To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 1 immerses the reader into the Za'atari refugee camp. Situated in Jordan just seven and a half miles south of the Syrian border, the camp – a two-square-mile rectangle divided into twelve districts – is nestled in the very heart of the Middle East. Here, in the desert heat, a community was born in the swell of crisis. The reader is immediately introduced to the book's three featured Syrian women entrepreneurs – Yasmina, Asma, and Malak – in their elements. Yasmina, a salon and wedding dress shop owner, is relaxing in the salon with her family as her client celebrates a beautiful wedding a couple of districts away. Asma, a social entrepreneur and teacher, is reading a story to a group of children – including three of her own – in her trailer, which she has converted into a magical hideout for the children. Malak, an artist, is putting the finishing touches on a series of drawings for an event at a youth center that is meant to encourage the girls in Za'atari to push against the harmful practice of child marriage.
Chapter 12 features the three entrepreneurs discussing their hopes for the future. Despite its progress, Za'atari still faces significant challenges in terms of basic resources and opportunities. So each entrepreneur represents a different hope. Yasmina, as the oldest of the group, discusses the ultimate hope within residents: that there will be lasting peace in Syria and they can return home. Asma considers another hope many have: resettlement to new communities. She talks about her potential resettlement to Canada after recently being interviewed at the embassy in Amman, and what it would mean for her children to have more consistent, higher quality education. Malak discusses the hope that, even if she is to remain in Za'atari for long, it will be better resourced so all children will have the opportunity to realize their God-given gifts. Her most recent painting of a woman, covered in vibrant colors and looking upward, represents this hope – as she accepts her life in Za'atari for now and sees her purpose as living out her gifts boldly as a role model for the children around her. In this spirit, the book ends with a poem by Asma about the hopes and dreams of Za'atari.
Chapter 4 provides an overview of today’s global refugee crisis, driven by perspectives of refugees around the world. The Syrian war has displaced a stunning half of Syria’s prewar population, with nearly 80,000 of those Syrians having fled to nearby Za'atari; the UN calls it “the biggest humanitarian and refugee crisis of our time.” But it is only a part of a broader global crisis: today, more people than at any other time in history have been forcibly displaced from their homes. More than twenty-six million refugees, over half of whom are children, have fled their home countries entirely. This chapter provides a brief exploration of the major crises causing displacement, from instability in Central America and Afghanistan, to the Rohingya genocide in Myanmar, to wars in South Sudan and Yemen. And it considers where most refugees end up: in host cities, in refugee camps, and – unfortunately only on rare occurences – resettled permanently in adoptive cities. It discusses how, due to continuing conflicts and tightening restrictions on acceptance of refugees, refugee camps are increasingly becoming like permanent settlements, despite their intended role as temporary safe havens.
Chapter 9 is about the present impact of the three entrepreneurs’ ventures, alongside many others, on the Za'atari community. A far cry from its makeshift origins, Za'atari is now much like a city. The Shams-Élysées, the Saudi Market, and other areas are buzzing as more than 3,000 businesses generate about $13 million in revenue a month and serve community members. These include bird shops, a cinema, sustainable farming solutions, and, of course, the ventures launched by Yasmina, Asma, and Malak. Yasmina is bringing profound joy into the lives of women across Za'atari. She helps brides feel special, valued, and beautiful, sometimes after a long period of feeling forgotten. Asma is uplifting Za'atari's children to reach for their highest aspirations. Much to her delight, her apprentice Nawara creates her own version of the storytelling initiative that is widely attended. In addition to running her studio with Treza, Malak repeatedly uses her art to empower the children around her, especially on the issue of child marriage. She designs twenty powerful drawings that are presented to girls during a workshop, empowering them to push back against such arrangements.
Chapter 8 describes the extraordinary obstacles facing refugee entrepreneurs and explains why – despite these challenges – refugees excel as entrepreneurs. Refugees face the steepest of uphill climbs, dealing with everything from trauma to a lack of access to credit to discrimination to limited networks. Still, they are much more likely to be entrepreneurs than native-born citizens. Refugees’ sparks are not accidental; they have unique qualities based on their experiences that make them more likely to come up with, and successfully see through, startup ideas. First, many refugees innovate because it is their only way to survive, and are thus immensely committed. For Yasmina, innovating was a requirement to feed her children. Second, refugees benefit from exposure to other cultures' ideas and markets. One appeal of Malak's work is her ability to infuse Syrian flair. Third, refugees, far from home, are often intensely motivated to meet the needs of their new neighbors and find innovations to do just that – as Asma did for Za'atari. Fourth, they are often pushed to entrepreneurship by employment discrimination. Fifth, they have an unmatched level of resilience.
