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This chapter traces the development of education in America from the end of Reconstruction to World War II. The industrialization that characterized this period gave rise to a system of “scientific” management which prized efficiency and competition above all other factors. This in turn influenced the philosophy of behaviorism, which remains a pillar of American education. The chapter exposes the faulty premises of behaviorism and its unfortunate effects when applied in schools. In addition, the chapter examines sources as varied as the Founders’ writings and the latest neuroscientific research to critique behaviorism and endorse social constructivist pedagogy. The chapter also features a brief discussion of the outer limits imposed by the Supreme Court on the government’s ability to regulate education. The discussion includes an examination of three seminal cases: Pierce, Meyer, and Yoder.
The use of compost bedded pack systems (CBS) has increased over the past 5 years in tropical countries, and studies associating production traits with economical outcomes of this system are warranted. Our objectives were to evaluate productive traits, economic outcomes and the risks of losses of dairy farms that switched from a drylot system (DLS) to a CBS and to compare these with similar farms that did not change their system. We collected data from 18 farms over 36 consecutive months (August 2014 to July 2017). All farms started the study as DLS, and six farms switched to CBS in the second year. The other 12 farms kept their DLS during the 36 months of evaluation. Annual technical and economic indexes per farm were collected and calculated. Additionally, a risk analysis was performed based on a 10-year historical series of milk prices. The results were analysed using a regression model including year and herd as categorical variables (fixed), system and herd size as quantitative variables (fixed), and system × herd as a random variable. Furthermore, a non-metric multidimensional scaling plot was used to evaluate producers’ profiles in each year. Milk fat, milk total solids, and somatic cell count did not change when farms switched from DLS to CBS, and averaged 3.80%, 12.04%, and 256 500 cells/ml, respectively. However, milk protein (%) decreased in CBS farms. The majority of milk production variables were not affected. Nevertheless, farms that switched to CBS increased milk production per cow by 13.3% compared with DLS farms. Total operation costs (296 076.83 $/year) were not affected by the system, and neither were the costs of concentrates, roughage, labour or medicines. Net margin per litre (0.09 $/l), operating profit (14.95%), assets per litre (398.68 $/l per day) and return on assets (10.27%) did not change when farms switched from DLS to CBS. Net margin ($/l and $/cow) and asset turnover rate increased in CBS farms. Risk analysis indicated that the risk was reduced by 38% in CBS farms. Furthermore, our analysis showed that producers who switched to CBS had similar technical and economic indexes in the first year before switching their system. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CBS systems might be promising for producers in tropical countries who are looking for a more productive and less risky system. We did not observe improvements in animal health as previously reported in the literature.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have drawn great attention owing to their potential applications in high-quality flat display panels and smart solid-state lighting. Over the last three decades, numerous approaches have been made on material design and device physics to achieve high-efficiency and long-lifespan. Herein, we report a novel tactic to employ solution-processed hybrid metal oxide, molybdenum trioxide-tungsten trioxide (MoO3:WO3), as an efficient and stable hole injection/transport (HIL/HTL) and electron blocking layer for efficient OLEDs. By using phosphorescent orange-red emitter tris(2-phenylquinoline)-iridium(III) Ir(2-phq)3, MoO3:WO3 HIL based OLED device exhibits a power efficiency of 27.7 lm W-1 and 22.9 lm W-1 at 100 and 1000 cd m-2, respectively, which are 89% and 157% higher than that of conventional OLED device consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an HIL. Moreover, the resulted device also displays 1.6 times lower turn-on voltage and 3.0 time higher brightness as compare to other counter part. The higher device performances of OLED device may be attributed to robust hole transporting ability, balanced charge carrier in the recombination zone and non-acidic nature of designed HIL. Our results demonstrate that a novel alternative approach based on transition metal oxide hybrid HIL/HTL as a substitute to PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
After the first successes of ART, this technique showed a rapid development, in many countries. It soon appeared to the professionals themselves that a number of important health concerns were related to the new technique, in terms of practice, efficacy and safety. Moreover, the competition between centers requested solid data for the public and health authorities correct knowledge, based on large samples. This resulted in the development of national, regional, and world registries. It needed general agreements on definitions, numerators, denominators, ways of reporting, that were obtained through several workshops that included WHO. This chapter outlines, in a first section, general importance of surveillance, on efficacy, and safety (immediate and long term, women and children). The second section describes the history itself, from national to regional and world (ICMART) registries. It shows that a lot has already been done, even if efforts are still needed to improve quality, but it is better to have insufficient knowledge than none at all.
