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In order to pinpoint the centralization of wealth and power in Palestine, this chapter compares and contrasts levels of wealth across Galilee and Judea. There is no longer a clear demarcation between urban and rural settlements in first-century Galilee. Some villages demonstrate urban characteristics reflected by a variety of building styles and house decoration, and this is indicative of a distinct socio-economic hierarchy, with the emergence of an elite espousing Graeco-Roman tastes. In addition to arable and pastoral farming, various industries flourished, some on an industrial scale. The infrastructures of both Sepphoris and Tiberias had scarcely been developed by the early first century, with the houses of the rich at Sepphoris dating to the second century. Taking Magdala aside, which Jesus appeared to avoid as with other Galilean cities, the level of wealth identified in Galilee is far surpassed by that uncovered in Jerusalem, in particular the lavish mansions of the priestly aristocracy in the Upper City. The Upper City priestly quarter and its relationship to the nearby Temple embodies the centralization of wealth and power that Jesus opposed in first-century Palestine.
This chapter explores socio-economic versus halachic explanations for the distribution of ethnic indicators between Judea and Galilee. Fewer miqwa’ot and scant ossuaries have been found in Galilee. Regarding ossuaries, the trickle-down effect from the Judean elite, who had adopted this Roman mode of burial, to the Galilean elite, would have taken time and resulted in smaller and more modest adjustments; this could partially account for any ossuary disparity between Galilee and Judea pre-70 CE. But, more importantly, the difficulties in distinguishing between first-century and second-century Galilean tombs have hampered firm conclusions being made. The miqwa’ot data demonstrate a difference in the interpretation of the Halacha (religious rules), that reflects a diverse Judaism firmly underpinned by a common Judaism identified through a number of archaeological artefacts, such as the Herodian or knife-pared oil lamp common in both Galilee and Judea. The widespread presence of pig bones on Jewish sites, albeit in low numbers, also demonstrates a diverse Judaism. Stone vessels were discovered on all types of site across Judea and Galilee and, with the exception of large jars clearly produced for the wealthy, were used by all classes. This stone vessel revolution has been interpreted as establishing Jewish identity and self-sufficiency.
This article explores the process of the formalisation of the Swedish financial market, through an analysis of commercial bank lending in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The analysis shows that the incorporation of Swedish business around the turn of the century led to a shift from lending primarily backed by name security to an increased use of mortgage and shares as collateral – after the severe stock market crash in 1920/1 mortgage lending surpassed lending against shares as collateral. We interpret this change as an important part of the formalisation process of the financial system, as it standardised the valuation process and allowed creditors to exit on a secondary market. Our statistical testing points to increased financial wealth and liquidity represented by the broad money supply, plus population growth and urbanisation, as important forces behind this formalisation.
Unhealthy food and drink consumption is associated with a range of physical and mental health concerns. In response, public health policies have been developed targeting a reduction in obesity in particular. In the present commentary we argue that government–industry partnerships have reduced the effectiveness of resultant policies and explore why.
Perspectives of authors.
Populations in the UK; UK Government.
Industry involvement has presented three interrelated challenges for the UK Government: (i) balancing collaboration while maintaining appropriate distance from industry stakeholders; (ii) resultant production of ‘watertight’ and effective legislation or intervention; and (iii) actual or perceived limited sanctioning or bargaining power.
Industry involvement in public health policy making has led to weak action. Support with policy implementation (rather than development) and genuine ‘buy-in’ from industry could accelerate the pace of public health improvement.
When can complex multi-round environmental policymaking like that seen in climate be successful? An emerging branch of literature examines how sequencing matters to success and under what circumstances path dependent dynamics can lead to increasingly stringent climate and environmental policy. Here, I propose an industry typology that divides industry into four categories based on their relationship and likely response to early regulatory policy moves. I use a series of case studies that compare the application of this typology across issue areas internationally, looking comparatively at ozone and climate change policymaking; and subnationally across U.S. states in the climate change issue area. Using these case studies, I show how this model for understanding different mixes of industry type can help us understand and predict the likelihood of policy-industry feedback that leads to increasing environmental and renewable energy policy success over time, both at the international level and comparatively across national and sub-national jurisdictions.
Recent studies have identified parents and children as two target groups whom Big Food hopes to positively influence through its corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. The current preliminary study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of parents and children’s awareness and interpretation of Big Food’s CSR strategies to understand how CSR shapes their beliefs about companies.
Parents (n 15) and children aged 8–12 years (n 15).
