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Whether unintentional or by design, built, social, and perceived environments influence the human experience. Behavior is not solely the product of a rational motivated actor, operating independently from his or her environment; rather, it is also a function of edifices, neighborhoods, and public spaces, as well as the inhabitants, community norms, and the social capital they generate. Likewise, addictive behaviors have as much to do with the environmental contexts surrounding individuals as with their unique biological factors, specific brain mechanisms, and psychogenic causes. Any attempt to address addiction at either individual or population levels would benefit from careful consideration of the social and contextual influences on cognitions, opportunities, motivations, and behaviors. Interventions informed by this understanding are more likely to be efficacious than those solely targeted toward individual biology, motivations, or attitudes. In this chapter, we discuss the relationship between physical and social environments (PSE), health, and the behavior of humans. We then focus on the influential role of the PSE on the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances; food, eating behaviors, and addictions contributing to the current obesity epidemic; and a selection of other behavioral addictions. The chapter closes by discussing methodological considerations and implications for professional practice.
The purpose of this paper is to disclose improved crystal based frequency source system covering design techniques and experimental methodologies for the stabilization of phase noise performance of X-band phase-locked loop (PLL) at 10.6 GHz. Phase noise performance of PLL-based unit under test (UUT) is prone to disturbance occurred in random vibration profile frequency spectrum. UUT self-resonance plays vital role in occurrence of disturbance in random vibration profile. The stabilization of phase noise performance during dynamic (random) vibration condition is achieved by following methodologies, i.e. vibration-isolator compensation techniques, purification tactic for reference crystal of PLL, and spatial location analysis for finding out mounting position of reference crystal. Spatial analysis helps to filter out UUT self-resonance frequency from random vibration spectrum which leads to reduction of frequency resonance pickups during random vibration testing.
Optimal grasping points for a robotic gripper were derived, based on object and hand geometry, using deep neural networks (DNNs). The optimal grasping cost functions were derived using probability density functions for each local cost function of the normal distribution. Using the DNN, the optimum height and width were set for the robot hand to grasp objects, whose geometric and mass centre points were also considered in obtaining the optimum grasping positions for the robot fingers and the object. The proposed algorithm was tested on 10 differently shaped objects and showed improved grip performance compared to conventional methods.
Kinetic theory is a framework for calculating macroscopic physical properties of systems from their microscopic degrees of freedom. This idea is applied to an ideal gas to derive the Maxwell--Boltzmann velocity distribution, which is demonstrated to be compatible with the ideal gas law and is used to calculate the rate of effusion of an ideal gas. When molecular collisions are important, the mean free path and collision time are quantities that can characterize these collisions. Situations in which collisions are important, such as Brownian motion and diffusion, are presented, along with relevant equations: the Langevin equation and Fick's Law.
Thermalization in classical systems takes place through the spreading of an intial probability distribution in phase space. Liouville's Theorem implies that the phase space volume occupied by the probability distribution is preserved by Hamiltonian systems. These observations motivate the hypothesis that temporal averages of physical quantities are equivalent to ensemble averages.
Unlike classical particles, quantum particles are indistinguishable. Fermions and bosons differ in their quantum statistics, and the consequences of this for their statistical mechanics are explored in the grand canonical ensemble. The Fermi--Dirac and Bose--Einstein distribution functions are derived, and utilized to write thermal averages using the density of states.
The crystal structure of trimethylarsine oxide dihydrate, (CH3)3AsO⋅2H2O, (TMAO dihydrate) has been solved using parallel tempering with the FOX software package and refined using synchrotron powder diffraction data obtained from beamline 08B1-1 at the Canadian Light Source. Rietveld refinement, performed with the software package GSASII, yielded orthorhombic lattice parameters of a = 13.3937(4) Å, b = 9.53025(30) Å, and c = 11.5951(3) Å (Z = 8, space group Pbca). The Rietveld refined structure was compared with density functional theory calculations performed with VASP and shows reasonable agreement. Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis also revealed additional information on the electronic structure of the arsenic atom within the TMAO dihydrate structure.
The relationship between population density and suicide risk remains unclear. While urbanization is associated with greater risk for psychopathology, higher suicide rates have been reported in rural areas. We examined population density and suicide in the Italian population in the last 30 years.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics databases of the Italian population aged 15 years and older (52.4 million in 2016) were used to compute age-adjusted annual total mortality and suicide rates for the years 1985–2016. According to the European Union statistical office (EUROSTAT) criteria, municipalities were classified into densely populated areas, intermediate density areas, or thinly populated areas. Rate ratios (RRs) were computed by sex, age, and geographical area, using densely populated areas as reference.
