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Chapter 5 presents the argument for why and how the United States should reimagine the EITC. Drawing on social science research, it argues that the framing of social benefit programs matters, both to recipients and to the general public. It makes the case for splitting the EITC into two distinct parts, as other scholars and policy makers have proposed in the past: (1) a work-support credit to offset the regressive nature of payroll or self-employment taxes; and (2) a family-support credit to offset poverty. It proposes decoupling EITC delivery from the tax return filing process. Drawing upon ideas from Canada and New Zealand, the chapter also proposes more radical changes, such as determining income based on household composition rather than marital status, allowing parents who share custody to share the credits, and adjusting the size of the credits regionally or locally according to cost of living.
This chapter shifts to an assessment of the main currents of globalization theory. It traces the twists and turns taken by different approaches, placing the rationale for Globalization Matters in the context of the strengths and limits of current theoretical orientations. A central paradox emerges. Recognition of the importance of understanding globalization as a generalizing category came to the fore at the very same time that an aversion to generalizing theory emerged. Our exposition is framed by a critical overview of the conventional three-wave model—widely distinguished as the hyperglobalizers, the sceptics, and the transformationalists. This model does not work for many reasons. To be sure, waves and corresponding schools of thought are accessible metaphors that possess descriptive utility for introductory surveys. But they have less value for the development of global theory beyond entrenched and rather petrified positions. Our synchronic framework conveys a much messier picture of simultaneous and frequent interactions among four analytically distinct modes of theorizing the global: neoclassical theorists, domain theorists, complexity theorists, and generalizing theorists.
One of the aims of systems engineering is to develop systems with a number of pre-defined configurations, in order to operate effectively and efficiently in different contexts and environments. Early in the design phase, system reconfiguration allows to propose and optimize these configurations. With regard to the literature review and industrial observation, pre-defining the standard configurations without relying on hints from end users has been raised as a major difficulty within the industry. In this paper, we propose a reconfiguration framework which considers data collected from the use phase in order to generate valid and optimized configurations with regard to stakeholders needs.
The industry is currently changing rapidly. Both customers and employees are focusing much more on their own needs. On the one hand, this requires individualized products and, on the other hand, development processes need to be aligned not only more efficiently but also more closely to the needs of employees. Agile development combines these two characteristics and the second point can be further improved through analyses for collaboration. This is not only necessary for consumer products, but also in medical technology, more and more individualized solutions are required to better help patients. This is also the case with the examination of cells using micro titer plates, which is the subject of this project. Due to the interaction of research activities both on the process and on the product side, this paper presents research results regarding agile product development and collaboration analysis of physical products on the one hand and research results regarding additive and biocompatible production of microtitration plates on the other hand.
Product Service Systems (PSS) are increasingly complex and collaborative. For instance, manufacturing companies, service providers, and other companies collaborate and jointly develop and operate a PSS (ex: smart grid), where its constituent elements are managed and operated independently. Managerial independence and operational independence are commonly considered key characteristics of a System of Systems (SoS). Hence, a collaborative PSS exhibits System of Systems (SoSs) characteristics. These systems have previously been introduced as Product Service Systems of Systems (PSSoSs). In this paper, we propose to identify relevant uncertainties in the PSSoS design process. For this purpose, we go beyond the PSSoS concept definition and propose a comprehensive framework for PSS and PSSoS characterization. Moreover, based on both a literature review and an industrial diagnosis, we identify PSSoSs-specific design uncertainties.
Complexity of products and systems is increasing through digitalization, interdisciplinarity as well as high technology maturity and new business models. In consequence, new product development (NPD) projects need to manage and satisfy a large number of requirements from a broad range of stakeholders. Yet, NPD projects are often delayed due to requirement changes. In this paper, a new method for analyzing requirement change propagation is presented. The method is based on the assessment of requirement interrelations structured in a requirements structure matrix by a modified page-rank algorithm. By the method, a high number of strongly interrelated requirements can be analyzed in an efficient manner. Additionally, higher-level interrelations as well as the relative weights of requirements are also incorporated in the analysis. Hereby, an efficient holistic approach towards the analysis of requirement change propagation is proposed.
