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In the current meta-analysis, we aimed to systematically review and summarize eligible studies for the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) and glucose homeostasis biomarkers.
In a systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar electronic databases up to February 2019, relevant studies were included in the literature review. Observational studies evaluating the association between DII and HTN, hyperglycaemia, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated Hb (HbA1c) were included.
Total numbers of studies were as follows: OR for DII and HTN (n 12), OR for DII and hyperglycaemia (n 9), HTN prevalence (n 9), mean (sd) of SBP and DII (n 12), mean (sd) of DBP and DII (n 10), mean (sd) of FBS and DII (n 13), mean (sd) of HbA1c and DII (n 3), mean (sd) of insulin and DII (n 6), mean (sd) of HOMA-IR and DII (n 7). Higher DII scores were associated with higher odds of HTN (OR = 1·13; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·27; P < 0·001), SBP (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 1·230; 95 % CI 0·283, 2·177; P = 0·011), FBS (WMD = 1·083; 95 % CI 0·099, 2·068; P = 0·031), insulin (WMD = 0·829; 95 % CI 0·172, 1·486; P = 0·013), HbA1c (WMD = 0·615; 95 % CI 0·268, 0·961; P = 0·001) and HOMA-IR (WMD = 0·192; 95 % CI 0·023, 0·361; P = 0·026) values compared with lowest DII categories.
Lower inflammatory content of diets for prevention of cardiovascular risk factors is recommended.
Prior data on long-term association between habitual legume consumption and hypertension risk remained sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total legume and subtype intakes were prospectively related to lower hypertension incidence among 8,758 participants (aged ≥30 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011. Dietary intakes were assessed by interviews combining 3-day 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing method at each survey round (median dietary assessment times during follow-up was three). Incident hypertension was identified by self-reports or blood pressure measurements. Multivariable Cox regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for hypertension across increasing categories of cumulatively averaged legume intake. For 35,990 person-years (median 6.0 years per person), we documented 944 hypertension cases. After adjustment for covariates, higher consumption of total legumes was significantly associated with a lower hypertension risk, with HR comparing extreme categories being 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.71; P for trend <0.001). Then we found that intakes of dried legumes (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; P for trend <0.001) and fresh legumes (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81; P for trend <0.001) were both related to reduced hypertension risks. However, further classification of dried legumes revealed that the inverse association with hypertension substantially held for higher soybean (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.41-0.62; P for trend <0.001) but not non-soybean intakes. In stratified analyses, the association of interest remained similar within strata defined by gender, body mass index, physical activity, smoking and drinking status; however, significant heterogeneity of results was detected across age strata (P for interaction = 0.02). Total legume intake related to a more pronounced decrease in hypertension risk for the elderly (≥65 years [HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.73; P for trend <0.001]), in contrast to that for the non-elderly. Our findings suggest inverse associations of all kinds of legume but may not non-soybean intakes with risk of developing hypertension.
The present study investigated the association between dietary patterns and hypertension applying the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-07 (DBI-07).
A cross-sectional study on adult nutrition and chronic disease in Inner Mongolia. Dietary data were collected using 24 h recall over three consecutive days and weighing method. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Generalized linear models and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between DBI-07 and dietary patterns, and between dietary patterns and hypertension.
Inner Mongolia (n 1861).
A representative sample of adults aged ≥18 years in Inner Mongolia.
Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘high protein’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘modern’ and ‘condiments’. Generalized linear models showed higher factor scores in the ‘high protein’ pattern were associated with lower DBI-07 (βLBS = −1·993, βHBS = −0·206, βDQD = −2·199; all P < 0·001); the opposite in the ‘condiments’ pattern (βLBS = 0·967, βHBS = 0·751, βDQD = 1·718; all P < 0·001). OR for hypertension in the highest quartile of the ‘high protein’ pattern compared with the lowest was 0·374 (95 % CI 0·244, 0·573; Ptrend < 0·001) in males. OR for hypertension in the ‘condiments’ pattern was 1·663 (95 % CI 1·113, 2·483; Ptrend < 0·001) in males, 1·788 (95 % CI 1·155, 2·766; Ptrend < 0·001) in females.
