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This study aimed to explore the constructs related to teachers’ competence in immediately intervening in school bullying (CIISB) in order to develop a valid intervention process. In this study, 16 secondary school teachers in Taiwan with experience of dealing with school bullying were interviewed. In total, 26 interview transcripts were analysed. The results highlight two key constructs that are central to CIISB. The first is structuring prompt management of school bullying. This involves three phases: identifying the incident, stabilising the incident, and clarifying incidents as well as implementing incidental and intentional learning. The second construct is setting the appropriate atmosphere. This refers to teachers’ capacity to build a positive relationship with students by maintaining a calm, serious and fair attitude, and creating a positive atmosphere to implement an immediate intervention. The results suggest that teachers should master the above constructs of CIISB, thereby providing a suitable immediate intervention when school bullying occurs.
In this chapter we will discuss how scholarly understandings of academic discourse have shifted over the past thirty years in response to increasing globalization and changes in theorizations of language. We will look at how the definition of and boundaries around academic discourse have widened, shifting from a singular academic discourse to plural discourses, and from a focus on language to a focus on practices, in the process of accommodating more diverse Englishes. In particular, we will consider how the study of academic discourse has exposed the increasingly blurry boundaries not only between languages but also between modes, and how discourse includes not only text but also other resources for making meaning, such as images, sound, gesture and material artifacts. We will consider how English’s role as the academic lingua franca has influenced these shifting definitions and concepts. Finally, we will consider the implications of this diversification for pedagogy and for frameworks for future discourse studies.
Nurses are the first respondents to the critical situations and therefore must be able to effectively manage the critical situations using their competencies. Given that the decision-making style under the stressful critical situations is an important component of the care process in these situations, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between decision-making style and nurses’ disaster response competencies.
This descriptive, analytical study was conducted in Shahr-e Kord city in 2018. A total of 300 nurses were selected from Ayatollah Kashani and Hajar hospitals by multistage sampling and from the Emergency Medical Services Center by the census method. Data were collected using the Disaster Nursing Competence Assessment and the decision-making style questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS 21 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).
Most of the nurses used the intuitive decision-making style and the total score of disaster nursing competencies was 162.58 ± 22.70. Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated that there was a positive relation between decision-making style and nurses’ disaster response competencies.
The results show that decision-making style affects nurses’ competencies for disaster response and provides evidence for the development of educational policies in disaster nursing education.
Evidence-based treatment for panic disorder consists of disorder-specific cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. However, most measures of CBT competence are generic and there is a clear need for disorder-specific assessment measures.
To fill this gap, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Therapy Competence Scale (CTCP) for panic disorder.
CBT trainees (n = 60) submitted audio recordings of CBT for panic disorder that were scored on a generic competence measure, the Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised (CTS-R), and the CTCP by markers with experience in CBT practice and evaluation. Trainees also provided pre- to post-treatment clinical outcomes on disorder-specific patient report measures for cases corresponding to their therapy recordings.
The CTCP exhibited strong internal consistency (α = .79–.91) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = .70–.88). The measure demonstrated convergent validity with the CTS-R (r = .40–.54), although investigation into competence classification indicated that the CTCP may be more sensitive at detecting competence for panic disorder-specific CBT skills. Notably, the CTCP demonstrated the first indication of a relationship between therapist competence and clinical outcome for panic disorder (r = .29–.35); no relationship was found for the CTS-R.
These findings provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the CTCP for assessing therapist competence in CBT for panic disorder and support the use of anxiety disorder-specific competence measures. Further investigation into the psychometric properties of the measure in other therapist cohorts and its relationship with clinical outcomes is recommended.
Self-determination theory is a generalized theory of behavior that focuses on motivation quality and psychological need satisfaction as preeminent behavioral determinants. The theory distinguishes between autonomous and controlled forms of motivation. Autonomous motivation reflects willingly engaging in behaviors for self-endorsed reasons, whereas controlled motivation reflects engaging in behavior for externally or internally pressured or controlled reasons. Satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is necessary for optimal functioning and well-being, and influences the form of motivation, autonomous or controlled, experienced by individuals when acting. Autonomous motivation is consistently related to sustained behavior change and adaptive outcomes. Interventions to promote autonomous motivation have targeted psychological need support provided by social agents (e.g., leaders, managers, teachers, health professionals), particularly autonomy need support. Interventions using need-supportive techniques have demonstrated efficacy in promoting autonomous motivation, behavior change, and adaptive outcomes. Research has identified behaviors displayed, and language used, by social agents, or communicated by other means, that support autonomous motivation. Autonomy-support training programs have been developed to train social agents to promote autonomous motivation and behavior change. Future research needs to examine the unique and interactive effects of specific autonomy-support techniques, provide further evidence for long-term efficacy, and examine “dose” effects and long-term efficacy.
