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Guidebook to Community Consulting provides advice for people interested in starting or growing a career in community consulting. Drawing on the authors' years of experience as community consultants, it offers a wealth of practical guidance to anyone considering or establishing a successful career serving and empowering communities. It includes guidance about the personal qualities, values, and technical skills needed; how to start a consulting practice; how to collaborate with colleagues, and most importantly, how to collaborate with communities. Practical advice and tips are motivated by core guiding principles and goals including an understanding of consulting as a partnership between consultants and communities; decoloniality; anti-racism, and equity. The text is animated with illustrative anecdotes and lessons gained from real-world experience.
Partnerships with Families and Communities: Building Dynamic Relationships is a comprehensive and accessible resource that provides pre-service teachers with the tools required to build effective, sustainable and proactive partnerships in both early childhood and primary educational settings. This text introduces models of home-school-community partnerships in educational contexts and presents a comprehensive partnerships approach for best practice in applying and leading effective relationships with key stakeholders. It explores essential underpinning policies, legislation and research theories that position strong, positive and proactive partnerships as a systemic solution to children's learning development. Key topics covered include diversity in partnership work, reflective practice and tools for evaluating working partnerships. Each chapter includes focused pedagogy, key terms and definitions, scenarios and review questions, which enable readers to deeply engage with new concepts. 'Proactive Partners' boxes explore real-world scenarios and encourage readers to link theory with practice.
There is limited documentation of cross-tenure collaborative weed management programs, and no consistent set of metrics for evaluating their performance. In this study, twelve weed management practitioners in south-east Australia participated in a qualitative social research project to discuss and document examples of cross-tenure collaborative weed management, and critically reflect on whether existing metrics are suitable for evaluating the performance of their programs. Analysis of focus group discussions, project documentation, subsequent reflections and review of the literature, reveal that weed management practitioners, in Australia and elsewhere, mostly rely on metrics that measure weed management inputs, such as herbicides, labour and costs. Metrics used to evaluate social outcomes focus on benefits for individuals rather than social relationships or achievement of equitable outcomes. Social research on collaborative governance and social science methods more broadly, such as social network analysis and collective narratives, could be used by weed management practitioners to better evaluate and explain social-ecological outcomes over time.
At present, UK schools are not required to teach children about animal welfare. This undoubtedly contributes to widespread deficiencies in knowledge, and misconceptions about animals’ needs, likes, and dislikes. Aware of the issues at hand, animal welfare organisations create their own materials for teachers to use, and/or deliver educational programmes directly to children and young people. As the design, content, processes and outcomes associated with these interventions are rarely documented publicly or systematically evaluated, there is little evidence to guide the development of animal welfare education. A three-stage online Delphi study was used to identify who current interventions target, what delivery methods are being used, and how expert practitioners describe priorities and challenges in the field. Thirty-one experts participated in Round 1, with 84% of the sample (n = 26) also taking part in Round 2. Qualitative analysis revealed passionate accounts about the far-reaching potential of educating children about animals. However, we also identified ambiguities and tensions that could thwart the future development of effective animal welfare education. Alongside the production of a web-based framework and evidence-based toolkit to support practitioners, findings will be used to encourage animal welfare professionals to work towards producing shared terminology, definitions, and outcomes’ frameworks; focusing on positive education and the idea of harm as opposed to cruelty. This should facilitate collaboration with schoolteachers and education policymakers to assess the ways in which animal welfare might be successfully incorporated within formal education in the future. These data suggest many potential avenues for inclusion, although a holistic approach emphasising the links between humans, animals and the environment, within the context of young people's recent activism and contemporary health, societal and environmental issues, may be most successful.
Education of children about farm animal welfare could affect welfare standards, through influence on current and future purchasing of animal products, and improve general consideration for animals. Establishing success requires evaluation. Here, a farm animal educational event for 13 to 14 year-old schoolchildren, focusing on chicken biology, welfare and food labelling, was assessed. Alterations in knowledge, attitude and a proxy measure of behaviour towards animals and their welfare, key aspects expected to impact on animal welfare, were investigated using questionnaires. These key aspects were predicted to increase following event attendance and remain higher than in the non-attending control group three months later. Knowledge and positive behaviour towards specific poultry species increased significantly in attendees but, although remaining greater than pre-attendance, tended to diminish over time. Value afforded to animal life was unaffected by the event. Consideration of welfare needs was significantly greater overall in attendees than non-attendees, but appeared to be characteristic of children choosing to attend the event, rather than the event per se. Importance attributed to animal welfare followed a hierarchy from survival-relevant, eg freedom from hunger and thirst, to less critical needs, eg stimulation. The specific species under consideration had the most significant effect on attitudes; consistent with predictions based on perceptions of the animals’ ‘complexity’, cognitive ability, similarity to humans and use. Further investigation into the aetiology of attitude and potential barriers to attitude change is required to effect attitude change and determine whether attitude alteration could support maintenance of shifts in knowledge and behaviour.