Our findings suggested a higher-quality dietary pattern evaluated by DBI-07 was related to decreased risk for hypertension, whereas a lower-quality dietary pattern was related to increased risk for hypertension in Inner Mongolia.
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalized patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46,549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI, and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37,190 (80%) and 9,359 (20%) patients had NRS-2002 scores < 3 and ≥ 3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥ 3 had longer lengths of stay (12.6±7.8 days vs. 10.4±6.2 days, P < 0.05), higher mortality rates (9.6% vs. 2.5%, P<0.05), and higher incidence of AKI (28% vs. 16%, P < 0.05) than normal nutritional patients. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (area under the curve (AUC) 0.79 and 0.71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0.80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI, and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis, that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than normal nutritional patients.
To explore if better diet quality scores as a measure of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are associated with a lower incidence of hypertension and non-fatal CVD.
Prospective analysis of the 1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The Australian Recommended Foods Score (ARFS) was calculated as an indicator of adherence to the ADG; the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) measured adherence to the MedDiet. Outcomes included hypertension and non-fatal CVD. Generalised estimating equations estimated OR and 95 % CI across quartiles of diet quality scores.
1946–1951 cohort of the ALSWH (n 5324), without CVD, hypertension and diabetes at baseline (2001), with complete FFQ data.
There were 1342 new cases of hypertension and 629 new cases of non-fatal CVD over 15 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that women reporting better adherence to the ARFS (≥38/74) had 15 % (95 % CI 1, 28 %; P = 0·05) lower odds of hypertension and 46 % (95 % CI 6, 66 %; P = 0·1) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. Women reporting better adherence to the MDS (≥8/17) had 27 % (95 % CI 15, 47 %; P = 0·0006) lower odds of hypertension and 30 % (95 % CI 2, 50 %; P = 0·03) lower odds of non-fatal CVD.
Better adherence to diet quality scores is associated with lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. These results support the need for updated evidenced based on the ADG as well as public health nutrition policies in Australia.
This umbrella review provides an overview of the consistency and gaps in the evidence base on eggs and cardiometabolic health.
PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality databases were screened for evidence-based reviews in English that assessed human studies on egg consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes.
Seven systematic reviews and fifteen meta-analyses were identified, with eighteen of these published since 2015. Overall, the systematic reviews were of low quality, while meta-analyses were of moderate- to high-quality. No association of increased egg intake and risks of heart disease or stroke in the general population were found in the meta-analyses. Increased risk of heart failure was noted in two meta-analyses that analysed the same three cohort studies. Five recent meta-analyses reported no increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population, although increased risk in US-based populations only has been reported. Older (<2013) meta-analyses reported increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or heart disease in T2DM populations, and no recent evidence-based reviews were identified. Finally, only one meta-analysis reported intervention studies specifically on eggs and biomarkers (i.e. lipids), and the results contradicted those from observation studies.
Recent evidence-based reviews conclude that increased egg consumption is not associated with CVD risk in the general population. More research is needed on the positive associations between egg consumption and heart failure and T2DM risk, as well as CVD risk in diabetics, before firm conclusions can be made.
Although self-care can control and prevent complications in hypertensive patients, self-care adherence is relatively low among these patients. Community-based telehealth services through mhealth can be an effective solution.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect and acceptance of an mhealth application as a community-based telehealth intervention on self-care behavior adherence.
This clinical trial included sixty hypertensive patients and their matched controls from two heart clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). Self-care behaviors were assessed using Hill-Bone questionnaire before and after the intervention. Acceptability was evaluated in the intervention group at the end of the study period. The data were analyzed via SPSS 18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics.
The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and control groups regarding the mean score of self-care behaviors (4.13 ± 0.23 versus 3.18 ± 0.27, p < .001). Additionally, a significant difference was observed between the two groups concerning the mean scores of the two subscales of self-care behaviors, including “medication taking” and “proper diet”. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the mean score of “appointment keeping” (p = .075). Overall, the intervention group participants were satisfied (4.27 ± 0.34) with this approach for managing hypertension.
