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This chapter critically examines twenty years of English language teaching and teacher education reform in Hong Kong as well as the rationale behind these changes and what they mean for Hong Kong’s English language teachers. It throws a light on the role of English language in local teacher education policy, something which has fuelled controversy and debate. The chapter details the wide-ranging reforms that have been enacted by authorities in response to local and global issues in English language teaching including curriculum changes, assessment reform, language proficiency requirements, medium of instruction (MOI) policies across schools, recruitment of overseas language teachers and the provision of mandated continued professional development. Positioning Hong Kong as a complex and multilayered landscape where cultural, political, economic, linguistic and educational factors all intertwine, the chapter concludes that a form of government ‘mandate’ has characterised the implementation of education reforms since 1997.
This introductory chapter draws on two major perspectives on globalization, glocalization, and grobalization, to make sense of the global challenges faced by English language teaching (ELT) and English language teacher education (ELTE) professions and local responses in ten countries/jurisdictions in the Asian region discussed in this volume. It highlights the common critical issues which have emerged from these responses and discusses their implications for ELT and ELTE. In the concluding reflections, it identifies three issues that are central and particularly challenging to the work of English language teachers and teacher educators.
English has served to facilitate the internationalization process in Taiwan; English education, at the same time, benefited enormously from internationalization in terms of the great emphasis attached to it. In order to ensure the quality of English instruction, English teacher education needs to respond to any changes in the national primary and secondary school curricula as well as changing demography, which may influence English teachers’ instructional practices. In this chapter, an overview of the teacher education system in Taiwan is first introduced as the background. Following that is a discussion of local responses to globalization, which include making English a second official language; the promotion of English for communicative purposes; new policies in major cities regarding foreign language education; an English proficiency benchmark for English teachers; and further teacher professional development for international mobility and global competitiveness. Addressed in the next sections are some critical issues in teacher education that demand further research, such as the power relationship between English and local languages, the belief in native-speakerism, and the promotion of English as the medium of instruction. Some suggestions for future directions in language teacher education are also provided.
In this chapter, the authors build upon previous chapters that focus on LGBTQI populations and on the education of psychologists about human rights. Here, they focus on the human rights of sexually and gender-diverse people and communities and how best to prepare psychologists for the future direction of psychology as a field that engages in practice, research, advocacy, and outreach. The authors share an international context related to the current status of sexually and gender-diverse people and provide a strong rationale for the need for psychologists to understand the role of human rights in their work with this population. They describe the need for improved training for psychologists about human rights of sexually and gender-diverse people. They provide an overview of current training models and objectives, as well as recommendations for the future.
Human dignity is inextricably tied to health equity. In the past quarter century, concerns about widening health inequalities and inequities have increased worldwide. Highlighting this concern is the fact that the Sustainable Development Goals include one health goal and more than fifty health-related targets that are applicable to all countries. Psychology, with an understanding of the importance of the person–environment interaction, can help to meaningfully address health equity and promote the sustainable development goals of the UN 2030 Agenda. In this chapter, we focus on the contributions of psychology to promoting health equity and dignity, and well-being overall, highlighting pertinent research surrounding maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and mental health and well-being.
This chapter begins with a rationale for infusing human rights into psychology education and the training of psychology professionals. It then presents the field of human rights education (HRE), including its definition as well as international and regional policies and theories that have evolved over the past 25 years, pointing out their relevance for psychology. In the final section, the chapter proposes human rights–related themes and methodologies for human rights education for psychologists, and social issues that influence and can be informed by psychology.
Culturally responsive approaches to schooling (CRS) aim to address pervasive inequities that exist in education. More specifically, CRS practices seek to improve the experiences and academic achievements of marginalised and minoritised learners, such as those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. In this paper, we consider the possibilities for CRS in the context of Australia where Indigenous students (along with their parents, peers and teachers) are consistently reminded, courtesy of the deficit government policies and ‘close the gap’ rhetoric, that they have the worst educational outcomes of any settler society. This paper does not seek to offer fixed solutions in response to this. Rather, based on shared experience researching and teaching together that draw on CRS, the paper foregrounds a collaborative culturally responsive dialogue between the authors. Together we discuss, deliberate and despair about the state of the education system for Indigenous students, we also remain tentatively hopeful about how CRS might become embedded in teaching and learning, through teacher professional learning, in ways that are relevant to the Australian context.
South Africa’s approach to knowledge has been described as being ‘derivative, rather than leading (Leibowitz, 2017: xx). Academics from the global South tend to consume Western theories rather than generating their own theories (De Souza, 2007: 135) – hence, their engagement with calls to transform and ‘decolonise’ the curriculum. Questions that need answering include the following: How does decolonisation relate to content, pedagogy and assessment? What do we base our curricula on – epistemic practices developed elsewhere in the world? If so, how do we apply international best practices without ignoring indigenous and locally relevant research? Key to transforming the curriculum in Africa’s complex linguistic contexts is multilingualism, as embodied in the work of translators and interpreters. In South Africa post transition, for instance, interpreters in court, conference and educational contexts are vital to the functioning of South Africa as a multilingual country. But to what extent is this rich praxis reflected in research in interpreting in South Africa, and has it assisted academics to derive new theories? This chapter aims to describe trends observed in the field of Interpreting Studies in South Africa over the past ten years (2006–2016) on the premise that decolonisation must be preceded by a thorough description of the discipline.
