Fever-associated seizures or epilepsy (FASE) is primarily characterised by the occurrence of a seizure or epilepsy usually accompanied by a fever. It is common in infants and children, and generally includes febrile seizures (FS), febrile seizures plus (FS+), Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFSP). The aetiology of FASE is unclear. Genetic factors may play crucial roles in FASE. Mutations in certain genes may cause a wide spectrum of phenotypical overlap ranging from isolated FS, FS+ and GEFSP to DS. Synapse-associated proteins, postsynaptic GABAA receptor, and sodium channels play important roles in synaptic transmission. Mutations in these genes may involve in the pathogenesis of FASE. Elevated temperature promotes synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling and enlarges SV size, which may enhance synaptic transmission and contribute to FASE occurring. This review provides an overview of the loci, genes, underlying pathogenesis and the fever-inducing effect of FASE. It may provide a more comprehensive understanding of pathogenesis and contribute to the clinical diagnosis of FASE.