In Brazil, 64 recovery plans are currently focused on single or multiple species. We aimed to evaluate whether there is a difference in effectiveness and efficiency in the implementation of the two types of animal protection plans. We selected 16 plans, eight of each type. In addition, we analysed which of the 12 operational attributes of elaboration and execution contributed to the effectiveness (percentage of completed actions and threat reduction assessment) and efficiency (cost per action completed and cost per threat reduction) of the Brazilian action plans. Some metrics were obtained using questionnaires, while others were from the monitoring data sheets. Mann–Whitney tests and selected generalized additive models indicated that the single-species plans completed a higher percentage of actions, but there were no differences in threat reduction or efficiency metrics between the two action plans. In general, the percentage of completed actions was positively influenced by the coordination centre, time of participation of articulators, number of monitoring meetings, number of articulators, articulators’ exchange rate and rate of exclusion of actions. The results of this plan performance assessment could help participants make adjustments and assist in the design of future plans.
Residual feed intake (RFI) is an alternative measure of feed efficiency (FE) and is calculated as the difference between actual and expected feed intake. The biological mechanisms underlying animal-to-animal variation in FE are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the digestive ability of beef cows selected for RFI divergence as heifers, using two contrasted diets. Fifteen 4-year-old beef cows were selected from a total of 69 heifers based on their RFI following the feedlot test. The selected heifers were ranked into high-RFI (+ 1.02 ± 0.28, n = 8) and low-RFI (−0.73 ± 0.28, n = 7), and a digestibility trial was performed after their first lactation. Both RFI groups were offered two different diets: 100% hay or a fattening diet which consisted of a DM basis of 67% whole-plant maize silage and 33% high starch concentrates over four experimental periods (two per diet). A diet effect was observed on feed intake and apparent digestibility, whereas no diet × RFI interaction was detected (P > 0.05). Intake and apparent digestibility were higher in cows fed the fattening diet than in those fed the hay diet (P < 0.0001). DM intake (DMI) and organic matter apparent digestibility (OMd) were repeatable and positively correlated between the two subsequent periods of measurements. For the hay and fattening diets, the repeatability between periods was r = 0.71 and r = 0.73 for DMI and r = 0.87 and r = 0.48 for OMd, respectively. Moreover, both intake (r = 0.55) and OMd (r = 0.54) were positively correlated (P < 0.05) between the hay and fattening diets. Significant differences between beef cows selected for divergence in RFI as heifers were observed for digestive traits (P < 0.05), DM and organic matter (OM) apparent digestibility being higher for low-RFI cows. Overall, this study showed that apparent digestibility contributes to between-animal variation in FE in beef cows.
Current techniques for measuring the dry matter intake (DMI) of grazing lactating beef cows are invasive, time consuming and expensive making them impractical for use on commercial farms. This study was undertaken to explore the potential to develop and validate a model to predict DMI of grazing lactating beef cows, which could be applied in a commercial farm setting, using non-invasive animal measurements. The calibration dataset used to develop the model was comprised of 94 measurements recorded on 106 beef or beef–dairy crossbred cows (maternal origin). The potential of body measurements, linear type scoring, grazing behaviour and thermal imaging to predict DMI in combination with known biologically plausible adjustment variables and energy sinks was investigated. Multivariable regression models were constructed for each independent variable using SAS PROC REG and contained milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin (dairy or beef). Of the 94 variables tested, 32 showed an association with DMI (P < 0.25) upon multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a backwards linear regression model using SAS PROC REG. Variables were retained in this model if P < 0.05. Five variables; width at pins, full body depth, ruminating mastications, central ligament and rump width score, were retained in the model in addition to milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin. The inclusion of these variables in the model increased the predictability of DMI by 0.23 (R2 = 0.68) when compared to a model containing milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin only. This model was applied to data recorded on an independent dataset; a herd of 60 lactating beef cows two years after the calibration study. The R2 for the validation was 0.59. Estimates of DMI are required for measuring feed efficiency. While acknowledging challenges in applicability, the findings suggest a model such as that developed in this study may be used as a tool to more easily and less invasively estimate DMI on large populations of commercial beef cows, and therefore measure feed efficiency.
The principal policy focus for food has been to increase agricultural productivity and to liberalize markets allowing globalized trade. This focus has led to huge growth in the supply of agricultural produce, more calories becoming available, and price declining. The availability of cheaper calories increasingly underpins diets creating malnourishment through obesity, and global competition incentivizes producers who can produce the most, cheaply, typically with environmental damage. We propose re-focusing, away from yields per unit input, to the food system's overall productivity and efficiency – the number of people that can be fed healthily and sustainably per unit input.