Studies of product architecture identify a mirroring process between the product and the organisation. Parallel, empirical studies of effectual entrepreneurship show an accumulation of commitments between stakeholders while negotiating the features of the product in a similar fashion to product mirroring. This paper presents a study that looks at the effects of mirroring architectural complexity in early stages of entrepreneurship. The survey asked participants to interpret parametrically generated artefacts with the purpose of starting a new firm. Responses were analysed for complexity in the lexical semantic structure of ideas. Results show that the effects of artefact complexity are not as straightforward as hypothesised and provide evidence that suggests an important role of artefact morphology in entrepreneurial ideation. These findings support a model of product architecture mirroring that is filtered by design morphology.
Variety management is a cross-domain issue in product family design. In the real field, the relationships across the domains are so complex for most of the existing product families that they cannot be easily identified without proper reference architecture. This reference architecture should provide the cross- domain mapping mechanisms in an explicit manner and be able to identify the proper units for management. From this perspective of cross-domain framework, this paper introduces development architecture (DA) to describe the relationships between elements in market, design, and production domains and to give insights for the cross-domain variety management in the product development stage. DA has three parts: (1) the arrangement of elements in each domain, (2) the mapping between elements, and (3) the identification of management sets and key interfaces which are the proper units for variety management. The proposed development architecture framework is applied to the case of front chassis family of modules of an automobile.
Resilient systems have the capability to survive and recover from seriously affecting events. Resilience engineering already is established for socio-economic organisations and extended network-like structures e. g. supply systems like power grids. Transferring the known principles and concepts used in these disciplines enables engineering resilient load-carrying systems and subsystems, too. Unexpected load conditions or component damages are summarised as disruptions caused by nesciense that may cause damages to the system or even system breakdowns. Disruptions caused by nescience can be controlled by analysing the resilience characteristics and synthesising resilient load-carrying systems. This paper contributes to a development methodology for resilient load-carrying systems by presenting a resilience applications model to support engineers analysing system resilience characteristics and behaviour. Further a concept of a systematically structured solution catalogue is provided that can be used for the classification of measures to realise resilience functions depending on system adaptivity and disruption progress. The resilience characteristics are illustrated by 3 examples.
Caused by the technology of automated driving the user is temporarily released from driving and can perform non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs), such as sleeping or working. The aim of this paper is to describe the geometrical interdependencies between NDRTs and different vehicle types, to be able to integrate them in the geometric package of the early phase of the vehicle conception. To address the objective a literature based study of existing approaches for vehicle conception and NDRT-studies was carried out. Additionally interviews with n=15 experts from the automotive conception department and a databased analysis of n=259 vehicles was conducted. Based on these investigations 91 geometrical characteristics for NDRTs and vehicle types werde determined and combined through a matrix-based approach. By analysing the approach highly connected characteristics such as the torso angle were identified and equations were set up to describe the relations. The approach can be used for different NDRTs such as relaxing and working and different vehicle types such as sporty cars or SUVs in order to integrate them into the package.
Construction projects are complex and subject to a lot of conflicts. The misunderstanding between actors is one cause of these conflicts. To understand actor's interrelation is fundamental.
In this paper, we used FAcT Miror method to analyse the relation between the two main actors, Owner and Contractor. Based on the method we built a survey about Fears, Attractiveness and Temptations of treason of each actor, The Miror effect of the method allows us to evaluate what is the thought of an actor about the other and to measure differences between actors' thought on a specific aspect of the relation. Our results allow us to have a better understanding of the relation between Owners and Contractors on a construction project. Moreover, we point out specific aspects of the relation which need to be studied to improve the understanding.