Community-based telehealth services through mhealth had the potential to improve self-care behaviors in hypertensive patients and seemed to be accepted by the patients in the intervention group.
Patients undergoing prostate radiation therapy were observed to have elevated blood pressures in clinic. Therefore, we sought to further characterise this phenomenon.
The charts of 76 patients who received radiotherapy for prostate cancer between 2014 and 2017 were examined. Blood pressure (BP) readings were obtained at initial consultation, on treatment visits, and subsequent follow-up appointments. To describe this effect, we defined radiation-associated hypertension (RAH) as an increase ≥15 mmHg systolic BP, 10 mmHg diastolic BP, or 5 mmHg mean arterial pressure.
Within this cohort, 36 patients developed RAH, with 75% developing RAH while on treatment, and 25% developing RAH at post-treatment visits. Two-thirds of patients remained hypertensive during post-treatment visits, and 27% were prescribed additional anti-hypertensives. There was no association between neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen deprivation therapy and RAH.
A significant number of patients undergoing prostate radiotherapy developed RAH, necessitating additional medication in some.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the gender differences in hypertension awareness, antihypertensive use and blood pressure (BP) control among the adult Nepalese population (≥18 years) using data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. A weighted sample of 13,393 adults (5620 males and 7773 females) was included in the final analysis. After conducting descriptive analyses with the selective explanatory variable, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the outcome variable and the explanatory variables. The strength of the association was expressed in adjusted odds with 95% confidence intervals. A higher proportion of women had their BP checked (87.7% females vs 73.0% males, p<0.001) and were aware of their raised BP (43.9% females vs 37.1% males, p<0.001) compared with men. Although female hypertensive individuals had a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication use than their male counterparts (50.1% females vs 47.5% males), a higher proportion of male hypertensive participants had their BP controlled (49.2% females vs 53.5% males). Women with the poorest wealth index had a lower prevalence of antihypertensive use than their male counterparts. The odds of having their own BP measured increased with age among men but decreased with age among women. The household wealth index was positively associated with the odds of BP measurement, awareness of own BP and antihypertensive use. This study revealed that although women had a higher prevalence of hypertension awareness and antihypertensive medication use, the practice did not translate into better BP control. Inequality in antihypertensive medication use was observed among the poorest wealth quintiles. Public health programmes in Nepal should focus on reducing these inequalities. Further research is needed to learn why females have poorer control of BP, despite having higher antihypertensive medication use.
This study investigated the health effects of Lake Urmia’s drought on adjacent urban and rural areas and people.
The data for sociodemographic status, physical activity, dietary pattern, smoking, and angina of the subjects living in areas adjacent to and far from Lake Urmia were collected through validated questionnaires. Physical examinations, including blood pressure, anthropometrics, and biochemical measurements, were performed.
There were no significant differences between 2 areas in the case of age, sex, educational, and physical activity and smoking status (P > 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, and anemia in cases living in the adjacent areas were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between 2 districts in the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, overweight/obesity, asthma, angina, infraction, diabetes, and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.
Our data showed that Lake Urmia’s drought has serious effects on hypertension and anemia. More longitudinal and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these results.
The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945–1957 in 2011–2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938–1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.
A growing number of studies suggest that diet and renal function are related. However, little is known about the link between both whole grain (WG) and refined grain (RG) consumption and kidney function parameters. Thus, we investigated the association of WG and RG with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2010 were collected. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Survey design and sample weights were taken into consideration for statistical analyses. Finally, we included 16 325 participants from NHANES, 6·9 % of whom had prevalent CKD. In models adjusted for age, sex, race, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, adiposity, hypertension and diabetes status, mean eGFR significantly increased across increasing quartiles of WG (Q1: 88·2 v. Q4: 95·4 ml/min per 1·73 m2, P<0·001), whereas it significantly decreased across increasing quartiles of RG (Q1: 97·2 v. Q4: 88·4 ml/min per 1·73 m2, P<0·001). Furthermore, serum uric acid levels and ACR significantly decreased across quartiles of WG (both P<0·001). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the likelihood of prevalent CKD was 21 % lower in the highest WG quartile compared with the lowest one. In conclusion, our results shed light on the beneficial impact of WG on kidney function and CKD, whereas RG is adversely associated with eGFR.
