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Harrison discusses her team’s research on female serial killers (FSKs) who committed their crimes in the US, beginning with FSK background. Topics include demographics, physical appearance, education, socioeconomic status, developmental history, family events, and age of first murder. The occupations of FSKs are discussed. Alarmingly, FSKs are often nurses, nurse’s aides, or other caregivers. The author compares her findings with those from other notable studies, such as from criminologist Eric Hickey. The rarity of empirical research on FSKs is underscored. The author describes her sample of FSKs derived using the mass media method of forensic research, examining information from newspapers, television networks, courts, government records, and historical societies. Harrison underscores the importance of incorporating and citing information from valid source material. Long-term effects of childhood maltreatment and a traumagenic background are underscored. To illustrate chapter concepts, the author presents the cases of FSKs Dorothea Puente and Jane Toppan and revisits the case of FSK Aileen Wuornos.
The agricultural research for development (AR4D) domain is becoming increasingly complex, and theory of change (ToC) approaches can provide critical guidance through the maze of transformation concerning engagement, partnership, and research. Most of the major benefits that accrue through the use of ToCs relate to internal learning within project teams. Finding the balance between applying a ToC that is both useful and time- and resource-smart is challenging and may need iteration to get right. Quantitative impact assessment methods must be blended with qualitative methods in ToC-based AR4D, so that evaluation becomes about both the process and numbers, while new methods require developing for blended evaluation. The evidence base concerning the efficiency, efficacy, and failings of ToC-based AR4D urgently requires further development and synthesis, and the lessons must be applied broadly.
The neglect of marginalized stakeholders is a colossal problem in both stakeholder and entrepreneurship streams of literature. To address this problem, we offer a theory of marginalized stakeholder-centric entrepreneurship. We conceptualize how firms can utilize marginalized stakeholder input actualization through which firms should process a variety of ideas, resources, and interactions with marginalized stakeholders and then filter, internalize, and, finally, realize important elements that improve a variety of related socioeconomic, ethical, racial, contextual, political, and identity issues. This input actualization process enables firms to innovate with marginalized stakeholders and develop marginalized stakeholder capabilities. To this end, firms fulfill both their moral and entrepreneurial claims to marginalized stakeholders.
There have been several calls for transformation in food systems to address the challenges of climate change, hunger, continuing population pressure, and to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although complicated, working across scales and actors is critical for food-system transformation, alongside understanding the entry points. As agricultural research for development (AR4D) is ultimately about farming practices and farmer livelihoods, a focus on the local scale is essential, as in most cases, farms and districts are where the most action is required. Through effective cross-scale work, lessons from local levels can shape the thinking of regional and national governments, as well as the private sector. Involving multiple and ideally nested scales, designing sets of solutions, and developing actionable, fundable, and implementable solutions is likely to provide rich food-system outcomes. Partners need to provide the tools, signals, and resources so that local people, communities, and policy planners are empowered to drive transformation.
Schistosomiasis remains a major neglected tropical disease that afflicts over 200 million people globally. Schistosomes, the aetiological agent of schistosomiasis, are parasitic flatworms that propagate between molluscan and mammalian hosts. Inside the mammalian host, schistosomes rapidly grow over 100-fold in size and develop into a sexually mature male or female that thrives in the bloodstream for several decades. Recent work has identified schistosome stem cells as the source that drives parasite transmission, reproduction and longevity. Moreover, studies have begun to uncover molecular programmes deployed by stem cells that are essential for tissue development and maintenance, parasite survival and immune evasion. Such programmes are reminiscent of neoblast-driven development and regeneration of planarians, the free-living flatworm relative of schistosomes. Over the last few decades, research in planarians has employed modern functional genomic tools that significantly enhanced our understanding of stem cell-driven animal development and regeneration. In this review, we take a broad stroke overview of major flatworm organ systems at the cellular and molecular levels. We summarize recent advances on genetic regulators that play critical roles in differentiation and maintenance of flatworm cell types. Finally, we provide perspectives on how investigation of basic parasite biology is critical to discovering new approaches to battle schistosomiasis.
‘Development’ is a legal concept which has been central to the practice of international economic law (IEL). This Article examines how ‘development’ continues to be at the heart of struggles between domestic investment laws (DILs) and international economic law. By examining over 3000 international investment agreements (IIAs) and DILs signed in the last seven decades, this Article identifies the ways in which the concept of development has evolved in tandem with the growth of international economic law by dividing the history of international investment law into six main phases. It traces the emergence of ‘development’ in DIL to the decolonization era arguing that post 1990, the proliferation of international investment treaties and growth of investment treaty arbitration have been used as tools of liberalization on the weak premise that this would lead to economic development. In this context, this Article examines closely the interpretation of ‘investment’ by ICSID tribunals, promotion of international arbitration for economic development, attempts to internationalize economic development contracts, continued relevance of the New International Economic Order, and shift to sustainable development in IEL discourse.
