To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 5 addresses the role of the foundational principles of EU law – primacy, direct effect, consistent interpretation and state liability – in ensuring the proper functioning of the internal market. The EU-specific principles are compared with their equivalents in public international law and in the EEA, the Energy Community, the ECAA and the Transport Community legal orders. The analysis helps to determine the implications of a possible absence of the supranational principles in the agreements exporting the acquis on the effectiveness of the acquis transferred to third countries by means of agreements operating under public international law.
Chapter 6 defines the concept of the autonomy of the EU legal order and examines its implications for the choice of the most effective institutional framework for achieving and maintaining homogeneity in the expanded internal market. The Chapter scrutinises the concept of autonomy from the perspectives of domestic law and public international law, analyses its content and application by the Court of Justice and ramifications for the acquis-exporting agreements concluded by the Union.
At the core of the settlement of investor–State disputes, there is a dialectic between the facts and the law. The legal component of this dialectical exercise draws our attention to two issues in particular: the law to be applied in the settlement of disputes and the interpretation of international investment agreements (IIAs). Each of these issues is analysed in turn in Chapter 12. For applicable law, it provides an analysis of the choice of substantive applicable law and the content thereof. It then sheds light on how arbitration tribunals interpret IIAs, specifically what means they employ and how these are used to interpret those agreements. It focuses in particular on the means of interpretation explicitly mentioned in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, i.e. the general rule of interpretation, supplementary means of interpretation and the rules pertaining to the interpretation of treaties authenticated in two or more languages.
There has been a general increase in poverty over the last decade in Italy, which has mainly affected the younger generations, with children and youth experiencing the worst economic conditions. This is primarily not due to a lack of available economic resources but to the way in which these resources are allocated: mainly in the form of cash transfers rather than services. The provision of adequate services based on professional work needs to be implemented by overcoming two main obstacles which are highlighted by the results of two studies presented here. The first study concerns the quality of professional care and the systematic use of outcome evaluation, the second concerns the vision of professionals and their ability to integrate the provision of services with economic support aimed at improving children’s growth and parenting skills. The two studies were carried out as part of an international debate on how to effectively fight poverty and social exclusion of children which was promoted by the International Association for Outcome-based Evaluation and Research on Family and Children’s Services (iaOBERfcs).
This article reports on the early results of using behavioural and educational data to evaluate a residential education programme. The programme serves male and female students between 12 and 16 years of age who have been suspended or expelled from school due to behavioural issues or who refused to attend school. Using measures of behavioural and educational progress during care and reporting these changes over time provided empirical evidence that the programme was achieving its primary aims of ‘behaviour change and educational gains.’ Collecting and reporting this data has empowered the programme to increase programme effectiveness through both data-informed decision-making and ongoing programme evaluation.
Outcome studies of the treatment of compulsive buying disorder (CBD) have rarely compared the effectiveness of differing active treatments.
This study sought to compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and person-centred experiential therapy (PCE) in a cross-over design.
This was an ABC single case experimental design with extended follow-up with a female patient meeting diagnostic criteria for CBD. Ideographic CBD outcomes were intensively measured over a continuous 350-day time series. Following a 1-month baseline assessment phase (A; 28 days; three sessions), CBT was delivered via 13 out-patient sessions (B: 160 days) and then PCE was delivered via six out-patient sessions (C: 63 days). There was a 99-day follow-up period.
Frequency and duration of compulsive buying episodes decreased during active treatment. CBT and PCE were both highly effective compared with baseline for reducing shopping obsessions, excitement about shopping, compulsion to shop and improving self-esteem. When the PCE and CBT treatment phases were compared against each other, few differences were apparent in terms of outcome. There was no evidence of any relapse over the follow-up period. A reliable and clinically significant change on the primary nomothetic measure (i.e. Compulsive Buying Scale) was retained over time.
The study suggests that both CBT and PCE can be effective for CBD. Methodological limitations and suggestions for future CBD outcome research are discussed.
