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Examines the explosion of building activity and patronage associated with Pope Hadrian I (772–95), who sees off the final Lombard threat and forges a strong alliance with Charlemagne. Churches such as Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Santa Maria Antiqua (where his portrait was included), and Sant’ Adriano are examined for what their decorations reveal about the continuity of ‘Byzantine’ cultural influence and practice. Attention is then given to his repairs to Rome’s walls and water supply. The exceptional wealth of the papacy in this era permitted an unprecedented degree of generosity in terms of gifts of precious materials to the city’s churches (silk textiles, gold and silver metalwork, marble furnishings).
The third chapter deals with the three centuries immediately preceding the colonial annexation of the region. These three decades and especially the 1890s and the early 1900s are characterised by rampant elephant hunting in the region. The onslaught on north-west Namibia's wildlife brings about massive changes of the social ecological system. Elephants are discussed here as primary landscape architects. Once they were eliminated from the system, human settlement and vegetation dynamics changed and paved the way for the repastoralisation of the region. The chapter also depicts how international interest in ivory, ravenous elephant hunters, and deprived local communities concur to prepare for major changes in the environmental infrastructures of the region.
This introductory chapter sketches the key research questions: How do changing social-ecological relations and an increasing impact of non-local actors impact the savannah landscape of north-western Namibia? The chapter links the contents of the book with three paradigms: new materialism, environmental history, and political ecology. The chapter also introduces the lead-concept environmental infrastructure and discusses its merits for the study of landscape transformations. The introductory chapter also discusses twenty years of research on north-western Namibia and Himba and Herero pastoralists.
Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the 1950s to 1980s. The South African colonial administration's stand towards pastoral communities in northern Namibia changed profoundly. While the focus before was on control and encapsulation, now development and intensification were lead themes. The administration urged a comprehensive borehole-drilling programme upon the population. Within three decades two hundred boreholes were taken into operation. This hydrological revolution grossly changed the environmental infrastructure of the region. As a consequence livestock numbers rapidly increased, mobility patterns changed, and herding practices were altered.
The final chapter summarises the key results of the study, critically reflects upon the merits and challenges of key concepts (environmental infrastrucure, environing, social-ecological system, etc.) and contemplates what this case study may contribute to the theoretical paradigm new materialism.
Biological imaging tools continue to increase in speed, scale, and resolution, often resulting in the collection of gigabytes or even terabytes of data in a single experiment. In comparison, the ability of research laboratories to store and manage this data is lagging greatly. This leads to limits on the collection of valuable data and slows data analysis and research progress. Here we review common ways researchers store data and outline the drawbacks and benefits of each method. We also offer a blueprint and budget estimation for a currently deployed data server used to store large datasets from zebrafish brain activity experiments using light-sheet microscopy. Data storage strategy should be carefully considered and different options compared when designing imaging experiments.
The Public–Private–People partnership (4P) is a significant element in disaster response. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic has been the worst disaster in the last decades in Iran in terms of exposure and magnitude. In order to respond effectively, the Iranian Government needs an extra capacity, which may be provided by the private sector and people. This study aims to collect evidences of 4P pertaining to the COVID-19 response in Iran from February to April 2020. Partnership case studies are classified into 3 categories: (1) Public–private partnerships; (2) public–people partnerships; and (3) private–people partnerships. It was found that the Iranian Government has removed or diminished some of the barriers to cooperation. There was also more cooperation between the people, the private sector, and the public sector than during normal times (vs disasters). People participated in the response procedure through some associations or groups, such as religious and ethnic communities, as well as through non-governmental organizations. It has been shown that 4P is vital in disaster response and, in particular, to epidemics. The government can be more active in partnerships with the private sector and people in emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhancing social capital, institutionalization, and developing required infrastructures by the government will improve public–private partnerships.
The rehabilitation of essential services infrastructure following hostilities, whether during a conflict or post-conflict, is a complex undertaking. This is made more complicated in protracted conflicts due to the continuing cycle of damage and expedient repair amid changing demands. The rehabilitation paradigm that was developed for the successful post-World War II rehabilitation of Germany and Japan has been less successful since. There are a myriad of conflicting interests that impede its application, yet the issue consistently comes down to a lack of systems-level understanding of the current situation on the ground and a lack of alignment between what is delivered and the actual local need. This article proposes a novel conceptual framework to address this, affording a greater “system of systems” understanding of the local essential services and how they can be restored to reflect the changed needs of the local population that has itself been changed by the conflict. The recommendations draw on heuristic practice and commercially available tools to provide a practicable approach to restoring infrastructure function in order to enable essential services that are resilient to temporary returns to violence and support the overall rehabilitation of the affected community.