During capture, in order to separate him from a possessive adult female and return him to his mother, a newborn male in a laboratory group of Cebus capucinus monkeys was found to have a seriously infected compound fracture of the humerus associated with a deep and extensive slash wound. Amputation of the affected limb was deemed necessary. Shortly after surgery the newborn was returned to his mother, in isolation from the group, with periodic removal for post-surgical care. Three weeks later the mother-newborn pair was returned to the social group and no further intervention occurred. Regular observations revealed mutual behavioural adjustments to the handicap by the mother and newborn. Compared to a normal age-mate, the amputee received more positive social attention from the mother and other group-members. Despite his showing delays in locomotor and manipulatory activities, the handicapped infant showed good behavioural progress. Early resocialization thus appears feasible following emergency surgery in newborn primates.
Repetitive ‘stereotyped’ behaviours are often performed by both wild and domestic rodents in small laboratory cages. In this study, a behaviour resembling a backwards somersault or backflip is described and quantified in captive roof rats (ship or black rats, Rattus rattus). Videotapes of captive-bred rat pups showed that repetitive backflipping developed rapidly after weaning. In all subjects, the behaviour was highly cyclical, with more than 90 per cent occurring during the dark phase of the light:dark cycle. Individual variability in the performance of backflipping was considerable but performance levels for each individual were consistent from day to day and at 30 and 60 days of age. Highly significant differences were found between litters (families), indicating important maternal and/or genetic effects on performance levels. Cage enrichment in the form of a wooden nest box resulted in dramatically lower rates of performance. Increased cage height resulted in delayed development of backflipping, as well as changes in the form of the behaviour. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the development and expression of backflipping in young roof rats may be triggered by weaning and maintained by a heightened state of arousal in a relatively impoverished environment with limited opportunities for perceptual and locomotor stimulation.
The early development of bar-gnawing was studied in young gerbils kept in standard laboratory cages. Bar-gnawing was performed on the bars of the cage lid and developed shortly after eye-opening at an age of 18 days. It increased in bout length and duration with age and there was considerable variability in behaviour between individuals. It is discussed as to whether bar-gnawing is a stereotypy and in which behavioural context it develops.
Climate change both reflects and transforms global development. Asymmetries of responsibility, impact and capacity reflect historical and current development hierarchies. At the same time, the imperative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions perversely empowers high-emitting newly industrialising counties. As inter-state negotiations enter a new post-Kyoto paradigm involving emissions reductions for ‘all Parties’ to the UN climate change convention, relations between industrial and industrialising countries, and more broadly between North and South, are re-orientated. This article charts these relations through two decades of United Nations climate negotiations, arguing the need to secure emissions reductions across the industrialising world opens up new possibilities for climate justice.
In decision making, people may rely on their own information as well as on information from external sources, such as family members, peers, or experts. The current study investigated how these types of information are used by comparing four decision strategies: 1) an internal strategy that relies solely on own information; 2) an external strategy that relies solely on the information from an external source; 3) a sequential strategy that relies on information from an external source only after own information is deemed inadequate; 4) an integrative strategy that relies on an integration of both types of information. Of specific interest were individual and developmental differences in strategy use. Strategy use was examined via Bayesian hierarchical mixture model analysis. A visual decision task was administered to children and young adolescents (N=305, ages 9–14). Individual differences but no age-related changes were observed in either decision accuracy or strategy use. The internal strategy was dominant across ages, followed by the integrative and sequential strategy, respectively, while the external strategy was extremely rare. This suggests a reluctance to rely entirely on information provided by external sources. We conclude that there are individual differences but not developmental changes in strategy use pertaining to perceptual decision-making in 9- through 14-year-olds. Generalizability of these findings is discussed with regard to different forms of social influence and varying perceptions of the external source. This study provides stepping stones in better understanding and modeling decision making processes in the presence of both internal and external information.
It is important to understand the impact of individual differences in decision making from childhood to adulthood. This cohort-based study extends our knowledge by comparing decision making of children across the age range of 8 to 17 years and their parents. Based on prior research and theory focusing on different types of framing effects, we uncover several key differences across ages, including levels of risk taking and sensitivity to expected value differences between risky and riskless choices. Furthermore, we find that measures such as Numeracy and Surgency help explain both age-related and individual differences on our tasks, especially for decisions involving risk. We discuss the role of diverse task measures in understanding how individual difference factors affect different aspects of decision making, including the ability and effort to process numerical information and the ability to suppress affective reactions to stimulus labels.
