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How can economists use qualitative evidence – such as archival materials, interviews, and ethnography – to study institutions? While applied economists typically rely on quantitative evidence and statistical estimation, many important aspects of institutions and institutional change appear in the form of qualitative evidence. This raises the question if, and how, social scientists trained in quantitative methods can exploit and analyze this evidence. This paper discusses two qualitative research methods that are both commonly used outside of economics: comparative case studies and process tracing. Drawing on existing research about crime and political revolutions, it discusses these two methods and how to implement them to improve institutional analysis.
The number of medical mobile phone applications continues to grow. Although otorhinolaryngology-specific applications represent a small proportion, there are exciting innovations emerging for the specialty. This article will assess the number of applications available and review how they may be used in clinical practice.
The application stores of the two most popular mobile phone platforms, Apple and android, were searched using multiple search terms.
A total of 107 ENT applications were identified and categorised according to intended use. Eight applications were reviewed in more detail and assessed on whether a doctor or allied health professional was involved in their design and if they were evidence-based.
There are a number of ENT-specific smartphone applications currently available. As the technology progresses, their scope has extended beyond being purely for reference. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to assess the validity and security of these applications.
Experiments allow researchers to determine cause and effect relations between variables. As such, they are a critical component in the advance of scientific psychology. In this chapter, we discuss the theory behind the design of good experiments, and provide a sample study for evaluation. We outline three important types of replication, and give an overview of historical events that led to a renewed vigilance regarding replicability. Finally, we discuss generalizability of research in terms of four factors: Subjects (or participants), materials used in the experiment, dependent measures, and the experimental situation. Effects that generalize across these sets of factors are robust. We end the chapter with a set of 18 critical-thinking questions that should be borne in mind while reading and evaluating experimental research. Referring to these questions will help to sharpen critical thinking skills about experimental research.
There are two ways to study how people make decisions. Decision-making under risk deals with well-defined situations where all possible outcomes and their probabilities are known for certain. Examples are playing roulette or buying a lottery ticket. Decision-making under uncertainty, by contrast, deals with ill-defined situations where this certainty is not attainable for humans or machines, such as how to invest your money, or whom to marry. Risk can be tamed by logic probability theory; uncertainty needs more smart heuristics. Many situations require both competencies. In this chapter, I introduce the tools for both forms of decision-making, the debates associated with the nature of rationality, and the link between decision-making and intelligence.
In 2014, the State Council of the Chinese Communist Party announced the institution of a social credit system by 2020, a follow-up to a similar statement on the creation of a social credit system issued by the State Council in 2007. Social credit ratings of the type being developed by the State Council in partnership with Chinese companies go beyond existing financial credit ratings in an attempt to project less-tangible personal characteristics like trustworthiness, criminal tendencies, and group loyalty onto a single scale. The emergence of personal credit ratings is enabled by Big Data, automated decision-making processes, machine learning, and facial recognition technology. It is quite likely that various kinds of personal and social credit ratings shall become reality in the near future. We explore China's version of its social credit system so far, compare the welfare and epistemological qualities of an ecology of personal ratings emanating from polycentric sources versus a social credit rating, and discuss whether a social credit system in an ideologically driven state is less a tool to maximize social welfare through trustworthiness provision and more a method of preventing and punishing deviance from a set of party-held ideological values.
A novel 1 × 4 phased array elliptical inverted T-shaped slotted sectored patch antenna with defected ground structure (DGS), resonate at proposed ultra-wide tetra band at 28, 43, 51, and 64 GHz with high gain and beam-steering capabilities is presented. An inverted T-shaped slotted stub is used with the sectored patch to achieve ultra-wideband properties. In order to resonate the antenna at four different bands, DGS of round bracket slot is etched on the ground. The 1 × 4 phased arrays are used at the top edge and bottom edge of mobile PCB with high gain. The simulation results show that the antenna has four ultra-wide bands: 25.8–29.7, 40.6–44.6, 49.2–53.1, and 62.2–74 GHz with a maximum gain of 16.5 dBi at 51 GHz. The phased array antenna is capable to steer its main beam within ±30° at the 26, 28, and 43 GHz, using appropriate phase shifts of each antenna element. The proposed millimeter wave antenna is particularly suitable for cellular infrastructures and can be a candidate for emerging 5G mobile applications. The availability of an additional 11.8 GHz (62.2–74 GHz) of contiguous unlicensed spectrum will allow the launching of new exciting wireless services.
