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The conclusion summarises the Convention's commitment to a liberal, representative and substantive democracy and highlights how the Convention might be interpreted to support more deliberative, participatory and inclusive models of democracy,
This chapter examines different theories of democracy, highlighting the relevance of liberal, representative and substantive democracy for the European Convention on Human Rights. It outlines deliberative, participatory and inclusive models of democracy that address limitations of liberal representative democracy.
In many parts of the world, the enduring inequalities in both educational experiences and academic outcomes across linguistically and culturally different groups complicate widespread discourses of “diversity” and “inclusion.” The study of discourse, as a means of theoretical and methodological inquiry, has advanced our collective understanding of how social power and inequality are enacted, (re)produced and resisted through texts and discourse-in-interaction in educational contexts. This chapter begins with an overview of early work that has yielded remarkable insights into how diversity and inclusion are patterned in and through everyday classroom socialization routines. It then proceeds to sketch how current trends of discourse study have enriched our discussion of the complexity of language, ideology and power inherent in the educational discourse. We present ongoing tensions concerning the theoretical, methodological and applied dimensions of this work. The chapter concludes by delineating some implications for educational practices and future directions for expanded work in the study and understanding of discourses of diversity and inclusion.
In Canada, lack of permanent immigration status affects migrant students’ ability to seek rights in different settings, producing unsafe conditions and increasing the possibility of deportation. One example of these settings is schooling, as youth who hold precarious immigration status are regularly excluded from higher education. This access issue is widespread and invisibilised across the country. In this chapter, we draw from interviews with migrant students who participated in an Access Project at York University in Toronto to discuss the interlocking barriers precarious status migrants experience due to their immigration status. We specifically focus on one aspect of the Access Project, a bridging course that facilitated students’ entry to higher education by discussing immigration-related content and acquainting them with university procedures. We propose that the bridging course can be understood as a counterspace, where students redefine their narratives by creating counterstories within the university that challenge anti-migrant discourse and political context in their lives.
Ecuador has a progressive approach to the social inclusion of migrants, which serves as a powerful counter-example to current global trends of social exclusion of these populations. But despite constitutional guarantees of free higher education, and legal commitments to equality in access, enormous gaps remain between policy and practice. Estimates suggest that the rate of access to university education for refugees in Ecuador is 2.5 per cent, less than a tenth of the national average, which is 36 per cent. This chapter will explore why this progressive vision falls short, and the implications for those seeking to democratise access to higher education in Ecuador. Access to higher education is largely defined through civil employees’ inflexible everyday interpretations of national legal frameworks. Issues of ownership of identity documents, migration status and documentation of education achievement are relevant, and pervasive social discrimination and poverty all have a profound impact on refugee’s ability to gain entry into universities. This chapter will explore how the label of ‘refugee’ is both employed and discarded by displaced youth and the bureaucratic state in the context of higher education access.
The inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing, but there have been no longitudinal studies of included students in Australia. Interview data reported in this study concern primary school children with ASD enrolled in mainstream classes in South Australia and New South Wales, Australia. In order to examine perceived facilitators and barriers to inclusion, parents, teachers, and principals were asked to comment on the facilitators and barriers to inclusion relevant to each child. Data are reported about 60 students, comprising a total of 305 parent interviews, 208 teacher interviews, and 227 principal interviews collected at 6-monthly intervals over 3.5 years. The most commonly mentioned facilitator was teacher practices. The most commonly mentioned barrier was intrinsic student factors. Other factors not directly controllable by school staff, such as resource limitations, were also commonly identified by principals and teachers. Parents were more likely to mention school- or teacher-related barriers. Many of the current findings were consistent with previous studies but some differences were noted, including limited reporting of sensory issues and bullying as barriers. There was little change in the pattern of facilitators and barriers identified by respondents over time. A number of implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
Fieldwork forms the basis of geoscience studies. However, field activities present limitations for people with mental or physical impairments. This aspect can preclude participation in field trips by certain groups of students or limit their experience. In recent years, new types of supporting material and the development of accessible field trips have been a step forward towards the reduction of barriers to inclusion and equal opportunity. In the present work, normal practices of field teaching and potential solutions (and their limitations) to foster inclusion and accessibility to fieldwork are presented.
TG must be carried out inclusively, and with due respect for the continuous principle of self-determination. The ‘inclusion cascade’ read in conjunction with this principle goes further than the procedural right to a constitutional referendum and general elections towards the end of the interregnum, yet requires less than substantive democracy. TA are expected to favour broad and progressively inclusive popular participation whereby answers to questions as to who to include, how and when are gaining precision. The concept of population is being redefined and inclusivity becomes a must for some techniques (notably constitution-making) and at some moments (notably towards the end) of the transition. In the same context, TA usually commit to some form of TJ and, subject to a few limitations, may choose how to do so. These practices contribute to custom formation in relation to TG. At the same time, the principle of self-determination gains in precision through such practices mostly seen as obligations of conduct.