Chapter 2 goes back in time to the three entrepreneurs’ lives in a peaceful prewar Syria, and their flights to safety in Za'atari. All three lead comfortable lives before the sudden, life-altering events of the Arab Spring: protests in Dara'a, the Syrian government’s violent response, and families fleeing homes amid subsequent fighting. Yasmina is living out her childhood passion, running a salon and wedding shop in Dara'a. Her family flees when she is seven months pregnant; on the way to Za'atari, they shelter in others' homes and abandoned schoolhouses, and her son is born premature. Asma grew up adoring school, but her lack of confidence and the busyness of raising a family kept her from her dream of teaching. Still, living in a large house with an olive tree in Dara'a, Asma enjoys her days reading to her children, Tamara, Ashraf, and newborn Maya. Just twenty days after Maya’s birth, Asma's family flees. Only a teenager and the youngest of thirteen siblings, Malak leads a joyful life filled with art, family, and friends in Damascus. She cries with her sisters just before leaving, unwilling to accept that the next morning she would wake up in a tent within a refugee camp.
Chapter 11 discusses the economic, social, spiritual, and personal impact of refugee entrepreneurship around the world. Za'atari is but one example: camps across the globe – from Kutupalong in Bangladesh, to Skaramagas in Greece, to Dadaab in Kenya – have emerged as hubs of entrepreneurship, to the surprise of those who imagine refugees in camps as passively reliant on aid. And refugees have ignited significant positive change in refugee-welcoming cities around the world as well – from Bosnian, Burmese, and Somali refugees revitalizing the once-declining Rust Belt city of Utica, New York, to long-persecuted Hazara refugees creating new ventures to revive the community of Port Adelaide, Australia. While there is an up-front economic cost to welcoming refugees into cities from camps like Za'atari, that investment is clearly a positive one thanks to refugees' contributions in the form of business growth, social innovation, and cultural enrichment. This is not to mention the quiet moments of love, comfort, and togetherness created by refugees’ very presence as neighbors, colleagues, and friends in communities around the world.
Chapter 5 describes the moments that the three Za'atari entrepreneurs push beyond their darkness to find their ideas – each tapping into their childhood passions through different catalyzing events. Yasmina helps prepare her cousin for her wedding in Za'atari, receives rave reviews, and sees her passion rekindled. Determining that she needed to help support her children, she makes the monumental decision to sell her rings, necklace, and bracelet for startup capital. She plans for the launch of a salon and wedding dress store from her home trailer. After her son’s death, Asma resolves to treat the children in Za'atari as if they are her own. Much to her joy, she attends a teacher training program sponsored by an NGO and comes home with educational books that she can use in preparing her storytelling initiative. Art continues to be Malak’s light during her transition to Za'atari, especially as she begins to share her art outside of her trailer. With the encouragement of a Za'atari art teacher, her sister Hoda, her father, and her best friend Treza, she decides to launch an art studio from her home trailer. Treza would manage it, and they would seek to share Malak's art widely.
Chapter 10 demonstrates how the three featured entrepreneurs’ ventures represent dignity for them, for the people they influence, and for the Za'atari community. Coming full circle, Yasmina prepares her apprentice Mona for her own wedding in what is a special, motherly moment. She speaks on the value of being able to train and encourage Mona over the years – of gaining an adoptive daughter through a mutual entrepreneurial passion. Asma is invited to speak at an International Women’s Day event in Za'atari. She is slated to speak last, after three celebrities and global human rights leaders. The doubts of her youth creep in slightly, but a now-confident Asma presents beautifully – to thunderous applause and a standing ovation. Conquering her own fears of publicity, Malak does an interview on a Jordanian radio show where she speaks boldly for herself and her community, helping dispel attitudes that Za'atari is a place where everyone should be pitied. For someone who once dreaded going to Za'atari more than anything she could have ever imagined, this moment of standing up as an advocate and leader within Za'atari means the world to her.