Although the issue of redistribution is glossed over by Marglin, there are three reasons why decarbonisation must be accompanied by a massive scaling up of redistribution from the global North to South if the agenda is to be founded on a social justice approach. First, constructing a capital infrastructure in the South in a manner that maximises the potential for decarbonisation would tend to be very import-intensive. Hence, it would require external financing or else risk running aground through balance of payment constraints. Second, there is already a tendency in the global economy of siphoning resources from South to North, in particular through the increasing control over flows of value and wealth by Northern corporations from their commanding positions within international networks. Southern productivity needs to be contextualised from this perspective given the risk that climate negotiations lock in the subordination of Southern countries within these global networks, rather than seeking ways for Southern producers to leverage more value for the output and carbon emissions they are already producing. Third, population and labour transitions in the South place relatively greater pressure than in the past on employment generation in tertiary (service) sectors, in which distributive and redistributive processes play essential roles in bolstering labour demand. The neglect of global redistribution could undermine the capacity of Southern countries to face these broader development challenges, which are already immense even in the absence of decarbonisation. A key question is how to organise global redistributive transfers in a manner that does not continue to subordinate Southern populations to Northern interests. The challenge for decarbonisation is the forging of a political will for redistribution that is motivated by climate change rather than geopolitics, and that respects national ownership and self-determination.
The author provides an introductory commentary on six divergent responses to the 2013 ‘Marglin Manifesto’, proposing basic principles that might guide the quest to combine ecological sustainability with equitably redistributive development.
In the wake of the Azerbaijan Crisis, the United States supported the Pahlavi development program, the Seven-Year Plan, masterminded by Abolhassan Ebtehaj, the country’s premier developmentalist. Assistance came from proxy groups, particularly the World Bank. The bank neglected to provide loans until Ebtehaj and the shah agreed to place the plan under foreign management. Primary financial support for the plan was to come from the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. But negotiations failed to produce an agreement that would increase Iran’s revenues. The rise of an Iranian petro-nationalist movement, an economic crisis, and political paralysis within the Pahlavi government coalesced in 1950, and despite a late intervention the United States and its allied proxies failed to rescue the plan or the shah’s government from succumbing to the nationalization campaign of nationalist leader Mohammed Mosaddeq in early 1951.
This chapter explores the debates about the future of the Tanzanian state after independence, which culminated in the Arusha Declaration of 1967. It sets out the contours of elite-level conversations about development in the 1960s, as Tanzania groped for a path forwards that would translate independence into meaningful socio-economic progress. After showing how Julius Nyerere’s decision to embark on a radical programme of socialist reform was motivated by local unrest and the fate of postcolonial regimes elsewhere in Africa, it then revisits the little-understood politics of the Arusha Declaration and its fallout. Offering an alternative dimension to readings of Arusha as a stimulant for national unity, the chapter demonstrates how Tanzania’s socialist revolution created fissures among the political elite. In particular, it pushed Oscar Kambona, a prominent politician, into exile in Britain. The Arusha Declaration represented a critical turning point in Tanzania’s postcolonial history that narrowed space for dissent, while also sowing the seeds for future challenges to the TANU party-state.
Flush with American aid and rising oil revenues, in the late 1950s the shah’s government embarked upon a new and ambitious development program, the Second Seven-Year Plan. Directed by Abolhassan Ebtehaj, the plan drew in a large number of American developmentalists. Chief among them were David E. Lilienthal and Gordon R. Clapp, former directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Lilienthal, Clapp, and Ebtehaj launched a special project to develop Khuzestan, Iran’s oil-province, into a petrochemical paradise where oil, water, and soil would be transformed together, raising living standards and burnishing the prestige of the newly re-empowered shah. The costly project revealed the extravagances of the Second Plan and eventually fell to the political whims of the shah, who turned against the Americans and the plan itself in the early 1960s, using Ebtehaj and Lilienthal as scapegoats for his government’s broader economic and political failures.
Economic and political unrest in 1960 brought American opinions of the shah’s government to their lowest ebb, pushing the shah to appoint ‘Ali Amini, a pro-American development advocate and modernizer, as prime minister. Reformers in the Kennedy administration hoped that Amini and Iran’s young economists would usher in a new program, the Third Plan, that would steady the country’s economy while moving the shah away from dominating the political scene. The shah, however, outmaneuvered Amini and sidelined the economists, launching his own reform program, the White Revolution. By 1964, the shah had consolidated his position while the influx of oil revenues resolved the economic crisis. At the same time, the US government abandoned the idea of foreign-backed development in Iran, surrendering to a new narrative of the shah as a “revolutionary monarch” who could stabilize the country.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including family dysfunction as well as abuse and neglect, have enduring effects on development. Research across diverse populations documents that ACEs are prevalent and cumulative, influencing children’s developing mental, emotional, and physical systems that affect long-term physical and mental health, social relationships, and parenting attitudes and behaviors. Protective and compensatory experiences (PACEs), including nurturing relationships and stable, supportive environments, can mitigate the effects of ACEs, disrupting the intergenerational transmission of adversity. In this chapter, we summarize the effects of ACEs on neurobiological, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Next, we discuss the effects of cumulative protective experiences and the introduce the concept of Balanced Parenting to promote resilience in the face of adversity. We include examples of how parents and other caregivers can effectively parent children with a history of ACEs at different developmental stages, and conclude with a discussion of new directions for research and practice.