Total mortality was not associated with population density. In males, suicide rate increased with decreasing population density (RR = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.08–1.28, in intermediate population areas, and RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20–1.45, in thinly populated areas, in 2016). This inverse relationship was found across age, geographical areas, and consecutively over 22 years (1994–2016). In females, no significant difference was detected (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.82–1.13 in intermediate density areas and RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85–1.22 in thinly populated areas). Hanging was the most common suicide method among males, more frequent in thinly (58.8%) than intermediate (53.2%) or densely (41.4%) populated areas.
A consistent and temporally stable inverse relationship between population density and suicide was found in the male, but not female, population. Men may be more vulnerable to adverse social and economic factors associated with lower population density.
Microvascular health is a main determinant of coronary blood flow reserve and myocardial vascular resistance. Extracardiac capillary abnormality has been reported in subjects at increased coronary heart disease risk, such as prehypertension, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. We have reported cardiovascular dysfunction in a cohort of maternal nutrient reduction (MNR)-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) baboon offspring. Here we test the hypothesis that there is oral capillary rarefaction associated with MNR-induced IUGR. Capillary density was quantified using in vivo high-power capillaroscopy on seven middle-aged (~10.7 yr; human equivalent ~40 yr) male IUGR baboons and seven male age-matched controls in the lateral buccal and inferior labial mucosa. While no difference was found between groups in either area by fraction area or optical density for these vascular beds derived from fetal preductal vessels, further studies are needed on post-ductal vascular beds, retina, and function.
Leg weakness (LW) issues are a great concern for pig breeding industry. And it also has a serious impact on animal welfare. To dissect the genetic architecture of limb-and-hoof firmness in commercial pigs, a genome-wide association study was conducted on bone mineral density (BMD) in three sow populations, including Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire. The BMD data were obtained by ultrasound technology from 812 pigs (including Duroc 115, Landrace 243 and Yorkshire 454). In addition, all pigs were genotyped using genome-by-sequencing and a total of 224 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. After quality control, 218 141 SNPs were used for subsequent genome-wide association analysis. Nine significant associations were identified on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 18 that passed Bonferroni correction threshold of 0.05/(total SNP numbers). The most significant locus that associated with BMD (P value = 1.92e−14) was detected at approximately 41.7 Mb on SSC6 (SSC stands for Sus scrofa chromosome). CUL7, PTK7, SRF, VEGFA, RHEB, PRKAR1A and TPO that are located near the lead SNP of significant loci were highlighted as functionally plausible candidate genes for sow limb-and-hoof firmness. Moreover, we also applied a new method to measure the BMD data of pigs by ultrasound technology. The results provide an insight into the genetic architecture of LW and can also help to improve animal welfare in pigs.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) possess tuneable properties and a variety of important applications in the areas of catalysis, adsorption, gas storage, and separation, among others. Herein, recent computational studies by density functional theory (DFT) applied for simulations of MOF structure and complex architecture determination, prediction of properties, and computational characterization, including large-scale screening and geometrical properties of hypothetical MOFs, diffusion and adsorption processes in MOFs, are reviewed. DFT calculations have been applied in the MOF area to study chemical stability; mechanical, photophysical, optical, and magnetic properties; photoluminescence; porosity; and semiconductor or metallic character. The prediction of MOF analogs with open-metal sites, studies of chemical bonding and the prediction of energies by quantum mechanics allows reducing experimental efforts in the creation of MOF/polymer membranes, adsorbents for CO2 uptake, separation of C2H2/CH4, C2H2/CO2, and inert gases, radionuclides sequestration, and water adsorption, as well as other promising advances. For the MOF-derived carbons, a lack of profound DFT investigations is currently observed, being mainly restricted to the electrocatalysis area (nitrogen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction), resulting applications in batteries and other storage devices, CO2 sequestration, and absorbance of organic substances.
The crystal structure of oseltamivir phosphate has been refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional techniques. Oseltamivir phosphate crystallizes in space group P21212 (#18) with a = 24.0079(3), b = 24.6716(2), c = 7.45254(5) Å, V = 4414.24(5) Å3 at 295 K, and Z = 8. Prominent in the crystal structure are hydrogen bonds between the phosphate groups and the ammonium groups of the oseltamivir cations. The strong hydrogen bonds link the cations and the anions into columns parallel to the c-axis, with van der Waals interactions between the columns. Thermal expansion between 120 and 295 K is anisotropic. The powder pattern is included in the Powder Diffraction File™ as entry 00-068-1107.
