To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter provides an overview of the development of Hungary’s operetta scene and analyses the contrasts between shows written for a Hungarian audience and those created with an international public in mind. In Budapest, operetta shared the Hungarian lyric stage with the népszínmű (‘folk plays’ with music), a genre descended from the Austrian Volksstück, usually featuring more rural plots and simpler music. As time went on, operetta increasingly displaced népszínmű but continued to support shows with local plots. The latter did not serve composers well if they wished to expand their horizons beyond Hungary. I discuss Kálmán’s use of contrasting character types, such as the sophisticated European and exotic Hungarian and Gipsy, and contrast his approach with that of other Hungarian composers who wrote shows that were popular in Hungary but did not travel well. An example of a Hungarian work that draws on the operetta and népszínmű traditions is Zoltán Kodály’s Háry János. Generally labelled as a singspiel ‘symbolizing the poetic power of folklore’, using ‘genuine’ Hungarian folksong materials, it was, in fact, written and performed for the opera house rather than the commercial theatre. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of Hungarian operetta since World War II.
This Article argues that, as far as Hungary and Poland are concerned, the use of term “illiberal constitutionalism” is justified. It also claims that, without denying that other states could also be considered illiberal democracies, Hungary and Poland display unique and distinctive features. These features include populist politics, which lead to the relativization of the rule of law and democracy principles, and human rights protection, which captured the constitution and constitutionalism by constitutionalizing populist nationalism, constitutional identity, and created new patrionalism and clientelism. All these features are supported by the ideological indoctrination of political constitutionalism. In the course of this process, formal and informal constitutional amendments are used, and a formal sense of constitutional democracy is maintained. Overturning these illiberal democracies by constitutional and legal means, at this time, seems doubtful, if not impossible.
This article argues that discourses of constitutional pluralism contain a strong normative core which is made up of a series of largely unacknowledged implicit claims about legitimacy and community. This argument is illustrated by reference to various constitutional pluralist responses to the Hungarian Constitutional Court's ruling concerning the protection of constitutional identity in the context of EU asylum and refugee protection law and policy, demonstrating that whether this decision falls ‘inside’ or ‘outside’ constitutional pluralist tolerance depends on how the observer defines the minimum amount of shared substantive or procedural content that is fundamental to the EU order.
This article explains why autocrats love constitutional pluralism and constitutional identity. Though these concepts were developed by scholars and jurists with the best of intentions in mind, we explain why they are also attractive to and inherently prone to abuse by autocrats. We then describe how the regimes in Hungary and Poland have made use of these concepts in their drive to consolidate autocracy. We conclude that given the dangers inherent in constitutional pluralism and its susceptibility to abuse, it should be replaced with a more traditional understanding of the primacy of EU law.
Significant variation in the institutions and efficiency of public bureaucracies across countries and regions are observed. These differences could be partially responsible for divergence in the effectiveness of policy implementation, corruption levels, and economic development. Do imperial legacies contribute to the observed variation in the organization of public administrations? Historical foreign rule and colonization have been shown to have lasting effects on legal systems, political institutions, and trade in former controlled territories. Imperial legacies could also explain variations in the performance of public administrations. The author uses the case of Poland to investigate the long-term effects of foreign rule on bureaucratic systems. Historically, Poland was split between three imperial powers with very different public administrations: Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Statistical analyses of original data collected through a survey of more than 650 Polish public administrations suggest that some present-day differences in the organization and efficiency of bureaucracies are due to imperial legacies.
Verification of a groundwater flow model by radiocarbon (14C) data are presented taking into consideration the paleo-hydrogeological changes. Northeastern area of the Great Hungarian Plain was a deep-lying flat area, and its central part (Nyírség) has been uplifted in the last 15,000 years. These geological events have drastically changed the hydrogeological conditions of Nyírség. The groundwater flow system is composed of the Quaternary-Pliocene-Upper Pannonian clastic sediments. Groundwater flow modeling has been performed to define the main lateral and vertical flow directions and velocities controlling the propagation of the environmental radioactive tracer 14C. Solute-transport modeling was used to calculate the 14C activity. The recent steady-state groundwater flow velocity was reduced to a reasonable value characterizing the average flow velocity over the 15 ka simulation period using “trial and error” method. The best fit between the simulated and measured 14C data was achieved by assuming 0.4 flow velocity reduction factor. Results indicate that the present steady-state flow model with this flow velocity reduction factor is capable of reproducing the observed 14C data taking into account the effect of the significant uplift of the part of the land surface in the last 15 ka in NE Hungary.
