected in optical or near infrared surveys, we can achieve statistical detection.
We investigate methods for stacking data from interferometric surveys. Interferometry poses unique challenges in stacking due to the nature of imaging of this data. We have compared directly stacking the uv data with stacking of the imaged data, the latter being the typically used approach. Using simulated data, we find that uv-stacking may provide around 50% less noise and that image based stacking systematically loses around 10% of the flux.
We present results of a VLBI experiment at a wavelength of 18 cm, which simulates the ground-space interferometer with space link to RadioAstron. An array of five antennas was used, four of them are located in the Russian Federation, plus the the 32-m radio telescope in Medicine (Italy). The 22-m radio telescope in Pushchino (Moscow Region) acted in place of the space arm. It has an effective area of 100 square meters. The three other Russian 32-m antennas are operated by the Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS; they are located at Badary, Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya (interferometer network “Quasar”). The maximum base-line, Badary-Svetloe, was about 4402 km, providing an angular resolution of about 0.009 arc seconds at a wavelength of 18 cm. The duration of the experiment was 10 hours on 02/03 February 2011. The program of observations included quasars 3C273, 3C279, 3C286 and the maser source - W3(OH). W3(OH) was observed only by the Russian telescopes and was investigated at the frequency of the 1665 MHz main line. The data were recorded on the MK5 recorder (32-m radio telescopes) and the RDR system (RadioAstron Digital Recorder) in Pushchino. The low SEFD (system equivalence of flux density) of Pushchino emulated the RadioAstron antenna. Correlation was performed with the universal software correlator of the AstroSpace Center of Lebedev Physical Institute. The correlator output format is compatible with that used by the AIPS package, which was used for data analysis. After analyzing the correlated data we obtained relative coordinates of the maser components. The main results are tabulated and presented in the figures. The data quality is sufficient for astrophysical analysis and comparison with previous observations of maser source W3(OH) on VLBI networks EVN and VLBA.
Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.
Morphology of foliar trichomes was analyzed in Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling. Leaves from suppressed or dominant sprouts of the oak species were collected after a forest fire to unravel the effects of the disturbance factor on sprouting of the oak species. Scanning electron microscopy revealed two types of trichomes depending on the leaf surface. The trichomes on the adaxial surface were branched and constricted, and possessed a single row of thin-walled cells with a collapsed morphology (glandular branched uniseriate trichomes). Meanwhile, the trichomes on the abaxial surface were star-shaped, unfused with each other, and had 6 to 10 rays (nonglandular simple stellate trichomes). An apparent proliferation of trichomes was evident on the adaxial surface of the dominant sprouts. Uniseriate trichomes could be discernable as an elevation from the surface by white light scanning interferometry. By transmission electron microscopy, thin and convoluted cell wall, degenerated cytoplasm, and a single row of cells were characteristic of the trichomes on the adaxial surface. The thick cell walls of the mature trichomes on the abaxial surface represented the nonglandular nature. This is the first report on the morphological and ultrastructural characterization of foliar trichomes of the oak species.