We analyze the factors that increase the likelihood that other nations will follow China's global economic leadership. While our theoretical framework incorporates the conventional argument that China pulls in followers with economic benefits, we focus on grievances with the current global order that have the effect of pushing countries toward the rising new leader. We find that grievances about global financial instability are particularly important push factors. Our results show that countries that have experienced more financial crises, more variable capital account policies, more volatile portfolio capital outflows, and more social unrest during IMF programs are more likely to support China's global leadership than leaders of nations that have been less exposed to these problems. We find no evidence that grievances about global governance, or grievances about discriminatory US trade policies, are related to foreign support for China's global economic leadership. Overall, our evidence is consistent with the interpretation that leaders want to reform and preserve the WTO and the IMF, which have worked reasonably well for them under US leadership. At the same time, they have incentives to follow China's economic leadership on global capital flows, emphasizing long-term infrastructure and development finance over short-term flows which, under the current order, have imposed large costs on many economies.
This chapter takes stock of geopolitical ventures in advancing colonialism from the nineteenth century to the present day. The chapter spotlights protest movements of colonized and displaced communities as they contend with forced mobility and militarized blockade by colonial forces.
Having a well-functioning financial system in place that directs funds to their most productive uses is a crucial prerequisite for economic development. The financial system consists of the financial infrastructure and all financial intermediaries and financial markets, and their relationships with respect to the flow of funds to and from households, governments, business firms, and foreigners. The main task of the financial system is to channel funds from those with a surplus to sectors that have a shortage of funds. In doing so, the financial sector performs two main functions: (1) reducing information and transaction costs and (2) facilitating the trading, diversification, and management of risk. This chapter discusses both of these functions at length. The importance of financial markets and financial intermediaries differs across Member States of the European Union. An important question is how these differences affect macroeconomic outcomes.
Supplying cities with sustainable energy is a major challenge as this requires deep transformation of the supply infrastructure in order to reduce energy waste and rely on local renewable energy sources. Building such a sustainable energy system requires a sound understanding of its entire supply chain and conversion steps from resources to final use so as to identify savings potential and prioritise actions. This chapter presents a systematic approach to assess the sustainability of energy systems that enables decision makers to build evidence-based strategies and take informed measures towards carbon neutral cities.
A decade of high economic growth (2003–2013) in Latin America accompanied with high social spending, produced a significant improvement in the living conditions of the region’s population. Household incomes grew, poverty and inequality rates fell, and job opportunities increased. However, beginning in 2013 the economic situation of Latin America experienced a downwards trend. The effects have been felt in reduced income due to the fewer labour opportunities afforded by a decrease in demand and investment, particularly in infrastructure. Moreover, investment in infrastructure has remained stagnant since the late 1990s. The present article is intended as a preliminary study regarding the feasibility of transferring the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act to the Latin American region. The paper contends that such a policy transfer could greatly improve the adverse employment conditions affecting large segments of the Latin American rural workforce and contribute to bridge the area’s rural-urban infrastructure gap.
This paper illustrates the development of Primary Health Care (PHC) public sector in Malaysia, through a series of health reforms in addressing equitable access. Malaysia was a signatory to the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. The opportunity provided the impetus to expand the Rural Health Services of the 1960s, guided by the principles of PHC which attempts to address the urban–rural divide to improve equity and accessibility. The review was made through several collation of literature searches from published and unpublished research papers, the Ministry of Health annual reports, the 5-year Malaysia Plans, National Statistics Department, on health systems programme and infrastructure developments in Malaysia. The Public Primary Care Health System has evolved progressively through five phases of organisational reforms and physical restructuring. It responded to growing needs over a 40-year period since the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, keeping equity, accessibility, efficiency and universal health coverage consistently in the backdrop. There were improvements of maternal, infant mortality rates as well as accessibility to health services for the population. The PHC Reforms in Malaysia are the result of structured and strategic investment. However, there will be continuing dilemma between cost-effectiveness and equity. Hence, continuous efforts are required to look at opportunity costs of alternative strategies to provide the best available solution given the available resources and capacities. While recognising that health systems development is complex with several layers and influencing factors, this paper focuses on a small but crucial aspect that occupies much time and energies of front-line managers in the health.