To respond to today's needs, engineers must be able to develop sustainable and environmentally compatible products and systems. To do so, they have to carry out new or changed activities and tasks within the product development process and therefore have to obtain new or changed competences. This publication examines which specific competences from the competence groups system thinking and communication are especially important for the development of Ecodesign products apart from technical know-how and should thus be included in a future higher education engineering course.
Biodiversity loss may increase the risk of infectious disease in a phenomenon known as the dilution effect. Circumstances that increase the likelihood of disease dilution are: (i) when hosts vary in their competence, and (ii) when communities disassemble predictably, such that the least competent hosts are the most likely to go extinct. Despite the central role of competence in diversity–disease theory, we lack a clear understanding of the factors underlying competence, as well as the drivers and extent of its variation. Our perspective piece encourages a mechanistic understanding of competence and a deeper consideration of its role in diversity–disease relationships. We outline current evidence, emerging questions and future directions regarding the basis of competence, its definition and measurement, the roots of its variation and its role in the community ecology of infectious disease.
Negative images of old age can harm older individuals’ cognitive and physical functioning and health. Yet, older people may be confronted with age stereotypes that are inconsistent with their own personal beliefs. We examine the implications for older people's wellbeing of three distinct elements of age stereotypes: their personal beliefs about their age group, their perception about how others generally perceive older people (i.e. their meta-stereotypes) and the societal age stereotypes that are empirically widely shared in society. Using measures from the Stereotype Content Model and survey data of older people from the United Kingdom (UK) (Study 1, N = 171), we found only partial overlap between older people's personal beliefs and their meta-stereotypes. Personal beliefs were unrelated to wellbeing, but positive meta-stereotypes of older people's competence were linked to higher wellbeing. These findings were largely replicated with a sample of baby-boomers from Switzerland (Study 2, N = 400) controlling for socio-demographics. Study 3 used representative survey data (N = 10,803) across 29 European countries, to test and confirm that the link between positive competence meta-stereotypes and wellbeing can be generalised to different cultures, and that positive warmth meta-stereotypes were an additional predictor. At the country level, societal age stereotypes about competence were positively related to the wellbeing of older people, but only in countries that provide greater opportunities for competence attainment.
High rates of mortality and morbidity result from disasters of all types, including armed conflicts. Overwhelming numbers of casualties with a myriad of illnesses and patterns of injuries are common in armed conflicts, leading to unpredictable workloads for hospital health care providers (HCPs). Identifying domains of hospital HCPs’ core competency for armed conflicts is essential to inform standards of care, educational requirements, and to facilitate the translation of knowledge into safe and quality care.
The objective of this study is to identify the common domains of core competencies among HCPs working in hospitals in armed conflict areas.
A scoping review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute framework. The review considered primary research and peer-reviewed literature from the following databases: Ovid Medline, Ovid EmCare, Embase, and CINAHL, as well as the reference lists of articles identified for full-text review. Eligibility criteria were outlined a priori to guide the literature selection.
Four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies were conducted in different countries and were published from 2011 through 2017. The methods included three surveys and one Delphi study.
This review maps the scope of knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by HCPs who are practicing in hospitals in areas of major armed conflict. Incorporation of identified core competency domains can improve the future planning, education, and training, and may enhance the HCPs’ response in armed conflicts.
This 15-year longitudinal follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention for divorced families examined cascade models of program effects on offsprings’ competence. It was hypothesized that intervention-induced improvements in parenting would lead to better academic, work, peer, and romantic competence in emerging adulthood through effects on behavior problems and competencies during adolescence. Families (N = 240) participated in the 11-session program or literature control condition when children were ages 9–12. Data were drawn from assessments at pretest, posttest, and follow-ups at 3 and 6 months and 6 and 15 years. Results showed that initial intervention effects of parenting on externalizing problems in adolescence cascaded to work outcomes in adulthood. Parenting effects also directly impacted work success. For work outcomes and peer competence, intervention effects were moderated by initial risk level; the program had greater effects on youths with higher risk at program entry. In addition, intervention effects on parenting led to fewer externalizing problems that in turn cascaded to better academic outcomes, which showed continuity into emerging adulthood. Results highlight the potential for intervention effects of the New Beginnings Program to cascade over time to affect adult competence in multiple domains, particularly for high-risk youths.