Graphic design is a learning area that relies on the use of visual representation, involving images and/or text, to convey meaning. By its very nature, visual communication is a language that is vulnerable to an unintended array of misinterpretations because of the differing semiotic backgrounds of its consuming audiences. Thus, students need to be equipped with the necessary cultural awareness to design communication that is sensitive to the varying needs of these audiences. This study employs a case study approach with a view to interrogating the curriculum in relation to multiculturalism in the graphic design curriculum. Data for this study were obtained through participant observation, semi-structured informal interviews and document analysis. From a theoretical perspective, the paper draws on Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural learning to examine the role of culture in the teaching and learning of culturally diverse students, as well as Phillion’s (2002) narrative multiculturalism to understand the narratives of the respondent students, lecturers and an industry expert. The findings point to a lack of a cohesive and coordinated approach to teaching and learning and reflect a lack of sensitivity to cultural and linguistic diversity in the Graphic Design Department.
The chapter explores translation in a foreign-language course at a South African university and argues that the explicit practice of translation and concurrent reflective writing foregrounds the negotiation of meaning between languages and cultures. The study proposes fair assessment practices for a multilingual, multicultural context, as reflective writing nurtures student diversity and individualised learning. In translation courses, students and lecturers must ideally share a home language and second/ foreign language, in this case German and English, but often do not. Subsequently, clumsy English translations might not accurately reflect students’ understanding of the German source text, nor their contemplation of equivalent language transfer. The reflective essays, however, revealed evidence of deep engagement with language in context and re-evaluation of linguistic and cultural assumptions. The reflections also created a diagnostic space where comprehension errors or misconceptions could be addressed on an individual basis. The study finds that teaching translation in foreign language courses stimulates critical reflection on language, provided that assessment methods match such learning outcomes.
The language of music shares a number of basic processing mechanisms with natural languages, yet studies of learner autonomy in music education are rare. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of fostering music students’ learner autonomy in performance practice through a series of curriculum changes. A mixed-methods approach, including a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews, was used to investigate two cohorts of music education students (N = 74) from Hong Kong. The analysis reveals the students’ autonomous learner characteristics, including the ability to formulate their own learning strategies, identify both musical and non-musical weaknesses and take appropriate steps to improve their performance skills.
The structure, implementation and operation of music education at the primary level differs depending on the legislation of the education system within which the school operates. An inquiry-based project was completed over a 10-week period, with the overall aim of gaining an understanding of current teacher practice within music education in both Ireland and the United States. This article examines the Irish generalist and the American specialist models of music education from the teacher’s perspective. The overarching question guiding this research was ‘How is music education realised in Irish and American schools at the primary/elementary level?’. The project sought to investigate the specific challenges of both the generalist and specialist models to ascertain if one educational context might inform the other. Teacher surveys, teacher interviews, curriculum artefacts, expert interviews and contemporary literature around the topic were utilised as data sources to assimilate music educators’ perceived experiences of implementing their respective music curricula. Drawing from the data gathered, coded and quantitively and qualitatively analysed, two contrasting vignette-style stories are presented. A brief discussion follows that compares both models, highlighting some of their relative advantages and drawbacks.
The aim of this study was to identify relevant content among four important domains for the development and structure of a paediatric cardiac rehabilitation curriculum for young patients with congenital heart disease using a consensus approach.
A three-round e-Delphi study among congenital heart disease and paediatric exercise physiology experts was conducted. Round 1, experts provided opinions in a closed- and open-ended electronic questionnaire to identify specific elements necessary for inclusion in a paediatric cardiac rehabilitation programme. Round 2, experts were asked to re-rate the same items after feedback and summary data were provided from round 1. Round 3, the same experts were asked to re-rate items that did not reach consensus from round 2.
Forty-seven experts were contacted via e-mail to participate on the Delphi panel, 37 consented, 35 completed round 1, 29 completed round 2, and 28 completed the final round. After round 2, consensus was reached in 55 of 60 (92%) questionnaire items across four domains: exercise training, education, outcome metrics, and self-confidence.
This study established consensus towards programme structure, exercise training principles, educational content, patient outcome measures, and self-confidence promotion. By identifying the key components within each domain, there is potential to benchmark recommended standards and practice guidelines for the development of a paediatric cardiac rehabilitation curriculum to be used and tested by exercise physiologists, paediatric and adult congenital cardiologists, and other healthcare team members for optimising the health and wellness of paediatric patients with congenital heart disease.