An improved variational optimization approach is established to optimize and analyse the propulsion efficiency of the high-altitude contra-rotating propellers for high-altitude airships based on the Vortex Lattice Lifting Line Method. The optimum radial circulation distribution, chord and pitch distribution are optimized under the maximum lift-to-drag ratio of aerofoils. To consider the effects of the actual Reynolds number and the Mach number of each aerofoil section, aerodynamics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and lift-to-ratio are obtained by interpolating a CFD database, which is established by numerical simulations under different Reynolds number, Mach number and angles-of-attack. The improved method is verified by validation cases on a high-altitude CRP using the three-dimensional steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver and moving reference frames technique. The optimization results of thrust, torque and efficiency for both the individual front/rear propeller and CRP are shown to agree reasonably well with the CFD results. Using the improved approach, the influence of blade numbers, diameter, rotation speeds, axial distance and torque ratio on the optimum efficiency of CRPs is illustrated in detail by conducting parametric studies.
Measuring diet choice in grazing animals is challenging, complicating the assessment of feed efficiency in pasture-based systems. Furthermore, animals may modify their intake of a forage species depending on its nutritive value and on their own physiological status. Various fecal markers have been used to estimate feed intake in grazing animals. However, plant-wax markers such as n-alkanes (ALK) and long-chain alcohols may provide reliable estimates of both dietary choices and intakes. Still, their use in beef cattle has been relatively limited. The present study was designed to test the reliability of the ALK technique to estimate diet choices in beef heifers. Twenty-two Angus-cross heifers were evaluated at both post-weaning and yearling age. At each age, they were offered both red clover and fescue hay as cubes. Following 3-week acclimation periods, daily intake of each forage species was assessed daily for 10 days. During the final 5 days, fecal grab samples were collected twice daily. The ALK fecal concentrations were adjusted using recovery fractions compiled from literature. Diet composition was estimated using two statistical methods. Post-weaning, dietary choices were reliably estimated, with low residual error, regardless of the statistical approach adopted. The regression of observed on estimated red clover proportion ranged from 0.85±0.08 to 1.01±0.09 for fecal samples collected in the p.m. and for daily proportions once averaged, respectively. However, at yearling age, the estimates were less reliable. There was a tendency to overestimate the red clover proportion in diets of heifers preferring fescue, and vice versa. This was due to greater variability in ALK fecal concentrations in the yearling heifers. Overall, the ALK technique provided a reliable tool for estimating diet choice in animals fed a simple forage diet. Although further refinements in the application of this methodology are needed, plant-wax markers provide opportunities for evaluating diet composition in grazing systems in cattle.
This study aims at establishing environmentally stable and viable silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes of an Electrodynamic Screen (EDS) film, by the inclusion of one or more protective layers of zinc oxide (ZnO) produced in lab by combining tetrahydrofuran (THF) and diethylzinc (DEZ). The electrodes can be realized as 1) stacked structure where the AgNW electrode has a layer of ZnO on top for protection or 2) sandwiched structure where the AgNW electrode is covered by ZnO layers, protecting it from the top and bottom. Experiments are done to test the effect of accelerated exposure to ultraviolet light, high temperature and passage of high voltage on the AgNW samples and are compared with the results obtained from the AgNW samples that have the ZnO protective layer which have also been subjected to the aforementioned test conditions. A complete water immersion test is performed in order to ensure functionality and efficiency of the ZnO/AgNW samples that are to be patterned as electrodes of the EDS film. This will demonstrate viability of the structure in the case of rain.
Several legal philosophers have argued that the principle of corrective justice provides the best explanation of various areas of the law—especially the law of torts. On the other hand, some philosophers of law and many economists of law have argued that the principle of corrective justice is not an independent principle of justice. I call this the problem of dependency. If the critics are right, the principle of corrective justice cannot be an explanation of a large area of our law as it claims to be.
I argue that the increasingly complex forms of the problem of dependency that the critics have proposed lose their force once we have a better understanding of the principle of corrective justice and its relationships with other principles. The principle of corrective justice does not serve a conception of distributive justice or efficiency and can provide an explanation of a large area of our law despite the criticism. It does so independently as a principle of justice that is reflected in our legal practice.