Parents and children showed unprompted recognition of CSR activities when shown McDonald’s and Coca-Cola brand logos, indicating a strong level of association between the brands and activities that target the settings of children. When discussing CSR strategies some parents and most children saw value in the activities, viewing them as acts of merit or worth. For some parents and children, the companies’ CSR activities were seen as a reflection of the company’s moral attributes, which resonated with their own values of charity and health. For others, CSR strategies were in conflict with companies’ core business. Finally, some also viewed the activities as harmful, representing a deceit of the public and a smokescreen for the companies’ ultimately unethical behaviour.
A large proportion of participants valued the CSR activities, signalling that denormalising CSR to sever the strong ties between the community and Big Food will be a difficult process for the public health community. Efforts to gain public acceptance for action on CSR may need greater levels of persuasion to gain public support of a comprehensive and restrictive approach.
The lawn-tennis shoe was a popular, widely available commodity in late-Victorian Britain. Associated with new forms of sporting practice and consumption, this type of footwear was mass-produced in modern factories, promoted in the popular leisure press, and sold to both men and women in a variety of retail environments. This article analyzes processes of product innovation, production, and sale, and it situates the shoes within a wider context of sport, commerce, fashion, and class and gender relations. Like other late-Victorian sporting and recreational practices, lawn tennis combined material objects, physical activity, and the stylized display of gender and class ideals. Footwear was valued for symbolic and physically practical reasons. Ideas of intended use determined its design and material form. Sportswear created and communicated new masculine ideals. As lawn-tennis shoes moved from the court into everyday usage, the meanings attached to them accommodated a broader range of practices and contexts.
This article investigates the structural characteristics of firms that promote activities involving partners who coordinate with each other to achieve common or individual goals. The article also aims to verify empirically whether these activities generate advantages for companies embedded in relationships by examining the effects of industry, age and size on interfirm network management activities in a sample of Spanish companies operating in several industries and belonging to networks. The results show differences according to the life cycle stage: growth or maturity. Only the relation between interfirm network management activity and performance has been confirmed in both samples. The findings point to the need to consider the industrial environment when analysing firms’ networking decisions because the situations they face differ in mature or growing industries.
Fifty six sediment cores were collected along a 100 km longitudinal transect of the Thames estuary. Total Hg ranged from 0.01 to 12.07 mg/kg, with a mean of 2.10 mg/kg (n=351). Concentrations of the toxic metal decreased downstream from London to the outer estuary and were positively correlated to total organic carbon (TOC) content. Many Hg profiles showed a clear rise, peak and fall, reflecting changing anthropogenic input through time. Surface concentrations averaged 1.27 mg/kg, confirming the effectiveness of recent environmental legislation and improved river management. Sediments at >40 cm depth from London reaches of the river (Waterloo Bridge, Cuckolds Point (Rotherhithe), Butlers Wharf (Tower Bridge), Millwall, Deptford and Millennium Dome) were highly contaminated, with levels of Hg of >7 mg/kg. The outer Thames had lower Hg, with the exception of Rainham, Crossness and Cliffe. Benchmarking against UK guidelines for the disposal of dredged material revealed that 88 samples from 21 sites exceeded the 3 mg/kg criteria (unsuitable for disposal at sea); 173 fell between 0.3 and 3 mg/kg (further assessment required); and 90 were of no concern. Using Hg as a generic pollution marker, the tidal Thames is one of the world's most contaminated river–estuarine sediment systems.
In 2010 Spain ranked second among EU-15 countries in the manufacture of passenger cars; however, in 1950 the country’s car production had been purely symbolic. Taking as its starting point the trajectories of the enterprises that have shaped the auto industry in Spain, this study explores the sector’s process of development within the interpretative framework proposed by Alfred D. Chandler in Scale and Scope. Until the mid-1970s, SEAT and FASA-Renault, the sector’s first-movers, maintained their position as industry leaders. The entry of Ford and GM in the 1970s was to restructure the industry as it shifted its focus towards exportation to the European Economic Community. Both market share and net profits are used as indicators of the evolution of each car maker.
The Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) (SRO) is an oyster species that only occurs in estuaries along Australia’s east coast. The SRO industry evolved from commercial gathering of oyster in the 1790s to a high production volume aquaculture industry in the 1970s. However, since the late 1970s the SRO industry has experienced a significant and continuous decline in production quantities and the industry’s future commercial viably appears to be uncertain. The aim of this study was to review the history and the status of the SRO industry and to discuss the potential future prospects of this industry. This study summarised findings of the existing literature about the industry and defined development stages of the industry. Particular focus was put on the more recent development within the industry (1980s-present) which has not been covered adequately in the existing literature. The finding from this study revealed that major issues of the industry are linked to the management of prevailing diseases, the handling of water quality impairments from increasing coastal development, increasing competition from Australia’s Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) industry and the current socio-economic profile of the industry. The study also found that policy makers are currently confronted by the dilemma of saving a “dying art”. Findings from this industry review may be vital for current and future fisheries managers and stakeholders as a basis for reviewing industry management and development strategies. This review may also be of interest for other aquaculture industries and fisheries who are dealing with similar challenges as the SRO industry.