The rationale for including sustainability in Higher Education curriculum has been made clear, yet how to facilitate effective learning in this field has received less research attention. This article focuses on approaches to the ‘framing’ of sustainability in curriculum design as a tool for educators to contextualise sustainability concepts and practices to engage learners within traditional disciplines where sustainability studies are still relatively novel, and therefore, not embedded within existing disciplinary ‘frames’. The article draws together findings from a qualitative study of four undergraduate sustainability courses to provide initial insight into different framings of sustainability and student experiences within the courses. Drawing on an analysis of empirical data and theory, this article argues that the way sustainability is framed may assist in addressing barriers in the uptake of sustainability by teachers and students in Higher Education. Framing has the potential to support student engagement with sustainability courses and the integration of sustainability within degree programs and professional practices. The findings also indicate that framing, and its effect on learning, are shaped by both the presentation of content and also, more importantly for transformative learning, the pedagogy underpinning the curriculum design.
Chapter 10 brings the different chapters together and responds to the question: ‘How might a public education system become more ethical?’ In other words, it asks how an education system itself can be conducive to and embody ethical living in relationships, and assumes that such ethical living will require concern for the well-being of persons and will constitute a vital aspect of one’s own well-being. It clarifies that educational system isn’t a collection of schools, but instead, it is the way in which various institutions are interrelated according to the principles that define the way they work together. These institutions include schools, examination boards, teacher training colleges, local authorities, the national curriculum authority, the ministry, national school inspection offices, various institutional employers, a framework of laws, and from there, the wider global economy. To propose ethically oriented systemic transformation, the chapter outlines the nature of an educational system that is centred around the well-being of persons in the four principles, including non-instrumentalisation, whole-person development, well-being and learning as human becoming. It then explores how these principles can be applied to the design of the system, and to key aspects of schooling, such as curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation and learning communities.
This chapter focuses on how integrated curriculum planning and implementation in a trilingual setting might provide useful insights for those working with CLIL, across what would appear to be very different and specific linguistic contexts including multilingual and Anglophone contexts. We draw on relevant lessons learned from a detailed longitudinal case study in Galicia to highlight key areas for consideration and analysis across different contexts. This experience emphasized four key factors that emerged from the study that we suggest are transferable to other linguistic contexts: training/professional learning for teachers, a literacies approach that facilitates pluriliteracies development, teacher collaboration where language and content teachers co-construct the CLIL curriculum together and implement their designs across CLIL lessons and ownership of CLIL pedagogies.
This article, written at the time it was taking place, discusses the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on music education in schools, focusing on the UK. It discusses how schools and teachers have had to make a sudden shift to a largely on-line modality, and the effects of these on teaching and learning in music. It asks questions of curriculum and assessment, especially with regard to the fact that classroom teachers in England are having to use their professional judgment to provide grades for external examinations, where hitherto these would have come from examination boards. It questions the ways in which teachers have been inadequately prepared and supported for this, by years of neoliberal undermining of confidence. It goes on to question accountability, and teacher training, raising issues which, at the time of writing, are of significant concern or music education.
This chapter describes the educational institutions of post-Reformation England and the conflicted role music, theater, and dance played in English life and educational schema. According to English conduct books and prescriptive literature, music and dance were necessary skills for accomplished gentlemen and gentlewomen to possess; they might also be useful for students at charity schools, who sought socio-economic improvement through marriage or the procurement of apprenticeships. Yet, as many scholars have noted, there was also a strong suspicion and overt antipathy toward music-making, playacting, and dancing – some religious thinkers believed that these activities could lead to lasciviousness, decadence, and effeminacy. Others expressed concern that female students might develop inappropriate relationships with their music and dance teachers.
ENT presentations are prevalent in clinical practice but feature little in undergraduate curricula. Consequently, most medical graduates are not confident managing common ENT conditions. In 2014, the first evidence-based ENT undergraduate curriculum was published to guide medical schools.
To assess the extent that current UK medical school learning outcomes correlate with the syllabus of the ENT undergraduate curriculum.
Two students from each participating medical school independently reviewed all ENT-related curriculum documents to determine whether learning outcomes from the suggested curriculum were met.
Sixteen of 34 curricula were reviewed. Only a minority of medical schools delivered teaching on laryngectomy or tracheostomy, nasal packing or cautery, and ENT medications or surgical procedures.
There is wide variability in ENT undergraduate education in UK medical schools. Careful consideration of which topics are prioritised, and the teaching modalities utilised, is essential. In addition, ENT learning opportunities for undergraduates outside of the medical school curriculum should be augmented.
In this chapter, you will develop your understanding of: organisation skills to support your teaching and wellbeing, the concept of flow and how it can support you, how to recognise emotions and care for yourself, working with the curriculum and responding to change, and planning and meeting the teaching standards.