To assess the effects of nutritional warnings during the first month after the date of full compliance by the food industry in Uruguay in terms of citizen awareness, self-reported use and ability to understand nutritional information.
The present work encompassed two online studies, conducted before (Study 1) and during the first month after the date of full compliance by the food industry (Study 2). An after-only design was used to assess awareness of the policy, exposure to nutritional warnings on food packages and self-reported use of warnings for making purchase decisions in Study 2. An after-only with control group experimental design was used to assess the effect of nutritional warnings on understanding of nutrition information in Studies 1 and 2.
Uruguay, one of the Latin American countries, that has recently implemented nutritional warnings.
A non-probabilistic sample of 1772 participants was recruited using Facebook advertisements targeted at Uruguayan adult users.
High awareness and self-reported use of nutritional warnings during the first month after the date of full compliance in Uruguay were observed. In addition, the before and after comparison showed that the implementation of warnings increased citizens’ ability to use nutritional information to compare products and to identify products with excessive content of sugar, fat, saturated fat and sodium.
The current study confirms results from experimental studies and provides additional evidence to support the implementation of nutritional warnings as one of the public policies that can contribute to tackle obesity and non-communicable diseases.
The PRogramme for Improving Mental Health carE (PRIME) evaluated the process and outcomes of the implementation of a mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in Chitwan, Nepal.
To describe the process of implementation, the barriers and facilitating factors, and to evaluate the process indicators of the MHCP.
A case study design that combined qualitative and quantitative methods based on a programme theory of change (ToC) was used and included: (a) district-, community- and health-facility profiles; (b) monthly implementation logs; (c) pre- and post-training evaluation; (d) out-patient clinical data and (e) qualitative interviews with patients and caregivers.
The MHCP was able to achieve most of the indicators outlined by the ToC. Of the total 32 indicators, 21 (66%) were fully achieved, 10 (31%) partially achieved and 1 (3%) were not achieved at all. The proportion of primary care patients that received mental health services increased by 1200% over the 3-year implementation period. Major barriers included frequent transfer of trained health workers, lack of confidential space for consultation, no mental health supervision in the existing system, and stigma. Involvement of Ministry of Health, procurement of new psychotropic medicines through PRIME, motivation of health workers and the development of a new supervision system were key facilitating factors.
Effective implementation of mental health services in primary care settings require interventions to increase demand for services and to ensure there is clinical supervision for health workers, private rooms for consultations, a separate cadre of psychosocial workers and a regular supply of psychotropic medicines.
How does institutional complexity affect effectiveness? This chapter addresses this question for the three policy fields studied in this book: renewable energy, fossil fuel subsidy reform, and carbon markets. The chapter takes a comprehensive perspective across the three case studies by examining three dimensions of effectiveness: output (generating regulations and intrastructure), outcome (changing behaviour), and impact (solving the problem). The study relies on a two-track approach, integrating assessments by researchers and interviews with key stakeholders. The results show how the considerable institutional complexity in the climate-energy nexus has consequences for effectiveness. Notwithstanding the methodical challenges for evaluating effectiveness under conditions of institutional complexity, these insights demonstrate that such an assessment is of high importance and should be continued for other contexts of global governance. In particular, the findings of this chapter help to identify suitable management options – i.e. options for formally regulating the linkage between institutions – for the climate-energy nexus. With these suggestions and its conceptual and empirical novelty, the chapter contributes to a variety of literatures – on climate and energy governance, on institutional complexity, and on effectiveness – while being of interest to different stakeholders operating in the climate-energy nexus.