This paper presents a fleet model explained through a complex configuration of load sharing that considers overcapacity and is based on a life cycle cost (LCC) approach for cost-related decision-making. By analyzing the variables needed to optimize the fleet size, which must be evaluated in combination with the event space method (ESM), the solution to this problem would normally require high computing performance and long computing times. Considering this, the combined use of an integer genetic algorithm (GA) and the ant colony optimization (ACO) method was proposed in order to determine the optimal solution. In order to analyze and highlight the added value of this proposal, several empirical simulations were performed. The results showed the potential strengths of the proposal related to its flexibility and capacity in solving large problems with a near optimal solution for large fleet size and potential real-world applications. Even larger problems can be solved this way than by using the complete enumeration approach and a non-family fleet approach. Thus, this allows for a more real solution to fleet design that also considers overcapacity, availability, and an LCC approach. The simulations showed that the model can be solved in much less time compared with the base model and allows for the resolution of a fleet of at least 64 trucks using GA and 130 using ACO, respectively. Thus, the proposed framework can solve real-world problems, such as the fleet design of mining companies, by offering a more realistic approach.
This paper provides an assessment of current rotor design comparison practices. First, the employed CFD method is validated for a number of rotor designs and is shown to achieve accurate performance predictions in hover and high-speed forward flight. Based on CFD results, a detailed investigation is performed in terms of comparing different rotor designs. The CFD analysis highlighted the need of high fidelity methods due to the subtle aerodynamics involved in advanced planforms. Nevertheless, the paper suggests that the correct basis for comparison in terms of performance metrics must be used to inform decisions about the suitability of the rotor blades designs for specific applications. In particular, when comparing blades of advanced planforms, direct torque and thrust comparisons are better than the commonly used lift to drag ratio and figure of merit.
Today, technology is driving disruptive change in the legal profession and the public is demanding lawyers offer more value and choice in how legal services are delivered. Given these pressures, tomorrow’s legal profession will be fundamentally different from the profession we know today. Against this backdrop, this chapter argues the next generation of lawyers need at least five categories of multidimensional knowledge and skills: collaboration; design; project management; problem-solving; and lifelong learning. The prevailing, traditional legal education model was not designed to teach these multidimensional skills. This chapter describes some of traditional legal education’s deficiencies, introduces the pedagogy of problem-based learning, and advocates a particular form of this pedagogy: project-based learning that involves real clients or community partners. Through project-based learning – a student-centred, active, and experiential learning model – students learn the fundamentals of law and legal practice while gaining the multidimensional knowledge and skills needed to navigate disruptive change. Project-based learning can prepare law students to actively shape the future of the profession – as opposed to merely reacting to change – by harnessing technology and interdisciplinary insights to improve legal systems and create better legal service models for the public.
This chapter documents how the Legal Design Lab at Stanford University has integrated design thinking into law school technology curriculum. In this chapter we profile the objectives of the lab and explore the work the lab has undertaken to introduce new opportunities for skill acquisition through design thinking courses, innovation sprints, and workshops. We explore the purpose, process, and outcomes of these new experiments in legal education, and overview the interdisciplinary methods we have developed, brought from design schools and human-computer interaction programmes. We detail examples of the specific types of classes, sprints, and workshops run, how we define learning outcomes, and how we evaluate student performance. Further, we explore the way in which we leverage technology to provide students with opportunities to acquire user research, mapping, rapid prototyping, and improved communication skills. Drawing on lessons observed over the life of the Design Lab, we conclude by reflecting on our experience of integrating design thinking into a law school programme and argue for the importance of design thinking as an aspect of technology training within and outside of law.