Adverse developmental outcomes for some children following institutional care are well established. Removal from institutional care and placement into families can promote recovery. However, little is known about how positive outcomes are sustained across adolescence among children with histories of severe deprivation. The present study examined the caregiving conditions that are associated with attaining and maintaining competent functioning (i.e., outcomes within typical levels) from middle childhood to adolescence following exposure to early institutional care. The participants included children with and without a history of institutional care who had competence assessed at ages 8, 12, and 16 years across seven domains: family relationships, peer relationships, academic performance, physical health, mental health, substance use (ages 12 and 16 years only), and risk-taking behavior. The participants were grouped based on whether they were always versus not always competent and never versus ever competent at ages 8 through 16 years. Adolescents with a history of institutional care were less likely to be consistently competent than those who were family reared. Among those who were exposed to early institutional rearing, maintaining competent functioning from 8 to 16 years was associated with spending less time in institutions and receiving higher-quality caregiving early in life. Ensuring high quality early caregiving may promote competent functioning following early deprivation.
Ontology (i.e. thinking about what’s out there) is intimately connected to epistemology (i.e. questions such as, “how can we know what’s out there?”). Both are also connected to ideology (i.e. whose interests do those perspectives on ontology and epistemology serve?). The once dominant cognitivist and structuralist orientations on language and communication are increasingly challenged by new thinking about what is out there. This new thinking is in turn changing the way we engage in inquiry about language and communication. Among the many philosophical paradigms challenging cognitivism and structuralism, I present the set of theories espousing a flat ontology as facilitating a more inclusive and dynamic understanding of language in communication. Flat ontology questions binaries such as mind/body, cognition/matter, human/nonhuman, and verbal/nonverbal, with the former in each pair treated as agentive and more significant. It considers all resources as working together in the construction of meaning and activity. Flat ontology is adopted by philosophical schools such as posthumanism (Braidotti, 2013), new materialism (Barad, 2007), actor network theory (Latour, 2005), and spatiality (Massey, 2005). In this chapter, I will articulate how such schools provide a different orientation to the ontology of English, with new implications for meaning and communication, and for changes in the way we conduct language analysis and teaching in the future.
Large-scale cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) training and implementation programmes, such as the pioneering Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative in the UK, aim to develop a workforce of competent therapists who can deliver evidence-based interventions skilfully. Self-awareness of competence enables CBT therapists to accurately evaluate their clinical practice and determine professional development needs. The accuracy of self-assessed competence, however, remains unclear when compared with assessments conducted by markers with expertise in CBT practice and evaluation. This study investigated the relationship between self- and expert-rated competence – assessed via therapy recordings rated on the Cognitive Therapy Scale Revised (CTS-R) scale – for a large sample of IAPT CBT trainees during training and, for the first time, at post-training follow-up. CBT trainees (n = 150) submitted therapy recordings at baseline, mid-training and end-of-training. At 12+ month follow-up, a subset of former trainees (n = 30) submitted recordings from clinical practice. There were positive relationships (r = .27 to .56) between self and expert CTS-R scores at all time points. The proportion of tapes demonstrating significant agreement between self and expert ratings (CTS-R difference <5 points) increased significantly across training and remained stable at follow-up. Findings indicate that accurate self-awareness of competence can be developed during structured CBT training and retained in the workplace. These outcomes are encouraging given the importance of self-awareness to CBT practice and accreditation. Future investigation into the development and maintenance of accurate self-awareness of competence is warranted.
Key learning aims
(1) What is the relationship between self-ratings and expert ratings of CBT competence during training and at post-training follow-up?
(2) Does agreement between self and expert competence ratings improve with CBT training?
(3) How does agreement between self and expert ratings change across training for more- and less-competent trainees?
(4) Can accurate self-awareness of competence be retained post-training in the workplace?
Lowering the cost of assessing clinicians’ competence could promote the scalability of evidence-based treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
This study examined the concordance between clinicians’, supervisors’ and independent observers’ session-specific ratings of clinician competence in school-based CBT and treatment as usual (TAU). It also investigated the association between clinician competence and supervisory session observation and rater agreement.
Fifty-nine school-based clinicians (90% female, 73% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to implement TAU or modular CBT for youth anxiety. Clinicians rated their confidence after each therapy session (n = 1898), and supervisors rated clinicians’ competence after each supervision session (n = 613). Independent observers rated clinicians’ competence from audio recordings (n = 395).