This article discusses the challenges affecting the achievement of financial inclusion for the poor and low-income earners in South Africa. The concept of financial inclusion could be defined as the provision of affordable financial products and services to all members of the society by the government and/or other relevant role-players such as financial services providers. This article identifies unemployment, poverty, financial illiteracy, over-indebtedness, high bank fees, mistrust of the banking system, lack of relevant national identity documentation and poor legislative framework for financial inclusion as some of the challenges affecting the full attainment of financial inclusion for the poor and low-income earners in South Africa. Given these flaws, the article highlights the need for the government, financial institutions and other relevant stakeholders to adopt legislative and other measures as an antidote to financial exclusion and poverty challenges affecting the poor and low-income earners in South Africa.
This chapter asks whether news organizations, organizations, in their search for sustainable business models, are acting increasingly as a force for exclusion. Rodney Benson identifies two forms this exclusion takes. In some cases, the exclusion is economic, as happens when subscriptions are too expensive for audience members who might otherwise consume such news. In other cases, the exclusion is cultural, which can be seen in publications freely available to all but in fact only attract the interest of those with proportionally larger volumes of economic and cultural resources than the average member of the public. Benson calls for scholars to see exclusion as socially organized and to aid in the search for solutions to the problem of “civic” inclusion, which he imagines will include media literacy initiatives, newsroom recruitment to ensure better representation of people from diverse background, government policies to support independent media, and a range of other initiatives.
This chapter summarizes the book’s aim, which is to explore how scholars working at the intersections of journalism, politics, and activism make sense of and relate to some of the most pressing issues concerning contemporary developments in media and public life. Matthew Powers and Adrienne Russell describe recurrent questions that confront scholars of media and public life, and then summarize the core themes explored in the volume, which are living in a datafied world, journalism in times of change, media and problems of inclusion, engagement with and through media, and the role of scholars.
Social investment is a policy approach intended to promote the social inclusion of excluded individuals and groups, mainly through labour market participation and long-term human capital development. Since the 1980’s this approach has spread from Europe worldwide and is now regarded as the latest shift from both ‘traditional’ welfare and the unrestrained neoliberal policy implemented under the austerity regime of the last decades. Most social investment studies focus on the social and economic impacts of policy at the macro-level. This article takes a different perspective to examine how members of excluded communities experience social investment policy in their daily lives. The study analyzes qualitative data collected from a purposive sample of 96 participants from excluded communities in the North of Israel. Findings indicate that participants strongly support social investment ideas of inclusion via human capital development and the labour market. However, their experiences in both areas point to continued struggles with social mechanisms that marginalize them and reinforce multigenerational exclusion. Findings affirm critique of social investment when implemented without major structural changes. The study implications for policy suggest that, without such changes, the paradigmatic promises of social investment may further entrench social exclusion by replicating discriminatory and oppressive practices.
Kefir consumption has been demonstrated to improve lipid and cholesterol metabolism; however, our previous study identified that benefits vary between different commercial and traditional kefir. Here, we investigate the ability of pitched culture kefir, that is, kefir produced by a small number of specific strains, to recapitulate health benefits of a traditional kefir, in a diet-induced obesity mouse model, and examine how microbial composition of kefir impacts these benefits. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (40 % energy from fat) supplemented with one of five kefir varieties (traditional, pitched, pitched with no Lactobacillus, pitched with no yeast and commercial control) at 2 ml in 20 g of food for 8 weeks prior to analysis of plasma and liver lipid profiles, and liver gene expression profiles related to lipid metabolism. Both traditional and pitched kefir lowered plasma cholesterol by about 35 % (P = 0·0005) and liver TAG by about 55 % (P = 0·0001) when compared with commercial kefir despite no difference in body weight. Furthermore, pitched kefir produced without either yeast or Lactobacillus did not lower cholesterol. The traditional and pitched kefir with the full complement of microbes were able to impart corresponding decreases in the expression of the cholesterol and lipid metabolism genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, PPARγ and CD36 in the liver. These results demonstrate that traditional kefir organisms can successfully be utilised in a commercial process, while highlighting the importance of microbial interactions during fermentation in the ability of fermented foods to benefit host health.
This chapter introduces the framework of a model of inclusive pedagogy that consists of four key dimensions: attitudinal inclusion, academic inclusion, linguistic inclusion and social inclusion. We illustrate the issues through reference to teacher data elicited at the project secondary schools. We discuss the prevalence of linguistic diversity in English schools that makes teachers’ knowledge about such language diversity essential to effectiveness in the classroom and, in light of this, we identify key forms of ‘bilingual assistance’ which support EAL pedagogy. The final section of the chapter presents an outline of a teacher knowledge framework which we argue needs to form the basis of teacher professional development in the EAL context.