To determine the association between excess body fat, assessed by skinfold thickness, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT).
Data from the ongoing PERU MIGRANT Study were analysed. The outcomes were T2DM and HT, and the exposure was skinfold thickness measured in bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac areas. The Durnin–Womersley formula and SIRI equation were used for body fat percentage estimation. Risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated using Poisson regression.
Rural (Ayacucho) and urban shantytown district (San Juan de Miraflores, Lima) in Peru.
Adults (n 988) aged ≥30 years (rural, rural-to-urban migrants, urban) completed the baseline study. A total of 785 and 690 were included in T2DM and HT incidence analysis, respectively.
At baseline, age mean was 48·0 (sd 12·0) years and 47 % were males. For T2DM, in 7·6 (sd 1·3) years, sixty-one new cases were identified, overall incidence of 1·0 (95 % CI 0·8, 1·3) per 100 person-years. Bicipital and subscapular skinfolds were associated with 2·8-fold and 6·4-fold risk of developing T2DM. On the other hand, in 6·5 (sd 2·5) years, overall incidence of HT was 2·6 (95 % CI 2·2, 3·1) per 100 person-years. Subscapular and overall fat obesity were associated with 2·4- and 2·9-fold risk for developing HT. The PAF for subscapular skinfold was 73·6 and 39·2 % for T2DM and HT, respectively.
We found a strong association between subscapular skinfold thickness and developing T2DM and HT. Skinfold assessment can be a laboratory-free strategy to identify high-risk HT and T2DM cases.
To characterize the food environment in schools that participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) and to identify individual and contextual factors associated with hypertension and obesity.
National school-based survey.
Blood pressure, weight and height were measured, and characteristics of the schools were obtained in interviews with the principals. For each outcome, multilevel models of mixed effects were applied by logistic regression.
School-going adolescents aged 12–17 years.
A total of 73 399 adolescents were evaluated. The prevalence of hypertension was 9·6 (95 % CI 9·0, 10·3) % and that of obesity was 8·4 (95 % CI 7·9, 8·9) %. Approximately 50 % of the adolescents were able to purchase food at school and in its immediate vicinity and 82 % had access to no-charge meals through Brazil’s National School Feeding Program. In the adjusted analysis, hypertension was associated (OR; 95 % CI) with the consumption of meals prepared on the school premises (0·79; 0·69, 0·92), the sale of food in the school’s immediate vicinity (0·67; 0·48, 0·95) and the purchase of food in the school cafeteria (1·29; 1·11, 1·49). It was observed that there were lower odds of obesity among students who were offered meals prepared on the school premises (0·68; 0·54, 0·87).
High frequency of sales of ultra-processed foods in schools was identified. Contextual and individual characteristics in the school food environment were associated with hypertension and obesity, pointing to the need for regulation and supervision of these spaces.
The WHO reported that high blood pressure (BP) is one of the primary causes of death worldwide. Hypertension (HPT) is a major risk factor for CVD and related diseases as well as for diseases, leading to a considerable increase in cardiovascular risk. Since BP response could also be influenced by caffeine, which is widely consumed with coffee and other items, it is important to define the possible effects associated with caffeine intake. The most recent findings aimed at clarifying the role of caffeine consumption on BP and HPT risk/incidence are conflicting and difficult to interpret. Therefore, in the present narrative review, we aimed to examine various methodological inaccuracies/aspects and factors that make studies difficult to be compared, in order to obtain a single consensus on the effects of caffeine intake on the risk of BP and HPT. We observed that this heterogeneity in results could be due to the presence of: (i) several variables affecting BP (such as age, sex, genetic and lifestyle aspects); (ii) different caffeine content of food and beverages; and (iii) caffeine metabolism. Moreover, different methodological aspects in the evaluation of daily dietary caffeine intake and in the BP measurement could add some other bias in the interpretation of results. Therefore, it is mandatory to consider all methodological aspects and confounding factors to generate a standardised methodology in order to increase cross-study consistency and minimise confounding effects of different variables on the relationship between BP response and HPT risk/incidence after caffeine intake.