The voltammetric hysteresis visible in current density versus solar cell potential (J-V) curves is a serious concern because it is known that the performance of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) depends on the direction of the potential and the rate of scan. J-V characteristics of gel electrolyte based DSCs were obtained by varying the scan rate from 0.01 to 0.1 V s-1 and the direction from forward bias to reverse bias and reverse bias to forward bias. Three electrolytes were tested, two of them were 100% single salt electrolytes of KI and Hex4NI, and the other was a mixed salt electrolyte containing KI (75%) and Hex4NI (25%). DSC containing mixed salts electrolyte exhibited higher efficiency than single salt electrolytes. The energy conversion efficiency with mixed salts increased from 5.9 to 6.4% with the increase of the scan rate from 0.01 to 0.1 V s-1, when the scanning was conducted from forward bias to reverse bias direction. However, when the scanning was carried out with revised polarity a drop of the efficiency was observed with increasing rate of potential scan. Present work emphasizes the importance of reporting the rate and direction of potential scan along with solar cell performance parameters.
Processing poultry results in considerable waste and/or by-products. Assuming a 70% yield during processing, the aggregate of waste from processing chickens for meat globally is 45.9 million tons. The nitrogen in processing waste and by-products globally is 1.3 million metric tons; equivalent to 49% of nitrogen in poultry excreta globally. If yield increased to 80%, as seen in the USA, there is a concomitant reduction in processing waste. If this were extended globally, there would be a 19.1 million metric ton reduction in processing waste. The global cost of processing chicken has been calculated as 51.3 x 109 MJ (equivalent to 0.06% of agricultural/food energy usage). The environmental costs of processing include energy, high quality (potable) water usage (estimated at about 30 litres per bird) and large quantities of organic solids and ‘dirty’ water as by-products together with contamination of surface and of ground water. There is a case for viewing poultry waste as a resource. These co-products could be used as human foods, high protein animal feed ingredients (after rendering), high value health related products (e.g. collagen, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate), bioenergy (e.g. biodiesel) and other products. The following review focuses on estimating the amount of processing waste and approaches to reduce processing waste, such as increasing yield and considering waste as a resource or, at least potential, co-product.
This paper extends the resource-capability-based view in strategic management and discusses the capabilities for the firms to stay competitive in emerging economies. Faced with low levels of efficiency, technology, and skills, firms in emerging economies need to implement best management practices to overcome operational inefficiency while engage in innovation processes to address new opportunities. They have to develop the capabilities to enhance efficiency, the capabilities to undertake innovation, and the synthesis capabilities to combine the two to keep rivals at bay. The paper tests hypotheses against a data set of more than 20,000 firms from 36 emerging economies provided by the World Bank in 2012–2015 and finds strong evidence to support the arguments. The paper finds that the three sets of capabilities are positively related to productivity and, through it, financial performance.
The fixed-effects estimator is biased in the presence of dynamic misspecification and omitted within variation correlated with one of the regressors. We argue and demonstrate that fixed-effects estimates can amplify the bias from dynamic misspecification and that with omitted time-invariant variables and dynamic misspecifications, the fixed-effects estimator can be more biased than the ‘naïve’ OLS model. We also demonstrate that the Hausman test does not reliably identify the least biased estimator when time-invariant and time-varying omitted variables or dynamic misspecifications exist. Accordingly, empirical researchers are ill-advised to rely on the Hausman test for model selection or use the fixed-effects model as default unless they can convincingly justify the assumption of correctly specified dynamics. Our findings caution applied researchers to not overlook the potential drawbacks of relying on the fixed-effects estimator as a default. The results presented here also call upon methodologists to study the properties of estimators in the presence of multiple model misspecifications. Our results suggest that scholars ought to devote much more attention to modeling dynamics appropriately instead of relying on a default solution before they control for potentially omitted variables with constant effects using a fixed-effects specification.