Engineering Changes (ECs) are substantial elements of the design process of technical products and are in particular relevant for companies due to enormous additional costs and time delays they can cause. In order to better understand ECs and realize efficient Engineering Change Management (ECM), different approaches exist. One aspect of ECM are change propagation analysis, which try to analyze knock-on effects of an EC on other product elements or the development process. How ECs can propagate is in particular difficult to assess for complex products realized within different engineering domains (mechanical, electrical and software engineering). To address this challenge, ECs are classified, strategies to cope with ECs are presented and change propagation approaches are analyzed in this paper. Thereby a lack of indicators for cross-domain propagation is identified. To overcome this issue, the distinction of domain-specific and cross-domain linkage types is proposed and a set of linkage types is presented. Further research is motivated to integrate these linkage types in product models while also considering processes and organizational structures as additional dimensions of ECM.
This chapter examines the uses of academic approaches to history in discussing energy policy. It sets out a case that the value of history is not simply in the past as a source of empirical data on policy and behaviour (which is accessible to any discipline), but a style of synthetic thinking and evaluation particular to the study of History as a disciplines. History may provide analogue situations for current dilemmas, and a long-term view on change, but does not necessarily work in large-scale or long-term phenomena. Rather, it is the blending of perspectives and the assumption of causal complexity, as opposed to methodological and explanatory parsimony, that marks the value of historical approaches. This is exemplified in the history of prediction, asking not whether predictions were accurate (generally they were not), but why demand for them arose and how they were constructed so as to be plausible to actors.
Political science does not offer a distinct subdiscipline to address the subject of energy. Insofar as political science has addressed energy, it has focused on issues often neglected by other disciplines, notably the role of geopolitics and international relations, and the domestic politics of resource-rich states. Apart from the different subfields, we examine different approaches including realism, constructivism, liberalism and Marxism. The rise and fall and rise again of academic articles on energy in leading political science journals is reviewed and linked to exogenous forces such as the price of oil. Two distinct energy topics which have received attention are nuclear power and the oil crises of 1973–79 because of their wider geopolitical ramifications. Perhaps the most prominent or consistent thread through studies of the politics of energy is the question of energy security or energy independence. Finally, in recent years, energy has increasingly emerged as a focus for study in environmental politics and climate change politics in particular.
The likelihood with which language users insert optional words or morphemes that explicitly mark syntactic structure tends to increase in complex grammatical environments. This positive correlation between explicitness and complexity, best known as the Complexity Principle, has been observed for a multitude of case studies in both naturally occurring language and experimental settings. Researchers have sought the explanation for this Complexity Principle in three different domains: cognitive comprehension processing, the language channel, and cognitive production processing. Based on these accounts, we formulate predictions regarding the action radius of the Complexity Principle in the alternation between a direct and prepositional object of the Dutch verb zoeken ‘search’. These predictions are tested against corpus observations. Our results confirm accounts according to which optional elements indicate production difficulties, as well as those that explain the Principle as a result of restrictions on the language channel. In addition, our results indicate that the Principle is sensitive to context-determined restrictions that are the result of its underlying cause. This may present a possible caveat for alternation studies.
Passivization played a central role in shaping both linguistic theory and psycholinguistic approaches to sentence processing, language acquisition and impairment. We present the results of two experiments that simultaneously test online processing (self-paced reading) and offline comprehension (through comprehension questions) of passives in German while also manipulating the event structure of the predicates used. In contrast to English, German passives are unambiguously verbal, allowing for the study of passivization independent of a confound in the degree of interpretive ambiguity (verbal/adjectival). In English, this ambiguity interacts with event structure, with passives of stative predicates naturally receiving an adjectival interpretation. In a recent study, Paolazzi et al. (2015, 2016) showed that in contrast to the mainstream theoretical perspective, passive sentences are not inherently harder to process than actives. Complexity of passivization in English is tied to the aspectual class of the verbal predicate passivized: with eventive predicates, passives are read faster (as hinted at in previous literature) and generate no comprehension difficulties (in contrast to previous findings with mixed predicates). Complexity effects with passivization, in turn, are only found with stative predicates. The asymmetry is claimed to stem from the temporary adjectival/verbal ambiguity of stative passives in English. We predict that the observed difficulty with English stative passives disappears in German, given that in this language the passive construction under investigation is unambiguously verbal. The results support this prediction: both offline and online there was no difficulty with passivization, under either eventive or stative predicates. In fact, passives and their rich morphology eased parsing across both types of predicates.