The article presents two models of public policy evaluation: one named idealistic and the other named pragmatic. In the former, social progress occurs when changes in the form of how society is organised bring us closer to social institutions and public authority conduct considered ideal. In the latter, social progress occurs if the prevailing social state (postchanges) is taken to be better than the previous social state (prechanges), according to certain pre-established judgement criteria. It is argued that the adoption of different models is one of the main obstacles to clarity in the public debate on the implementation of public policies, namely, that of making the points of disagreement explicit. The article presents a defence of the pragmatic model, which is considered more compatible with the use of scientific criteria in order to assess the effectiveness of policies.
Family building is seldom a straight-line march to the finish, even for those fortunate individuals who avoid a detour into the ethical and legal minefield of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Importantly, intended parents and their third-party helpers often lack fundamental information about the parties’ status to any child created – who is a parent, what rights the respective parties possess, and how those rights are protected. Unless appropriately addressed, these issues may contribute to misunderstandings, misperceptions, and confusion, all of which may be laid at the feet of the fertility counselor. In order to practice preemptive crisis management, fertility counselors must recognize risky situations, analyze them with a critical eye, practice within the parameters of competence, ethics, and legal sound stricture, and apply best practice principles. Collaboration with qualified legal practitioners who understand third-party reproduction law is essential to that end.
Extraordinary reproductive technologies are continuing to evolve for people needing medical assistance to have a child, which are replete with complex psychosocial issues. Optimal patient care involves the collaboration of numerous healthcare professionals (physicians, nurses, laboratory scientists, administrative staff, as well as counselors) working together to provide reproductive medical services. This chapter provides a biopsychosocial model for the medical and psychosocial assessment and treatment of individuals and couples seeking reproductive medical assistance. Beginning with an overview of infertility and reproductive physiology/pathophysiology, evaluation and treatment are discussed from a collaborative perspective of medical and psychosocial management. All aspects of reproductive medical care are presented from the lifestyle choices to assisted reproductive technologies including IVF, gamete donation and gestational surrogacy. The complex psychological challenges of patients dealing with significant medical conditions and the consequences of invasive medical procedures, coupled with treatment failures and loss are examined. In addition, a collaborative approach to decision-making in treatment and family building alternatives is discussed. The chapter also serves as a springboard to topics in the second edition of Fertility Counseling covering therapeutic approaches, assessment and preparation in assisted reproduction, addressing the needs of diverse of populations, practice issues, and special topics on pregnancy loss, reproductive trauma and resiliency, postpartum adjustment, and the pregnant therapist.
To improve psychosocial care for oncology inpatients, we implemented screening for distress by means of distress thermometer (DT) at the Comprehensive Cancer Centre Zurich in 2011. Since then, several screening barriers have been reported regarding the application of the DT. This study aimed to evaluate the distress screening process between 2012 and 2016 to identify barriers preventing sustainability.
In this sequential explanatory mixed methods study, we synthesized the results of 2 quantitative retrospective descriptive studies and 1 qualitative focus group study. To compare and analyze the data, we used thematic triangulation.
Nurses screened 32% (N = 7034) of all newly admitted inpatients with the DT, and 47% of the screenings showed a distress level ≥5. Of these cases, 9.7% were referred to psycho-oncological services and 44.7% to social services. In 15.7% of these cases, nurses generated a psychosocial nursing diagnosis. In focus group interviews, nurses attributed the low screening rate to the following barriers: adaptation to patients’ individual needs, patient-related barriers and resistance, timing, communication challenges, established referral practice, and lack of integration in the nursing process.