Chapter 6, "Khatwa, Khatwa" – Arabic for "Step by Step" – shares the three entrepreneurs’ stories of beginning to transform their ideas into reality and pushing through early obstacles. Yasmina hires a young and dynamic assistant, Mona, who becomes like a daughter to her. Together, the duo builds an initial client base and a collection of hilarious stories at the newly founded "Salon of Lights." Asma, with her educational books in tow, launches a community library and chases kids around her neighborhood, begging them to come listen to a story. After nervously practicing her storytelling techniques with Tamara and Maya, she officially launches the initiative – "Stories of the Sun" – from her newly decorated home trailer. After her first activity with the children, she learns just how much the experience of war has impacted their thoughts. Malak and her best friend Treza win their dream scholarship to study medical analysis at a university in Amman. Despite the importance of art in her life, Malak resolves to focus on her professional studies and to put art on the backburner. Still, she brings her art supplies with her in case she might have a bit of time to continue her first passion.
Chapter 3 narrates the three entrepreneurs’ early challenges adjusting to Za'atari. The camp is barren and devoid of activity in its first months of existence. White tents house residents, early mornings see long lines for meager bread rations, and residents protest about the severe shortage of resources. All three entrepreneurs struggle mightily. Yasmina is thankful that her newborn son Ashraf is healthy despite his premature birth, but she worries the environment surrounding him will stifle his growth. So she continues to hold out on working, praying she will return home to a peaceful Syria any day now. Falling into depression due to the lack of activity and resources, Asma runs away with her family to try to settle in nearby towns. A dearth of opportunity forces her to return to Za'atari, where she faces the tragic death of her son Ashraf. She fears the worst for Tamara and Maya, believing all hope for their education has died. Without any schooling options and separated from her friends, Malak sits alone in a small corner within her family’s tent and paints, releasing her emotions through her art from morning until night.
Chapter 7 describes the continued development of the three entrepreneurs' ventures and the impact they make on the Za'atari community. Za'atari increasingly shows signs of life: shops pop up along the main road nicknamed the “Shams-Élysées," color and art can be seen on trailers and the camp's walls, social events become more common, and social initiatives occupy children’s time. Yasmina moves her business from her home to the bustling Saudi Market, beautifully decorates her new trailer, and expands her client base as her and Mona's reputation grows. Asma’s storytelling initiative, with the support of her apprentice Nawara, increases in popularity and regularly fills her trailer with children. She begins to see the fruits of her work, as the activities she does with the children reveal more aspirational thinking. Though she had planned to ignore art during school to focus on studies, Malak again turns to art as an outlet during the intensity of university. After winning prizes in competitions and with Treza’s inspiration, Malak finally launches her studio: "Malak Art." Malak and Treza create Instagram and Facebook pages to share Malak's work and accept orders, which come in regularly.
25 Million Sparks takes readers inside the Za'atari refugee camp to follow the stories of three courageous Syrian women entrepreneurs: Yasmina, a wedding shop and salon owner creating moments of celebration; Malak, a young artist infusing color and beauty throughout the camp; and Asma, a social entrepreneur leading a storytelling initiative to enrich children's lives. Anchored by these three inspiring stories, as well as accompanying artwork and poetry by Malak and Asma, the narrative expands beyond Za'atari to explore the broader refugee entrepreneurship phenomenon in more than twenty camps and cities across the globe. What emerges is a tale of power, determination, and dignity – of igniting the brightest sparks of joy, even when the rest of the world sees only the darkness. A significant portion of the proceeds from this book are being contributed to support refugee entrepreneurs and general refugee causes in Za'atari and around the world.
This broadly conceived introduction discusses recent approaches to the history of capitalism in the United States and Germany and relates them to the findings of economic and business historians of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. It identifies four key tensions between the prominence of Kapitalismuskritik and the tacit spread of capitalist practices and attitudes; a focus on capitalism’s concentrated and organized character and the experience of its bewildering complexity; state intervention and the dynamics of the market; and a national framework of viewing the economy and capitalism’s transnational entanglements. The overarching argument is that Nazism became attractive not least for promising to resolve these tensions. It professed to transcend capitalism while harnessing its energies for a racist and imperialist agenda. These and other aspects are treated in the volume’s four sections on debating, concealing, promoting, and racializing German capitalism between 1918 and 1945.