This study investigates possessives and modified definite DPs in a corpus of heritage Norwegian spoken in the US. Both constructions involve variation in Norwegian – two word orders for possessives (pre- and postnominal) and two exponents of definiteness (a prenominal determiner and a suffix) – while English only has one of these options. The findings show that a large majority of the heritage speakers overuse the structures that are maximally different from English structures, i.e., postnominal possessors and single suffixal definiteness marking. We argue that their production pattern is the result of cross-linguistic overcorrection (CLO). In addition, a small group of the heritage speakers show signs of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and overuse the English-like structures in both constructions. These speakers also have a slightly lower proficiency in the heritage language. Our findings are discussed in terms of previous research on monolingual and Norwegian–English bilingual children.
The evolutionary trend toward increasing complexity and social function is ultimately the result of natural selection's paradoxical tendency to foster cooperation through competition. Cooperating populations ranging from complex societies to somatic tissue are constantly under attack, however, by non-cooperating mutants or transformants, called ‘cheaters’. Structure in these populations promotes the formation of cooperating clusters whose competitive superiority can alone be sufficient to thwart outgrowths of cheaters and thereby maintain cooperation. But we find that when cheaters appear too frequently – exceeding a threshold mutation or transformation rate – their scattered outgrowths infiltrate and break up cooperating clusters, resulting in a cascading loss of social cohesiveness, a switch to net positive selection for cheaters and ultimately in the loss of cooperation. Our findings imply that a critically low mutation rate had to be achieved (perhaps through the advent of proofreading and repair mechanisms) before complex cooperative functions, such as those required for multicellularity and social behaviour, could have evolved and persisted. When mutation rate in our model is also allowed to evolve, the threshold is crossed spontaneously after thousands of generations, at which point cheaters rapidly invade. Probing extrapolations of these findings suggest: (1) in somatic tissue, it is neither social retro-evolution alone nor mutation rate evolution alone but the interplay between these two that ultimately leads to oncogenic transitions; the rate of this coevolution might thereby provide an indicator of lifespan of species, terrestrial or not; (2) the likelihood that extraterrestrial life can be expected to be multicellular and social should be affected by ultraviolet and other mutagenic factors.
The purpose of this research was to investigate leadership facilitating effective inclusive school practices. Data were collected from leaders at a complex multicultural school perceived by the system and local community as an inclusive school with a focus on quality education. A qualitative case study was used and data were collected over a 6-month period of immersion at the research site. Data included semistructured interviews with the head of special education and the school principal, observations of dialogical and behavioural data described within the lead researcher's reflective journal, and the documented operational structure of the school. The findings include insights into what the principal and head of special education believed inclusion to be, and how these leaders worked with staff to embed inclusive practices. The conclusion drawn from the study is that school leadership for inclusion involves making hard decisions. It is a complex and multifaceted act requiring consciously targeted effort, advocacy, and particular ways of leading. Inclusive practices need reinforcing by frequently articulated expectations, support, and acknowledgement that for all stakeholders inclusion is a constant journey toward a shared vision.
In English, the position of the AP in the nominal phrase is determined by its form: only structurally simpler phrases are said to be licit in prenominal position, more complex ones have to follow the noun. Recent studies have reported an increasing use of nominal premodifiers in English, so the question arises whether this trend affects only simpler phrases or whether a new structural option emerges – complex APs in prenominal position. Drawing on data from COHA, this article investigates which types of AP occur prenominally. The data show that certain types of complex APs are gaining ground in the prenominal position. Most of these can be analyzed as complex words rather than complex phrases and hence do not indicate major syntactic changes in the English NP. However, some of the attestations, such as easy-predicates with a to-infinitival clause, are complex phrases. It is argued that it is the dependency relation between their rightmost element, a lexical verb, and the noun they modify which makes them occur in prenominal position.