Significance of results
To improve distress screening performance, the screening process should be tailored to patients’ needs and to nurses’ working conditions (e.g., timing, knowledge, and setting-specific factors). To gain more evidence on distress management as a basis for practical improvements, further evaluations of distress screening are required.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is seen as a major disrupting force in the future healthcare system. However, the assessment of the value of AI technologies is still unclear. Therefore, a multidisciplinary group of experts and patients developed a Model for ASsessing the value of AI (MAS-AI) in medical imaging. Medical imaging is chosen due to the maturity of AI in this area, ensuring a robust evidence-based model.
MAS-AI was developed in three phases. First, a literature review of existing guides, evaluations, and assessments of the value of AI in the field of medical imaging. Next, we interviewed leading researchers in AI in Denmark. The third phase consisted of two workshops where decision makers, patient organizations, and researchers discussed crucial topics for evaluating AI. The multidisciplinary team revised the model between workshops according to comments.
The MAS-AI guideline consists of two steps covering nine domains and five process factors supporting the assessment. Step 1 contains a description of patients, how the AI model was developed, and initial ethical and legal considerations. In step 2, a multidisciplinary assessment of outcomes of the AI application is done for the five remaining domains: safety, clinical aspects, economics, organizational aspects, and patient aspects.
We have developed an health technology assessment-based framework to support the introduction of AI technologies into healthcare in medical imaging. It is essential to ensure informed and valid decisions regarding the adoption of AI with a structured process and tool. MAS-AI can help support decision making and provide greater transparency for all parties.
In Chapter 5, I take on the question about why only a minority of people in each community used the handpumps. My answer exposes the micro and macro politics of the rural water project and the differences between the water at the well and at the handpump. The handpumps represented hybrid objects produced from an assemblage of modernisation ideologies, global development discourses, social power relations, national and local politics, and local meanings and practices. In the communities, many people felt alienated from this new type of water and the values it represented. The handpumps were framed as a neutral technology that would bring community-wide benefits, yet they were used only by people in the Frelimo political party who lived near the sites and could afford the tariffs. The handpumps entrenched existing inequalities and brought tensions between Frelimo and Renamo into the light. The outcomes of the project were broader and more ambivalent, uneven, and contingent than the project evaluation tools were designed to measure.
Pilot projects (“pilots”) are important for testing hypotheses in advance of investing more funds for full research studies. For some programs, such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) supported by the National Center for Translational Sciences, pilots also make up a significant proportion of the research projects conducted with direct CTSA support. Unfortunately, administrative data on pilots are not typically captured in accessible databases. Though data on pilots are included in Research Performance Progress Reports, it is often difficult to extract, especially for large programs like the CTSAs where more than 600 pilots may be reported across all awardees annually. Data extraction challenges preclude analyses that could provide valuable information about pilots to researchers and administrators.
To address those challenges, we describe a script that partially automates extraction of pilot data from CTSA research progress reports. After extraction of the pilot data, we use an established machine learning (ML) model to determine the scientific content of pilots for subsequent analysis. Analysis of ML-assigned scientific categories reveals the scientific diversity of the CTSA pilot portfolio and relationships among individual pilots and institutions.
The CTSA pilots are widely distributed across a number of scientific areas. Content analysis identifies similar projects and the degree of overlap for scientific interests among hubs.
Our results demonstrate that pilot data remain challenging to extract but can provide useful information for communicating with stakeholders, administering pilot portfolios, and facilitating collaboration among researchers and hubs.
As highlighted earlier, whenever things go wrong, the immediate and inevitable response is to call for better rules, new rules, different rules, new institutions, or better institutions to apply the rules that already exist – or a combination of the above. This is curious, as usually there are some rules in place, and often enough, those rules were considered perfectly fine before things went wrong. Moreover, there is not always a lack of institutions to apply them either, whether on the international or domestic level. Still, time and again, rules are manipulated, ignored, stretched, departed from, bent, or reinterpreted. Even relatively clear and settled rules can suffer this fate, let alone rules that are less clear. It is the general argument of this book that a focus on virtue ethics may well come to be of assistance.
The principles of public health promotion have been outlined in previous chapters within this textbook. Planning, implementation and evaluation should be viewed as three equally necessary and complementary components of any public health program. This chapter provides an introduction to planning and evaluation with respect to public health promotions and interventions. This chapter focuses primarily on overarching concepts. It identifies a simple, six-stage public health planning model that assists project teams to move from the initial identification of a need through implementation to assessment of the outcomes, with the evaluation also identifying any needs that remain partially or completely unmet. The concepts of planning and evaluation should be viewed as part of an ongoing process; the planning of public health interventions should be informed through reviewing outcomes of relevant previous projects while the evaluation phase should then provide observations and recommendations for future programs.