In Weimar and Nazi Germany, capitalism was hotly contested, discreetly practiced, and politically regulated. This volume shows how it adapted to fit a nation undergoing drastic changes following World War I. Through wide-ranging cultural histories, a transatlantic cast of historians probes the ways contemporaries debated, concealed, promoted, and racialized capitalism. They show how bankers and industrialists, storeowners and commercial designers, intellectuals and politicians reshaped a controversial economic order at a time of fundamental uncertainty and drastic rupture. The book thus sheds fresh light on the strategies used by Hitler and his followers to gain and maintain widespread support. The authors conclude that National Socialism succeeded in mobilizing capitalism's energies while at the same time claiming to have overcome a system they identified with pernicious Jewish influences. In so doing, the volume also speaks to the broader issue of how capitalism can adapt to new times.
The book examines the extent to which Chinese cyber and network security laws and policies act as a constraint on the emergence of Chinese entrepreneurialism and innovation. Specifically, how the contradictions and tensions between data localisation laws (as part of Network Sovereignty policies) affect innovation in artificial intelligence (AI). The book surveys the globalised R&D networks, and how the increasing use of open-source platforms by leading Chinese AI firms during 2017–2020, exacerbated the apparent contradiction between Network Sovereignty and Chinese innovation. The drafting of the Cyber Security Law did not anticipate the changing nature of globalised AI innovation. It is argued that the deliberate deployment of what the book refers to as 'fuzzy logic' in drafting the Cyber Security Law allowed regulators to subsequently interpret key terms regarding data in that Law in a fluid and flexible fashion to benefit Chinese innovation.
Do China’s data localisation laws, which were introduced as part of China’s Network Sovereignty policy, adversely affect – or are they likely to adversely affect – open innovation in Chinese AI firms, which is a key goal of China’s Internet Plus policy?
We estimate the relationship between GDP per capita growth and the growth rate of the national saving rate using a panel of 130 countries over the period 1960–2017. We find that GDP per capita growth increases (decreases) the growth rate of the national saving rate in poor countries (rich countries), and a higher credit-to-GDP ratio decreases the national saving rate as well as the income elasticity of the national saving rate. We develop a model with a credit constraint to explain the growth-saving relationship by the saving behavior of entrepreneurs at both the intensive and extensive margins. We further present supporting evidence for our theoretical findings by utilizing cross-country time series data of the number of new businesses registered and the corporate saving rate.
In chapter five, we argue that the economic collapse and famine of the 1990s profoundly transformed North Korea’s political economy. North Korea’s population increasingly turned towards market activities for their survival. North Koreans have continued to rely on markets for food and everyday goods, though marketisation has since expanded to the services, transport and housing sectors. While much of the existing literature has presented state and market as situated in a zero-sum relationship, we challenge the ontological separation between state and market to argue that the rise of the market in North Korea has been closely intertwined with the state. State officials have increasingly become involved in market activities, and the growing entrepreneurial class have entered into partnerships with officials as a means of negotiating the lack of clear property rights. The state has also taken a leading role in furthering the process of marketisation through the creation of new economic sectors, such as the mobile communications sector, for example.
The Epilogue explores the legacies of the state campaigns and shows that the New Family never succeeded in capturing Cubans’ lives and labor. It is for this reason, I suggest, that the Revolution’s official narrative has omitted many of the early campaigns to regulate the Cuban family, specifically women’s labor practices. Yet these silences in the grand narrative reveal how government goals and discourse have transformed over the past sixty years to meet the changing needs of the state. The government explanation for the country’s high rates of abortion and divorce and low rate of official economic productivity is ordinary Cubans’ laziness and lack of commitment to the Revolution. The epilogue argues, on the contrary, that these trends are in fact a direct consequence of government efforts to advance its own version of socialism. Specifically, the very state policies intended to construct the New Family inadvertently contributed to non-nuclear family forms and labor practices. Ordinary Cubans have responded to the discourse of the state with counter-narratives, which frame their non-normative actions as noble and legitimate. Laboring for the State, then, provides evidence of the historical continuity of Cubans’ exercises in autonomy and resistance to the government and its grand narrative.