Dementia in the elderly constitutes a growing challenge in healthcare worldwide, including Hungary. There is no previous report on the role of general practitioners in the management of dementia.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the Hungarian general practitioners’ attitude toward their patients living with dementia as well as dementia care. Our goal was also to assess their willingness and habits in assessing dementia. Additionally we wanted to explore the role of education about dementia, and its impact on their attitude in dementia management.
As part of a large survey, a self-administered questionnaire was filled out voluntarily by 402 of general practitioners. According to our preset criteria, 277 surveys were selected for evaluation. Descriptive statistical analysis and Likert-scale analysis were performed.
Half of the doctors (49.8%) indicated that they conducted a test to assess cognitive functions in case of suspicion. Among the respondents who did not assess, 50.0% of physicians cited lack of time as the main reason for not doing so and 14.4% of them had not proper knowledge of testing methods. The respondents most often mentioned feelings toward their patients with dementia, were regret (Likert-scale mean: 3.33), helplessness (3.28) and sadness (3.07). The majority of physicians thought the treatment of dementia was difficult (4.46). Most of the respondents (81.2%) indicated that in the past 2 years they had not participated in any training about dementia. Those practitioners who had participated in some form of education were less likely to feel helpless facing a patient with dementia, and education also determined their approach to dementia care.
The present article discusses whether the European Union, and especially Hungary, can successfully deal with the copyright problematic of the cultural/book heritage in a landscape that is colored by digital technologies, the Internet, and the ever growing number of services related to digitization and preservation. The paper introduces the key issues relevant to the copyright problematic of “digital world friendly” preservation and dissemination of our cultural heritage. It highlights that almost none of these matters is addressed by European Union law, which acts as an obstacle to effective cultural preservation in the digital age. The article also notes that the constant development of digital technologies has led to the appearance of new market players, new business models, and, consequently, new economic interests in the book industry. The chapter compares the present and future of book digitization by cultural institutions from a copyright perspective. It introduces the current framework of limitations and exceptions granted by the European Union – with a special focus on Hungary – for cultural preservation purposes.
This study attempts to outline the development of Hungarian copyright law from 1793 until the enactment of Act XVI of 1884. It focuses primarily on Hungarian events; however, it is inevitable to set our sights beyond borders at points and evoke, especially, German, Austrian, and French events, to which the Hungarians were paying undivided attention, as well. The chapters of the paper introduce the emergence of the concept of copyright law in the early nineteenth century, as well as the legislative proposals from the middle of the nineteenth century. Finally, the most important elements of the first copyright act of Hungary are also outlined.
From the legal historian’s point of view, we can say that economy and society “shape” law, or that law “influences” economy and society, or that law and economy and society are all “mutually constitutive.”2 These assertions particularly apply to the examination of moral rights in the legal history of copyright law in Hungary and, more generally, in other Central and Eastern European countries. These countries are unique in that they share a socialist period in their history, which points to an interesting connection between the moral rights of authors and the struggle to overcome political repression. As Sundara Rajan has pointed out, with bitter irony, the ideological aspects of socialism imbued all human expression with powerful political connotations.3
Radiocarbon dating is paramount for chronologically defining the rise of polities in the Middle Bronze Age Carpathian Basin. This article presents a suite of new radiocarbon dates obtained from sites associated with the Early and Middle Bronze Age Maros Group, and its Late Bronze Age successors in the Tisza-Maros region of south-east Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia. The results indicate tight chronological synchronisation of Middle Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries in the Maros region, while confirming the accuracy of ceramic-based relative chronology for the Szőreg cemetery.