To identify cut-off points for waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and BMI associated with hypertension in the Brazilian adult and elderly population.
Cross-sectional study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off points of WC, WHtR and BMI in the prediction of hypertension. Those who had systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and those who reported use of antihypertensive medication were considered hypertensive.
Participants from the National Health Survey, the Brazilian household-based survey conducted in 2013, of both sexes and age ≥20 years.
Cut-off points for WC and WHtR increased with age in both sexes. WC cut-off limits ranged between 88·0 and 95·9 cm in men and between 85·0 and 93·2 cm in women. For WHtR, cut-off scores ranged from 0·51 to 0·58 for men and from 0·53 to 0·61 for women. Additionally, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for all age and sex groups was greater than 0·60 while the lower limit of the AUC 95 % CI for both WC and WHtR was not less than 0·50. The performance of BMI was similar to that of indicators of fat location.
All analysed anthropometric indicators had similar performance in identifying hypertension in the Brazilian population.
The present epidemiological study aimed to evaluate the association of serum electrolyte levels with hypertension in a population with a high-salt diet.
Secondary analysis of epidemiology data from the Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study conducted in 2012–2013. Blood pressure and hypertension status were analysed for association with serum sodium, potassium, chloride, total calcium, phosphate and magnesium levels using regression models.
High-salt diet, rural China.
Adult residents in Liaoning, China.
In total 10 555 participants were included, of whom 3287 had incident hypertension (IH) and 1655 had previously diagnosed hypertension (PDH). Fifty-six per cent of participants had electrolyte disturbance. Sixty-two per cent of hypercalcaemic participants had hypertension, followed by hypokalaemia (56 %) and hypernatraemia (54 %). Only hypercalcaemia showed significant associations with both IH (OR=1·70) and PDH (OR=2·25). Highest serum calcium quartile had higher odds of IH (OR=1·58) and PDH (OR=1·64) than the lowest quartile. Serum sodium had no significant correlation with hypertension. Serum potassium had a U-shaped trend with PDH. Highest chloride quartile had lower odds of PDH than the lowest chloride quartile (OR=0·65). Highest phosphate quartile was only associated with lower odds of IH (OR=0·75), and the higher magnesium group had significantly lower odds of IH (OR=0·86) and PDH (OR=0·77).
We have shown the association of serum calcium, magnesium and chloride levels with IH and/or PDH. In the clinical setting, patients with IH may have concurrent electrolyte disturbances, such as hypercalcaemia, that may indicate other underlying aetiologies.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with higher risk of incident hypertension, but it is unclear whether specific aspects of PTSD are particularly cardiotoxic. PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder, comprising dimensions of fear and dysphoria. Because elevated fear after trauma may promote autonomic nervous system dysregulation, we hypothesized fear would predict hypertension onset, and associations with hypertension would be stronger with fear than dysphoria.
We examined fear and dysphoria symptom dimensions in relation to incident hypertension over 24 years in 2709 trauma-exposed women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Posttraumatic fear and dysphoria symptom scores were derived from a PTSD diagnostic interview. We used proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each symptom dimension (quintiles) with new-onset hypertension events (N = 925), using separate models. We also considered lower-order symptom dimensions of fear and dysphoria.
Higher levels of fear (P-trend = 0.02), but not dysphoria (P-trend = 0.22), symptoms were significantly associated with increased hypertension risk after adjusting for socio-demographics and family history of hypertension. Women in the highest v. lowest fear quintile had a 26% higher rate of developing hypertension [HR = 1.26 (95% CI 1.02–1.57)]; the increased incidence associated with greater fear was similar when further adjusted for biomedical and health behavior covariates (P-trend = 0.04) and dysphoria symptoms (P-trend = 0.04). Lower-order symptom dimension analyses provided preliminary evidence that the re-experiencing and avoidance components of fear were particularly associated with hypertension.
Fear symptoms associated with PTSD may be a critical driver of elevated cardiovascular risk in trauma-exposed individuals.