In the field of educational technology there are classic oppositions that shape what we do in our use of technology in higher education (HE) – behaviourism versus constructivism, open versus for-profit, conventional versus innovative curriculum design, technocracy versus democracy. Both sides of the binaries are critical components of what we might determine as the ‘social’ in HE, and the extent to which their oppositions govern our approach to curriculum design also determines the type of learning that our students undertake in their programmes. In this chapter we explore the effect of the antinomies on the development of simulation software designed and built last decade and still in use at Strathclyde Law School, and adapted elsewhere. The chapter will analyse the assumptions and the history – legal educational, technological and social – that are part of the software build and outline future use and expectations for the software as it develops beyond what might, to date, be characterised as its early beta or incunabula stages of development in HE. Above all we shall begin to trace what we hope is one resolution of the classic opposition of technocracy and democracy, a theme that will be developed in future publications.
The lawyer of the future will exist as a ‘polytechnic’ or ‘many-skilled’ professional, applying their legal expertise to a client’s changing world in an increasingly agile way and within a range of organisational settings. For legal educators, there is a need to consider how education can best prepare future lawyers for this reality. The long view suggests that we should be looking to build core skills in legal, design and logic principles rather than learning specific technologies that may be rapidly superseded. But how can we develop these skills, and how we can balance the need to understand core academic principles of law against the need for applied, workplace experience? This chapter looks at the balancing process, focusing on the impact of changing roles in law firms and the demands of the in-house legal and law-advisory-organisation dynamic. It examines how legal education can instil within lawyers, both an understanding of the principles of law alongside an appreciation of the application of those principles in the workplace. It presents a vision of the roles and specialisations that are likely to emerge within the profession, and considers how the future work of lawyers will sit alongside alternative paths into the legal industry.
This paper focuses on the problem of skin corrosion on the upper wing surfaces of rib-stiffened aircraft. For maritime and military transport aircraft this often results in multiple co-located repairs. The common approach to corrosion damage in operational aircraft is to blend out the corrosion and rivet a mechanical doubler over the region. In particular this paper describes the results of a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the ability of the additive metal technology, Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD), to restore the load-carrying capacity of rib-stiffened wing planks with simulated skin corrosion. The experimental results reveal that unrepaired skin corrosion can result in failure by yielding. The experimental results also reveal that SPD repairs to skin corrosion can restore the stress field in the structure, and can ensure that the load-carrying capability of the repaired structure is above proof load.
To identify the prevalence of unhealthy dietary behaviours and their social-ecological influences in adolescents.
The study used a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, which begins with the collection of quantitative data, followed by the collection of qualitative data to explain and enrich the quantitative findings. Quantitative data were collected via a global school-based student health survey and were analysed using quantitative approaches. Qualitative data were obtained via focus group discussions and were analysed thematically.
Middle and high secondary schools in Taza city, Morocco.
Our quantitative analyses included 764 students (14–19 years). For the qualitative part, seventeen focus group discussions were conducted with 100 participants (fifty-six adolescents, twenty-six parents and eighteen teachers).
Of total student participants, 46·1 % skipped breakfast, 60·6 % had inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 39·4 % consumed soft drinks and 28·0 % consumed fast foods. All of these dietary behaviours could coexist in the same person except for inadequate intake of F&V. Gender, academic performance, age, perceived family income and education level of mother were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours. Qualitative findings identified seven themes regarding social-ecological influences on adolescents’ dietary behaviours: cognitive, affective/biological, lifestyle, outcome expectation, social network, accessibility/availability and macro-level influences.
The prevalence of unhealthy dietary behaviours in our study group is a concern. Dietary behaviours are the result of inseparable interactions among social-ecological influences. Modifiable factors identified may be useful when designing a future intervention aimed at improving breakfast and F&V consumption and reducing fast/snack-food consumption among adolescents.