This essay assesses various dimensions of China's defence industrial enterprises. It argues that the defence industrial system should be divided into two tiers: tier one, composed of weapons and equipment producers for the military, and tier two, composed of “civilian” industrial enterprises that provided critical inputs for tier one enterprises, and which in national emergencies could be mobilized to produce weapons themselves. In 1985, there were 1,158 tier one defence enterprises and 827 tier two enterprises among China's 8,285 large- and medium-scale enterprises. Additional information is provided on defence enterprise shares of the economy at the provincial and the national levels, on enterprise distribution by industrial sector, and on when enterprises were built. The article attempts to estimate the total number of workers, output value and fixed assets of the defence industrial sector, and their weight in the national economy.
The World's Poultry Science Association was originally formed as the International Association of Poultry Instructors and Investigators in 1912. Its objectives were to foster the development of the poultry industry, and the exchange of information related to poultry science and technology. From small beginnings it has evolved into a strong international organisation with 7700 members in more than 80 countries. The association publishes the World's Poultry Science Journal and promotes and oversees World's Poultry Congresses. It is active in all areas of the poultry industry, from family poultry in developing countries to institutions of research and learning, and production and processing in the industrial world.
Food insecurity, lack of access to food due to financial constraints, is highly associated with poor health outcomes. Households dependent on social assistance are at increased risk of experiencing food insecurity, but food insecurity has also been reported in households reporting their main source of income from employment/wages (working households). The objective of the present study was to examine the correlates of food insecurity among households reliant on employment income.
Working households reporting food insecurity were studied through analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007–2008, employing descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module; all provinces participated.
Canadian households where main income was derived through labour force participation. Social assistance recipients were excluded.
For the period 2007–2008, 4 % of working households reported food insecurity. Canadian households reliant on primary earners with less education and lower incomes were significantly more likely to experience food insecurity; these differences were accentuated across some industry sectors. Residence in Quebec was protective. Working households experiencing food insecurity were more likely to include earners reporting multiples jobs and higher job stress. Visible minority workers with comparable education levels experienced higher rates of food insecurity than European-origin workers.
Reliance on employment income does not eliminate food insecurity for a significant proportion of households, and disproportionately so for households with racialized minority workers. Increases in work stress may increase the susceptibility to poor health outcomes of workers residing in households reporting food insecurity.
Introduction and history of cashew cultivation. The location of Côte d’Ivoire promotes the cultivation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) in the northern half of the country. Indeed, introduced in 1960 to fight against erosion and halt the advancing desert, this crop has become a perennial source of income for more than 150,000 farmers gathered in twenty cooperatives and allows more than 1.5 M people to earn a living. The Ivorian cashew production increased from 6,000 t·year-1 in 1990 to 330,000 t·year-1 in 2008, with a forecast of 350,000 t·year-1 in 2009. Organization of the cashew sector. However, the sector is facing enormous problems including the disorganization of operators and the non-processing of cashews. The disorganization of the sector’s operators does not promote collaborative resolution of issues of common interest. This results in all sorts of speculation by intermediaries. The existing structures do not work synergistically, so that the price of cashew per kg paid to producers varies in the same country, from one region to the other, and even according to the buyers. Strategic and institutional environment. The problems of processing cashew nuts are due on the one hand to the investment code that does not favor the installation of medium-sized processing units (2,500 t·year-1) and, on the other hand, to private banks which require too many guarantees to fund investors. Conclusion. The cashew industry has a future in Côte d’Ivoire provided that the operators are organized, and that the Ivorian state establishes a regulatory and institutional framework to facilitate the installation of investors.
With increasing fragmentation of worldwide production chains and the corresponding contracting relations between companies, the “firm as an inspector” has become a frequent phenomenon. Buyer firms deploy supervising activities over their suppliers' products and production processes in order to ensure their compliance with regulatory standards, thereby taking on tasks commonly performed by public authorities. Why would a firm engage in such activities? In this article we will analyze the conditions under which firms play the role of an inspector vis-à-vis their sub-contractor firms to guarantee compliance with quality and environmental regulations. We develop a theoretical argument based on transaction cost economics and institutionalism to offer hypothetical answers to this question and provide an empirical assessment of our hypotheses.