The author understands solidarity primarily as a legal concept of co-operative projects of forming an ever further expanded democratic legal community (Rechtsgenossenschaft). Solidarity is complementary to justice, and principle of democracy that is self-legislated includes both sides. Self-legislation, solidarity and justice are equally universal concepts. The first section of the chapter is a brief diagnosis of modern society under conditions of global crisis. Democratic solidarity must stand up to two crucial experimental checks, one is normative and the other factual. The second section of the chapter draws some political conclusions related to the most fundamental problems of the present world society. The final section tries to specify four changes political agencies need to adopt to save democratic solidarities under stress from globalisation.
While China's Constitution says everyone is treated equally before the law, employment discrimination continues to exist. This paper breaks new ground by analysing a quantitative survey of more than 10,000 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people, the largest dataset of its kind to date in China. Only 5.1 per cent of respondents were completely open about their gender and sexuality at work. More than one-fifth reported experiencing negative treatment in the workplace. Transgender and intersex people reported higher rates of negative treatment, as did respondents with lower educational levels and lower incomes and those residing in towns. Employer policies against discrimination were rare, but when in place, they were significantly associated with less negative treatment. These findings highlight an almost completely neglected segment of the workforce and document discriminatory experiences that could be addressed by changes in discrimination law and by employer policies and practices related to diversity and inclusion.
In this chapter, we discuss recent empirical and theoretical advances that demonstrate how, why, and under what conditions interdependent relationships promote self-expansion (i.e., the cognitive reorganization of individuals’ self-concept due to the acquisition or augmentation of traits, perspectives, identities, and capabilities). In particular, we discuss ways in which engaging in self-expansion has the potential to not only enhance individual well-being but to also enhance close relationships. In the first section of the chapter, we review the broadening and deepening of research on the fundamental tenets of the self-expansion model. Specifically, we begin by identifying the defining characteristics of the self-expansion process, such as the underlying features of shared relational activities that foster self-expansion. We then explore cognitive and motivational antecedents of self-expansion seeking, particularly experiences that promote approach motivation and subsequent interdependence. Furthermore, we discuss the relational, behavioral, cognitive, affective, and physiological outcomes of the self-expansion process, and we consider how the outcomes of both relational and individual self-expansion shape expectations for relationships. In the second section of the chapter, we review interdependence-based extensions and applications of the self-expansion model. Specifically, we discuss additional self-concept changes that interdependent relationships can foster, including cognitive reorganizations that have deleterious intra- and interpersonal consequences. Additionally, we examine how self-expansion can occur in myriad contexts (e.g., through individual experiences, romantic relationships, friendships, the workplace, and intergroup interactions), and we explore novel applications and implications of self-expansion, such as reducing relationship conflict and intergroup prejudice. Finally, using the recent research in self-expansion as context, we discuss potential directions for future research.
In Chapter 3: Adult Learning Principles, we explain that all postsecondary learners are adult learners. You will explore our view of adult learning that includes cognitive, social, and emotional aspects. These three aspects are then woven into our adult learning process. A discussion of adult learning assumptions follows, with suggestions on how to apply those assumptions in your online course. We also introduce the application of semiotics for inclusion of diverse learners. We conclude the chapter by highlighting the importance of resources and the impact of power on your learners and addressing the validity of some commonly held beliefs about learning.
We correct an error in the statement in a proposition and a theorem in Jiang–Su absorption for inclusions of unital C*-algebras. Canad. J. Math. 70(2018), 400–425. This error was found by Dr. M. Ali Asadi-Vasfi and communicated to the authors by N. Christopher Phillips of the University of Oregon, who also suggested the outline for the following correct proofs.
Developing the knowledge and practical skills for implementing inclusive education is a legislative and policy imperative for contemporary graduate teachers. In this qualitative study, the authors investigated the experiences of 18 preservice teachers during their practical school placements in primary and secondary school settings and the impact of these experiences on their attitudes towards students with special needs and their readiness to teach in mainstream inclusive settings. Sixteen of the participants had completed 2 or more placements. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analysed to categorise the observed and enacted practices and define themes that contribute to a deeper understanding of preservice teachers’ learning about inclusion through their practice in schools. The 4 identified themes show that contact, responsibility for instruction, modelled practices, and expectations for student learning all have significant impacts on the quality and outcomes of preservice teachers’ placements. Findings suggest that placement settings do not consistently represent contexts where aspiring teachers are exposed to the types of meaningful contact or successful experiences claimed to be fundamental preparation for inclusive practice. The implications for the preservice teachers themselves and for their future practice are discussed.