The use of decision-making models in the early stages of the development of complex products and technologies is a well-established practice in industry. Engineers rely on well-established statistical and mathematical models to explore the feasible design space and make early decisions on future design configurations. At the same time, researchers in both value-driven design and sustainable product development areas have stressed the need to expand the design space exploration by encompassing value and sustainability-related considerations. A portfolio of methods and tools for decision support regarding value and sustainability integration has been proposed in literature, but very few have seen an integration in engineering practices. This paper proposes an approach, developed and tested in collaboration with an aerospace subsystem manufacturer, featuring the integration of value-driven design and sustainable product development models in the established practices for design space exploration. The proposed approach uses early simulation results as input for value and sustainability models, automatically computing value and sustainability criteria as an integral part of the design space exploration. Machine learning is applied to deal with the different levels of granularity and maturity of information among early simulations, value models, and sustainability models, as well as for the creation of reliable surrogate models for multidimensional design analysis. The paper describes the logic and rationale of the proposed approach and its application to the case of a turbine rear structure for commercial aircraft engines. Finally, the paper discusses the challenges of the approach implementation and highlights relevant research directions across the value-driven design, sustainable product development, and machine learning research fields.
In order to reduce the time spent on tolerance analysis, it is necessary to correctly identify and prioritize the key characteristics of the product. For multiple-state mechanisms, a systematic procedure for doing this is lacking. We present a new complexity metric for multiple-state mechanisms based on the product behavior, describing the impact of geometrical variation. The sequence of the structural state transitions is linked to the product composition, enabling a clear prioritization of variation-critical states and interfaces. The approach is applied on an industrial case and verified based on a comparison with the company-specified priority tolerance calculations.
Work incapacity is a major public health challenge and an economic burden to both society and individuals. Understanding the underlying causes is becoming ever more relevant as many countries face an aging workforce. We examined stability and change in genetic and environmental factors influencing work incapacity from age 18 until retirement, and sex differences in these effects. The large population-based sample comprised information from 28,759 twins followed for up to 23 years combined with high-quality national registry data. We measured work incapacity as the total proportion of potential workdays lost due to sickness absence, rehabilitation and disability benefits. Structural equation modeling with twin data indicated moderate genetic influences on work incapacity throughout life in both men and women, with a high degree of genetic stability from young to old adulthood. Environmental influences were mainly age-specific. Our results indicate that largely the same genetic factors influence individual differences in work incapacity throughout young, middle and older adulthood, despite major differences in degree of work incapacity and probable underlying medical causes.
Poor clinical trial (CT) recruitment is a significant barrier to translating basic science discoveries into medical practice. Improving support for primary care provider (PCP) referral of patients to CTs may be an important part of the solution. However, implementing CT referral support in primary care is not only technically challenging, but also presents challenges at the person and organization levels.
The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize provider and clinical supervisor attitudes and perceptions regarding CT research, recruitment, and referrals in primary care and (2) to identify perceived workflow strategies and facilitators relevant to designing a technology-supported primary care CT referral program. Focus groups were conducted with PCPs, directors, and supervisors.
Analysis indicated widespread support for the intrinsic scientific value of CTs, while at the same time deep concerns regarding protecting patient well-being, perceived loss of control when patients participate in trials, concern about the impact of point-of-care referrals on clinic workflow, the need for standard processes, and the need for CT information that enables referring providers to quickly confirm that the burdens are justified by the benefits at both patient and provider levels. PCP suggestions pertinent to implementing a CT referral decision support system are reported.
The results from this work contribute to developing an implementation approach to support increased referral of patients to CTs.
This article proposes a new statistical method to measure persuasion within small groups, and applies this approach to a large-scale randomized deliberative experiment. The authors define the construct of ‘persuasion’ as a change in the systematic component of an individual's preference, separate from measurement error, that results from exposure to interpersonal interaction. Their method separately measures persuasion in a latent (left–right) preference space and in a topic-specific preference space. The model's functional form accommodates tests of substantive hypotheses found in the small-group literature. The article illustrates the measurement method by examining changes in study participants' views on US fiscal policy resulting from the composition of the small discussion groups to which they were randomly assigned. The results are inconsistent with the ‘law of small-group polarization’, the typical result found in small-group research; instead, the authors observe patterns of latent and policy-specific persuasion consistent with the aspirations of deliberation.