This chapter illustrates how to apply explicit Bayesian analysis to scrutinize qualitative research, pinpoint sources of disagreement on inferences, and facilitate consensus-building discussions among scholars, highlighting examples of intuitive Bayesian reasoning as well as departures from Bayesian principles in published research.
The final chapter brings the insights of the book together under the overarching question of whether the Sustainable Development Goals have had any political impact after their adoption in 2015. The chapter draws the conclusion that the Sustainable Development Goals have so far had only limited effects in global, national and local governance. We mainly see discursive effects of the goals with some normative and institutional effects as well. The global goals have however not (yet) become a transformative force in and of themselves. Their effects are neither linear nor unidirectional. While the 2030 Agenda and the 17 goals with their 169 targets constitute a strong set of normative guidelines, their national implementation, translation to the local level, and dissemination across societal sectors remain a political process.
Problems and potential solutions do not speak to themselves: people recognize them and size them up in an active process of cognition. The open-ended nature of problem-solving activities requires that our minds can avoid being paralyzed by several infinite regress problems that conventional economics overlooks. This chapter explores how people allocate their attention between implementing solutions to problems and scanning for new problems and how they judge whether incoming information signifies a problem. It draws parallels with how scientists and object recognition technologies operate via systems of rules, and it presents an original synthesis of Hayek’s theory of the mind (a forerunner to modern theories of brain plasticity), Kelly’s personal construct psychology, Koestler’s work on creativity, Simon’s theory of satisficing and the dual-system view of thinking, and of the role of associative memory processes suggested by Kahneman. The analysis explains how “what comes to mind” is determined as we try to find matches between incoming stimuli and templates from our memories and how we resolve cognitive dissonance between what we expect and what initially seems to be going on.
Global perspectives on the pathways for developing capacity for conservation remain limited. Hindering the robustness of solutions is a dearth of opportunities to foster discussion and dialogue among capacity development practitioners, academics, partners, beneficiaries and donors. Additionally, little is known about donor perspectives on capacity development, and about pathways to developing a more sustainable investment in capacity development for conservation. The 2019 Capacity Building for Conservation Conference in London, UK, provided a unique opportunity to convene more than 150 capacity development practitioners from the global conservation community. The Conference included structured opportunities to hear donor perspectives on strengthening capacity development. Session leaders took detailed notes to document donor perspectives and the discussions around them. A thematic analysis of this empirical evidence resulted in the identification of four key themes with corresponding recommendations, consisting of (1) collaborative design of capacity development initiatives, (2) monitoring and evaluation, (3) longer-term and flexible investments, and (4) building strong relationships between donors and grantees. Given the Convention on Biological Diversity is currently drafting the long-term strategic framework for capacity development post-2020, and global calls to protect significant portions of our land- and seascapes, our recommendations are timely and may inform a way forward.
The inquiry-based approach to learning has been successfully applied in science education. Inquiry-based learning is defined as an approach involving active, research-based learning in the classroom to acquire new knowledge and competences, either individually or collaboratively, in self-regulated learning settings. In this chapter five general inquiry phases are being discussed: Orientation, Conceptualization, Investigation, Conclusion, and Discussion. These phases and their corresponding sub-phases are interlinked in an inquiry cycle. While experiencing each phase the students will acquire research-based skills and further develop a wide range of soft skills as long as instructors provide adequate guidance and support.
The first part of the chapter provides an overview of assessment as an integral element of undergraduate research’s continued success and sustainability. Building from this introduction, the remainder of the chapter explains the EvaluateUR method, a proven approach to assessing the skills and competencies of undergraduate research students and for improving student learning. The EvaluateUR method documents student growth in academic and workplace-related knowledge and skills and fosters meaningful student–mentor dialog to strengthen students’ awareness of their academic strengths and weaknesses. The chapter includes a summary of the findings from an independent evaluation of the method and concludes with remarks about how the method is being adapted to support the assessment of course-based undergraduate research experiences and students competing in remotely operated underwater vehicle competitions.