Patterns of rater discrepancies differed between the TAU and CBT groups. Correlations with independent raters were low across groups. Clinician competence and session observation were associated with higher agreement among TAU, but not CBT, supervisors and clinicians.
These results support the gold standard practice of obtaining independent ratings of adherence and competence in implementation contexts. Further development of measures and/or rater training methods for clinicians and supervisors is needed.
Here, the authors present two justifications usually cited as sufficient to warrant patients‘ trust in physicians: professional status and individual merit. Whereas in ‘status trust’ professionalism is taken as a guarantor of trustworthiness, in ‘merit trust’ a physician’s trustworthiness is assessed individually. On either account, trust is justified by the physician’s professionalism. ‘Professionalism’ may be defined as ‘acting trustworthily’ in exchange for autonomy of decision-making, whereas trustworthiness refers to ‘competence’ in terms of episteme (theoretical knowledge), techne (craft or skill), and phronesis (practical knowledge or experience), and ‘commitment’ as ‘to act in a way that the truster approves’. The authors argue that although in principle trust in physicians is justified, since both professionalism and individually assessed trustworthiness grant derivative authority, the reality is different. because an increasing number of patients reject the concept of professionalism and, accordingly, find it difficult (or even impossible) to assess physicians’ trustworthiness. Hence, they no longer believe that their trust in physicians is justified.
This chapter examines how memory function enables agency and how memory dysfunction disables agency. Because some memory systems mediating goal-directed behavior may be intact while others are dysfunctional, neurological and psychiatric disorders that impair some of these systems can impair agency to varying degrees. The chapter also analyzes the role of memory in personal identity. Updating the content of episodic memories is necessary to adapt to the environment. But adaptability may come at the expense of identity over an extended period. The chapter discusses precedent autonomy in dementia. It discusses whether the ethical and legal force of an advance directive about medical care in a demented state holds from the time when a person is competent to a time when she is no longer competent and no longer the same person.
This study identified underlying career orientation types of clinical research coordinators (CRCs) using cluster analysis. Select career (satisfaction, engagement, and planning) and competency-related (perceived competence) information was used to identify four distinct career orientation types.
A web-based survey was administered to CRCs employed in one of four research institutions affiliated with a National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Research Award (CTSA) in the southeastern USA. Each respondent completed a survey containing questions about personal background, individual attributes, perceived professional competence, and career orientation.
The first CRC type (35.2%) possessed a positive, knowledge-seeking orientation, characterized by high career-related scores but a conservative assessment of perceived competence. The second CRC type (18.6%) represented an optimistic and confident career orientation reflected in moderate to high scores on each of the four identifying factors. The third CRC type (27.6%) reflected an inconsistent career orientation highlighted by lowered perceived competence. The final CRC type (18.6%) reflected a disengaged orientation characterized by negative responses to all career and competence factors.
Understanding the career orientation of CRCs can be helpful to institutional administrators and clinical investigators as they seek to support the professional development of CRCs through tailored training efforts or work-related supports. Knowledge of career orientation may also inform individual CRCs as they manage their personal career paths by assessing current levels of functioning, career-related strengths or weaknesses, and training needs.
With a growing interest in heritage languages from researchers of bilingualism and linguistic theory, the field of heritage-language studies has begun to build on its empirical foundations, moving toward a deeper understanding of the nature of language competence under unbalanced bilingualism. In furtherance of this trend, the current work synthesizes pertinent empirical observations and theoretical claims about vulnerable and robust areas of heritage language competence into early steps toward a model of heritage-language grammar. We highlight two key triggers for deviation from the relevant baseline: the quantity and quality of the input from which the heritage grammar is acquired, and the economy of online resources when operating in a less dominant language. In response to these triggers, we identify three outcomes of deviation in the heritage grammar: an avoidance of ambiguity, a resistance to irregularity, and a shrinking of structure. While we are still a ways away from a level of understanding that allows us to predict those aspects of heritage grammar that will be robust and those that will deviate from the relevant baselines, our hope is that the current work will spur the continued development of a predictive model of heritage language competence.
Achievements are among the things that make a life good. Assessing the plausibility of this intuitive claim requires an account of the nature of achievements. One necessary condition for achievement appears to be that the achieving agent acted competently, i.e. was not just lucky. I begin by critically assessing existing accounts of anti-luck conditions for achievements in both the ethics and epistemology literature. My own proposal is that a goal is reached competently (and thus an achievement), only if the actions of the would-be-achiever make success likely, and that this is the reason why she acts that way.