The substantive representation of women has attracted limited attention in cases in which women are present in politics in small numbers over an extended period of time. This article aims to fill this gap by focusing on two policy episodes in a postcommunist state where female descriptive representation has remained low and static and the regime's democratic backlash can also be observed. The two analytical questions refer to the agency and regime aspects of women's substantive representation under unfavorable conditions. Who is representing women under these conditions, and where and how is their representation taking place? How do the regime's characteristics explain the evolving representation patterns? The article will first argue that the same descriptive representation levels can imply different substantive representation patterns in terms of both actors and space. Second, by reconnecting descriptive representation and substantive representation, the article demonstrates that the decline of a regime's democratic credentials is detrimental to female substantive representation.
Prehistoric population decline is often associated with social collapse, migration and environmental change. Many scholars have assumed that the abandonment of the fortified tell sites of the Great Hungarian Plain c. 1500–1450 BC led to significant regional depopulation. The authors investigate the veracity of this assumption by dating graves from Békés 103—a recently excavated Bronze Age cemetery in eastern Hungary. Using decorative motifs and radiocarbon dates to measure changing ceramic styles over more than 1300 years, they consider the implications for non-tell sites known only through surface survey. The results suggest that, even though people abandoned tell sites, regional populations were maintained.
The article investigates the dynamics of budgeting and its explanatory factors in Hungary based on a new database. Previous work for the period between 1991 and 2013 demonstrated that year-on-year changes in budgetary allocations by policy topics show a leptokurtic distribution. This distribution of policy changes is generally associated with the notion of punctuated equilibrium. We extend this analysis to cover over 155 years of Hungarian budgetary history. Our investigation of a database of 2580 spending category observations (covering the period between 1868 and 2013) lends support for the theory of punctuated equilibrium. We also analysed the impact of political regimes on budgetary dynamics. Here we provided empirical evidence for the validity of the informational advantage hypothesis which states that democracies will show lower level of kurtosis than other political regimes. This finding is also in line with the results of available comparative studies.
An assemblage of alunite-supergroup minerals (ASM), rhabdophane-group minerals (RGM), goethite and associated clay minerals occurs in Permian A-type porphyritic microgranite in the eastern part of the Velence Hills, Hungary. The secondary sulfates/phosphates include jarosite, Pb-rich jarosite and alunite, corkite, hinsdalite and rhabdophane-(Ce), -(La) and -(Nd). Detailed electron probe microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy reveal a wide miscibility among RGM end-members and show a rhabdophane–tristramite–brockite solid solution with extensive compositional variation. Moreover, ASM show heterogeneous composition and complex substitution mechanisms within the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. The formation of this rare mineral assemblage reveals extensive remobilization of rare-earth elements (REE), Th, U, P, S, Fe and Pb under supergene conditions. Compositional variations and substitution trends of the RGM investigated indicate that Th, U, Ca and Pb are incorporated into the rhabdophane structure by a (Ca, Pb)2+ + (Th, U)4+ ↔ 2REE3+ substitution mechanism. Consequently, we suggest the following end-member formulae for RGM containing divalent and tetravalent cations: (Ca0.5Th0.5)PO4·H2O for brockite, (Pb0.5Th0.5)PO4·H2O for grayite and (Ca0.5U0.5)PO4·2H2O for tristramite. The ASM and RGM originated from total leaching of the primary magmatic REE, Th, U and P minerals in the microgranite [most probably allanite-(Ce), fluorapatite and possibly also xenotime-(Y)], together with input of Pb and S in low-temperature, acid sulfate solutions, connected with an adjacent Palaeogene andesite–diorite intrusion and the accompanying hydrothermal sulfide mineralization.
The relationship between morality and economy has been muddied in the course of disciplinary specialization. While dominant paradigms in economics abstract from the moral dimension, recent approaches to morality and ethics in anthropology neglect the material economy. E. P. Thompson’s “moral economy” has been an influential bridging concept in recent decades, but recent inflationary usage has highlighted shortcomings. Following an overview of the disciplinary debates, the moral dimension of economic life is illustrated in this paper with reference to work as a value between the late 19th and early 21st centuries in Hungary. Contemporary workfare is explored with local examples. It is shown how discourses of work and fairness are being extended into new ethical registers to justify negative attitudes towards a new category of migrants.