Surplus accounting is a method for evaluating trends in how a firm’s productivity factors (intermediate inputs, capital, land, labour) are performing and how the productivity gains are redistributed between agents in the economy. Here the surplus accounting method was applied on a database of 164 Charolais-area suckler cattle farms running from 1980 to 2015. Over this 36-year period – with differences per sub-period – the cumulative productivity surplus (PS) increased at a low rate of +0.17%/year (i.e. cumulative volume of outputs produced increased slightly more than cumulative volume of inputs used). This timid increase in PS is linked to the constant expansion in labour productivity whereas other factor productivities have shrunk. The observable period-wide macrotrends are that commercial farm businesses struggle to protect their revenues, we also observe a slight fall in input prices, land rent and financing costs, and a huge climb in direct support-policy payments. The bulk of the cumulative economic surplus has been captured downstream – 64% downstream of the cattle value chain as a drop in prices, and 22% downstream of other value chains (chiefly cereals). It emerges that the productivity gains in beef cattle farming mostly benefit the downstream value chain (packers–processors, distributors and consumers), whereas it is mainly government money backing this drop in prices of agricultural output. Here we see the principal of the 1992 ‘MacSharry’ reform at work, with a transfer from the taxpayer through direct support-policy payments through to the consumer via lower prices. The simple fact that farmers’ incomes are stagnating is a clear indication that they are net losers in this distribution of productivity gains, despite the improvement in labour factor productivity.
Optimization of production factors plays a central role in efficient milk production operations. Causal relationships between production parameters (health, fertility, feeding, performance and farm size) on the one hand and efficiency parameters on the other have been identified in several studies. In recent years, structural equation modelling (SEM) has not only gained importance in agriculture but also in milk production, providing the opportunity to investigate multilateral relationships. Additionally, SEM enables an estimation of parameters which are not themselves measurable, the so-called latent variables. The current study was based on the data of 943 branch settlements (including the years 2012 and 2013) of dairy farms keeping German Holstein cows in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) which provided a combination of the structural parameters, economic parameters and biological performance of the farms. An SEM using this combined data was applied to investigate the complexity of influences on efficiency parameters in milk production. Efficiency was sub-divided into and evaluated by two effect variables (economic efficiency and biological efficiency). Economic efficiency was defined as a conventional efficiency assessment criterion from full-cost accounting, whereas biological efficiency was used to evaluate the quality of herd management. Performance was identified as the key parameter for independent evaluation of efficiency by assessing biological (γ41 = 0.644) or economic efficiency (γ42 = 0.266). The SEM explained more than three times higher proportion of the variance in biological efficiency than in economic efficiency. The investigation proved the eligibility of partial least squares SEM for the evaluation of efficiency in milk production.
Livestock farming systems provide multiple benefits to humans: protein-rich diets that contribute to food security, employment and rural economies, capital stock and draught power in many developing countries and cultural landscape all around the world. Despite these positive contributions to society, livestock is also the centre of many controversies as regards to its environmental impacts, animal welfare and health outcomes related to excessive meat consumption. Here, we review the potentials of sustainable intensification (SI) and agroecology (AE) in the design of sustainable ruminant farming systems. We analyse the two frameworks in a historical perspective and show that they are underpinned by different values and worldviews about food consumption patterns, the role of technology and our relationship with nature. Proponents of SI see the increase in animal protein demand as inevitable and therefore aim at increasing production from existing farmland to limit further encroachment into remaining natural ecosystems. Sustainable intensification can thus be seen as an efficiency-oriented framework that benefits from all forms of technological development. Proponents of AE appear more open to dietary shifts towards less animal protein consumption to rebalance the whole food system. Agroecology promotes system redesign, benefits from functional diversity and aims at providing regulating and cultural services. We analyse the main criticisms of the two frameworks: Is SI sustainable? How much can AE contribute to feeding the world? Indeed, in SI, social justice has long lacked attention notably with respect to resource allocation within and between generations. It is only recently that some of its proponents have indicated that there is room to include more diversified systems and food-system transformation perspectives and to build socially fair governance systems. As no space is available for agricultural land expansion in many areas, agroecological approaches that emphasise the importance of local production should also focus more on yield increases from agricultural land. Our view is that new technologies and strict certifications offer opportunities for scaling-up agroecological systems. We stress that the key issue for making digital science part of the agroecological transition is that it remains at a low cost and is thus accessible to smallholder farmers. We conclude that SI and AE could converge for a better future by adopting transformative approaches in the search for ecologically benign, socially fair and economically viable ruminant farming systems.
Material choices can affect both the environmental conditions and the human health impacts of buildings. Decision making can be improved through greater transparency and a broader view of materials impact.
With more architects and engineers recognising the impacts of global climate change, a renewed focus on carbon emissions from buildings is underway. Material choices in the built environment have significant impacts on both the building’s carbon emissions and the health of building occupants. As the operational carbon in buildings falls through improved efficiencies and design, the amount of embodied carbon released from the extraction, manufacturing, and transportation of materials and products is becoming relatively more significant. Through the selection of materials, designers can reduce the overall carbon emissions of buildings while maintaining high standards for occupant health.