This chapter establishes four evaluative themes that will be employed across this volume to analyze the institutional complexity of policy fields in the climate-energy nexus: coherence, management, legitimacy, and effectiveness. Coherence among institutions is conceptualized along four dimensions: convergence on an overarching core norm for the policy field, balanced coverage and distribution of memberships (private, public, hybrid), balanced coverage and distribution of governance functions (standards and commitments, operational activities, information and networking, financing), and mechanisms underlying cross-institutional relations (cognitive, normative, behavioural). Management will be examined according to types of managing agents, political levels (from domestic to global), and the consequences of management efforts in enhancing coherence. Legitimacy will be assessed along nine dimensions, among them expertise, transparency, accountability, or procedural and distributive fairness. Effectiveness, finally, will be examined in terms of normative and legal output produced by the institutions, their behaviour-changing outcome, and their ultimate problem-solving impact. Altogether, the four themes and their dimensions make up a novel framework for an in-depth analysis of a governance nexus. They help us examine a variety of important questions in a comparative research design, combining a high level of ambition with feasibility and novelty.
The introduction first explains the rationale and theoretical and empirical contributions of the edited volume. The book seeks to address a considerable gap in knowledge of the nature of the relationship between institutions governing the climate-energy nexus in a multilevel context. In particular, there is scant research on consequences on the legitimacy and effectiveness of governance arrangements and the climate-energy nexus as a whole. For an in-depth analysis of institutional complexity in the nexus, we selected three policy fields as case studies: renewable energy, fossil fuel subsidy reform, and carbon pricing. We made this choice since the three cases represent urgent and major components of the climate-energy nexus, since they vary considerably in the number and mix of institutions that govern them at the international level, and since they differ in their positioning within the climate-energy nexus – with carbon pricing primarily a climate change issue, renewable energy lying at the core of energy governance, and fossil fuel subsidy reform falling in between. The chapter concludes with an outline of the ccontributions to the book, structured along the volume’s three parts on mapping (I) coherence and management (II), and legitimacy and effectiveness (III).
In Chapter 3, I examine patterns of general deterrence in the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. I begin with a discussion of the practices and procedures of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. Next, I develop a research design to assess general deterrence. I begin by discussing the outcome of interest - regional court effectiveness. In this discussion, I distinguish conceptually and empirically between compliance and effectiveness. To empirically analyze general regional court deterrence, I first examine the influence of regional court presence on respect for rights and find that the presence of the court in the region is not positively associated with better respect for human rights. Next, I examine the influence of regional court activity by looking at the influence of the number of adverse judgments rendered in the region on respect for rights. I find that European Court activity is not significantly associated with greater respect for rights. However, the activity of the Inter-American Court is significantly associated with greater respect for rights. I conclude with a discussion of these divergent findings.
Beginning with two examples from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Chapter 1 introduces the motivating puzzle: Why do regional human rights courts sometimes deter future human rights abuses and other times do not? I posit that regional human rights court deterrence is conditional on domestic political factors. I argue that deterrence is more likely when the chief executive has the capacity and willingness to respond to adverse regional court judgments. This chapter then examines three key institutional design features that make regional human rights courts uniquely suited to influence human rights practices, including exclusive membership, mechanism of influence (judgments rather than recommendations), and institutional independence. I then provide a descriptive comparison of the two regional human rights courts examined in the book: the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights and argue that a comparative approach is beneficial for advancing our understanding of regional court deterrence. This chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the organization of the book.
Chapter 6 compares the outcome additionality of thirty-two indicators in a quantitative meta-analysis, and tests hypotheses derived from an inductive theoretical analysis of micro-institutional dynamics. It examines the comparative impact of regulatory clarity and stringency; effective training and capacity building; the existence of significant, individualized price premiums; the presence of investment and opportunity costs; restrictive auditor oversight policies; and the coexistence of public regulation on the likelihood that a requirement will show outcome additionality in matched farmers. The results show that regulatory clarity and stringency, along with the provision of substantive price premiums, have the most significant positive correlation with outcome additionality (i.e., likely behavior changes); while the coexistence of public regulations and the existence of high opportunity costs has a significant negative impact. These results are striking, as the majority of standards are currently moving away from a stringent regulatory approach. However, this approach is unlikely to allow for the creation of price premiums that could compensate farmers for high-cost practices.