Methionine is a limiting amino acid (AA) in fish diets, particularly in those containing high levels of plant protein (PP), and is key in the immune system. Accordingly, outcome on the fish immune mechanisms of methionine-deficient and methionine-supplemented diets within the context of 0 % fishmeal formulation, after a short and prolonged feeding period, was studied in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For this, seabass juveniles were fed a (i) fishmeal-free diet, meeting AA requirements, but deficient in methionine (MET0·65); (ii) as control, the MET0·65 supplemented with l-methionine at 0·22 % of feed weight (CTRL); (iii) two diets, identical to MET0·65 but supplemented at 0·63 and 0·88 % of feed weight of l-methionine (MET1·25 and MET1·5, respectively); and (iv) a fishmeal-based diet (FM), as positive control. After 2 and 12 weeks of feeding, blood and plasma were sampled for leucocyte counting and humoral parameter assays and head-kidney collected for gene expression. After 2 weeks of feeding, a fishmeal-free diet supplemented with methionine led to changes in the expression of methionine- and leucocyte-related genes. A methionine immune-enhancer role was more evident after 12 weeks with an increased neutrophil percentage and a decreased expression of apoptotic genes, possibly indicating an enhancement of fish immunity by methionine dietary supplementation. Furthermore, even though CTRL and FM present similar methionine content, CTRL presented a reduced expression of several immune-related genes indicating that in a practical PP-based diet scenario, the requirement level of methionine for an optimal immune status could be higher.
We consider the Voronoi diagram generated by n independent and identically distributed
-valued random variables with an arbitrary underlying probability density function f on
, and analyze the asymptotic behaviors of certain geometric properties, such as the measure, of the Voronoi cells as n tends to infinity. We adapt the methods used by Devroye et al. (2017) to conduct a study of the asymptotic properties of two types of Voronoi cells: (1) Voronoi cells that have a fixed nucleus; (2) Voronoi cells that contain a fixed point. We show that the geometric properties of both types of cells resemble those in the case when the Voronoi diagram is generated by a homogeneous Poisson point process. Additionally, for the second type of Voronoi cells, we determine the limiting distribution, which is universal in all choices of f, of the re-scaled measure of the cells.
This study investigates how phonological neighborhood density (PND) affects word production and recognition in 4-to-6-year-old Russian children in comparison to adults. Previous experiments with English-speaking adults showed that a dense neighborhood facilitated word production but inhibited recognition whereas a sparse neighborhood inhibited production but facilitated recognition. Importantly, these effects are not universal because a reverse PND pattern was found in Spanish-speaking adults. Probably, PND effects depend on the morphological properties of language.
This study focuses on PND effects in word production and recognition in terms of facilitation and inhibition in Russian. Our results are consistent with those in Spanish: Russian-speaking adults produced words with dense neighborhoods more slowly and recognized them faster than words with sparse neighborhoods. Russian children showed the same PND effect in recognition and no effect was found in production. The findings support the hypothesis that PND effects in word production and recognition are influenced by the morphological system of language.
β-glucan has been reported for its health benefits on blood lipids in hypercholesterolemic individuals for years. However, people has paid little attention to the effects in population with mildly hypercholesterolemic as well as the various delivering matrices of β-glucan. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to analyze the effects of β-glucan with different delivering matrices in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. After conducting a comprehensive search in Web of science, Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library, a total of 21 randomized controlled trials involving 1120 participants were identified to measure the pooled effect. The overall results indicated consuming in a doses of ≥3g/d of β-glucan for at least 3 weeks could significantly reduce TC (-0.27mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.33, -0.21, P<0.001) and LDL-c (-0.26mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.32, -0.20, P<0.001) compared with control group in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, while no significant difference was observed in TG (-0.03mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.11, 0.06, P=0.521) and HDL-c (0.01mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.03, 0.04, P=0.777). There was evidence for modest unexplained heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, β-glucan can significantly reduce risk factors like TC and LDL-c for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, furthermore, it appears that the effects of food matrices with both ‘solid-products’ and ‘liquid-products’ where β-glucan was incorporated into ranked as the best way to exert its beneficial properties, while ‘liquid’ and ‘solid’ products were ranked as the second, third position respectively.
Materials that show superior light-emitting and catalytic properties are in high demand among the scientific community owing to their applications in the areas of optoelectronics and (opto)electrocatalysis. In this work, we have synthesized sub-10-nm Pr2Sn2O7 (PSO) and Pr2Sn2O7:Bi3+ (PSOB) nanoparticles (NPs) and investigated their optical and electrochemical properties. On ultraviolet irradiation, PSO NPs display blue emission because of the presence of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, PSOB NPs have higher blue emission intensity than undoped PSO NPs owing to the increase in oxygen vacancy defect density induced by Bi3+ doping. Moreover, PSOB NPs display higher efficiency in terms of current density than PSO NPs as a catalyst toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The kinetic OER models of PSO and PSOB NPs are quite different as displayed by their different Tafel slopes. Interestingly and as another advantage, the PSOB sample is more conducting with low impedance value than the PSO counterpart. With all these advantages due to high oxygen vacancies induced by Bi3+ doping, PSOB NPs have a great potential to be used as blue phosphors, charge storage devices, and capacitors.