This paper examines the joint impact of infrastructure capital and institutional quality on economic growth using a large panel dataset covering 99 countries and spanning the years 1980–2015. The empirical strategy involves estimating a simple growth model where, in addition to standard controls, infrastructure, institutional quality, and their interaction are included as explanatory variables. Potential endogeneity concerns are addressed by employing generalized method of moments estimators that utilize internal instruments. We find that the interaction terms between infrastructure capital and institutional quality show a positive and significant impact on economic growth. These results are robust to a variety of alternative specifications and institutional quality measures. Hence, our results suggest that maximizing returns from infrastructure capital requires improving the quality of institutions.
Chapter 9, on siting and installation, considers some of the key steps leading to the successful installation of a wind energy project, whether a single machine or large array. A section on resource assessment considers site wind measurements, the IEC Wind Classification system, and the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) procedure for establishing long-term characteristics at a prospective site. Array interactions are described in terms of energy loss and increased turbulence: empirical models are given for predicting both effects, and wake influence is illustrated with field measurements from large and small arrays. The civil engineering aspects of project construction are examined, with description of different foundation types; simple rules are given for conventional gravity base design, with illustrations. The construction and environmental advantages of rock anchor foundations are described, and some examples are given. Transport, access, and crane operations are discussed. The use of winch erection is illustrated with the example of a 50kW machine. The chapter concludes with a short summary of the necessary electrical infrastructure between a wind turbine and the external grid network.
This chapter builds on the previous ones by presenting a close analysis of the institutional and infrastructural factors that precipitated the outbreak and that perpetuated its spread. Precipitating describes the factors that immediately triggered the outbreak while perpetuating describes the factors that maintained propitious conditions for the ongoing transmission of cholera and that curtailed an effective public health response. I argue that the origins, scale and impact of the cholera outbreak were overdetermined by a multi-level failure of Zimbabwe’s public health infrastructure. I situate this multi-level failure in the country’s political conflicts and economic crisis, which created a ‘perfect storm’ for the fulmination of cholera. The chapter is organised around three principal features of Zimbabwe’s health infrastructure: the collapse of functioning health care delivery services; the spectacular mismanagement and sabotage of the country’s water reticulation systems; and the livelihood changes ushered in by the Zimbabwe’s economic meltdown and hyperinflation, which rendered vast swathes of the population vulnerable to cholera through food insecurity and malnutrition.
Effective administration of healthcare in an emergency setting, especially in field-hospital deployment where order must be established, needs assessed and limited resources allocated effectively, is considerably more complex than the regular patient–doctor interactions characteristic of routine times. Due to the complexity and uncertainty typical of such an environment, leadership is required not only by the field hospital staff but also by the affected public, which seeks leadership in those who are perceived to be the center of clinical service delivery.
This type of leadership demands organized command and control and practice of more than just basic leadership processes, and therefore requires, alongside the mission leader, a structured management and task-orientated chain of command.
For the hospital to operate effectively and independently, it is necessary to also define the organizational structure. The organizational structure discussed in this chapter is a model tested over the past three decades by the IDF Medical Corps hospital in numerous missions. This structure is generally similar to the basic structure of a small- to medium-scale hospital in routine times. At the same time, it allows more focused and simple managing processes required in non-routine scenarios such as emergencies or disasters.
This paper introduces a set of principles that articulate a shared vision for increasing access to data in the engineering and related sectors. The principles are intended to help guide progress toward a data ecosystem that provides sustainable access to data, in ways that will help a variety of stakeholders in maximizing its value while mitigating potential harms. In addition to being a manifesto for change, the principles can also be viewed as a means for understanding the alignment, overlaps and gaps between a range of existing research programs, policy initiatives, and related work on data governance and sharing. After providing background on the growing data economy and relevant recent policy initiatives in the United Kingdom and European Union, we then introduce the nine key principles of the manifesto. For each principle, we provide some additional rationale and links to related work. We invite feedback on the manifesto and endorsements from a range of stakeholders.