Chapter 2 constitutes the core theoretical chapter of the book. It serves two functions. First, it introduces the micro–institutional rational choice approach that is applied throughout the work. It explains why producers targeted by market-driven regulatory governance can be considered boundedly rational actors, what this characterization entails, and how institutional arrangements can help such actors to overcome collective action problems. It then shows how Kiser and Ostrom’s Three Worlds of Action can be leveraged to link institutional design choices to their outcomes. In a second step, Chapter 2 examines market-driven regulatory governance using this approach. It uncovers the institutional design dilemma that standards face as they scale up, and specifies a number of hypotheses on how these choices (e.g., between binding and flexible standard–setting; strict or flexible oversight mechanisms; and a focus on price premiums or on capacity building) will affect the implementation of standards by drawing on institutional rational choice theory as well as insights from the socio-legal literature.
This final chapter summarizes the insights gained and discusses how far they travel beyond the coffee sector. It first concludes that market-driven schemes only show partial effectiveness – and even then only when allowing the goal posts of a ‘sustainable coffee sector’ to be moved a considerable distance from its original definition. In a second step, it discusses the generalizability of the book’s results. It reiterates that the coffee sector – with a relatively easy-to-trace value chain, a consumer-facing product, and a long history of awareness raising in both industry and civil society – exhibits many features that should benefit the proper operation of market-driven regulatory governance. The fact that it did not appear to succeed in this best-case scenario raises serious questions about the ability of private governance to show better results in other supply chains. It closes by putting the book into conversation with recent work and suggesting implications for academics, practitioners, governments, and consumers.
Chapter 1 describes the scope, purpose, and main argument of the book. This chapter opens with vivid field research vignettes that present the reader with puzzles regarding the suboptimal implementation of market-driven sustainability governance in the coffee sector. It then motivates the choice of coffee as empirical focus and defines the book’s scope of analysis as centered on transnational market-driven regulatory governance. By introducing the book’s research questions and structure, it explains its conceptualization of effectiveness and lays out its contribution to the literature by setting this approach apart from previous efforts. To set the empirical scene, it provides a short overview of the global coffee sector and its players. It then describes the selection of private sustainability standards and country cases, as well as the main data sources and research methods. It closes by outlining the analytical argument and findings, and linking these to a roadmap of the following chapters.
This chapter examines how river dynamics are related to the magnitude and frequency of channel-forming events. First, basic flood-frequency and flow-duration concepts are reviewed. Second, the classic equilibrium perspective on adjustment between flow and channel form is examined and related to magnitude–frequency concepts defining geomorphic work. The classic concepts of dominant discharge, bankfull discharge, effective discharge, and bankfull channel form are introduced and discussed. Third, event-based perspectives on river dynamics, including the concepts of geomorphic effectiveness and river sensitivity, are presented. Factors that influence the extent to which a particular fluvial system is sensitive or insensitive to individual hydrological events are explored, thereby providing the basis for equilibrium versus disequilibrium conceptions of channel change.
This chapter reviews the literature on transnational institutions and networks in earth system governance research over the past decade. The chapter focuses in particular on the issues of emergence, effectiveness and legitimacy of transnational governance and outlines key debates and controversies surrounding the shifting authority between public and private actors. The chapter also identifies major research lines and open questions and provides an outlook towards the most promising directions in future research. The review is based on 215 articles identified in the Web of Science (co)authored by fellows of the Earth System Governance Project from 2008 to 2018.
Environmental policy integration (EPI) is the incorporation of environmental concerns and objectives into non-environmental policy areas, such as energy, transport and agriculture, as opposed to pursuing such objectives through purely environmental policy practices. EPI is promoted to overcome policy incoherence and institutional fragmentation, to address the driving forces of environmental degradation and to promote innovation and synergy. But how effective are EPI strategies employed in practice? In this chapter we provide a meta-analysis of scientific, empirical research on EPI to address this question. An important finding is the discrepancy between the adoption of EPI in terms of objectives and commitments and its actual implementation, that is, translation into concrete measures. Overall, we found relatively few cases where environmental objectives were given a substantial status in non-environmental policies. The barriers we identified suggest that the actual detailed design or architecture of the strategies that are employed to promote EPI really matters.