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Disordered gambling (DG) is a rare but serious condition that results in considerable financial and interpersonal harms. Twin studies indicate that DG is heritable but are silent with respect to specific genes or pathways involved. Existing genomewide association studies (GWAS) of DG have been substantially underpowered. Larger GWAS of other psychiatric disorders now permit calculation of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) that reflect the aggregated effects of common genetic variants contributing risk for the target condition. The current study investigated whether gambling and DG are associated with PRSs for four psychiatric conditions found to be comorbid with DG in epidemiologic surveys: major depressive disorder (MDD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Genotype data and survey responses were analyzed from the Wave IV assessment (conducted in 2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a representative sample of adolescents recruited in 1994–1995 and followed into adulthood. Among participants classified as having European ancestry based on genetic analysis (N = 5215), 78.4% reported ever having gambled, and 1.3% reported lifetime DG. Polygenic risk for BD was associated with decreased odds of lifetime gambling, OR = 0.93 [0.87, 0.99], p = .045, pseudo-R2(%) = .12. The SCZ PRS was associated with increased odds of DG, OR = 1.54 [1.07, 2.21], p = .02, pseudo-R2(%) = .85. Polygenic risk scores for MDD and ADHD were not related to either gambling outcome. Investigating features common to both SCZ and DG might generate valuable clues about the genetically influenced liabilities to DG.
Depressive symptoms are associated with higher cancer mortality, whereas anxiety symptoms are associated with lower than expected risk.
This study aimed to investigate the prospective association between depressive/anxiety symptoms and the extent of disease (EOD) of first cancer at diagnosis.
Prospective population-based study conducted from the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) study. Of 65 000 residents comprehensively interviewed and examined for health status, 407 received first lifetime cancer diagnoses 1–3 years later, ascertained from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and had EOD recorded. Patients with localised disease or regional/distant spread at cancer diagnosis were analysed for earlier depressive/anxiety symptoms ascertained by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in HUNT.
Beyond-local EOD was present in 59.8% of those with neither anxiety nor depression, in 76.6% of those with depression alone (odds ratio, 2.20; 1.08–4.49), in 39.3% of those with anxiety alone (odds ratio, 0.44; 0.20–0.96) and in 57.7% of those with both anxiety and depression (odds ratio, 0.92; 0.41–2.06). After adjustment for demographic and health status, and cancer type, these associations were marginally stronger, but no longer statistically significant (odds ratios, 2.26; 0.84–6.11; 0.43; 0.15–1.26; and 1.00; 0.98–1.03, respectively).
In people who develop cancer, beyond-local EOD at diagnosis was more common in people with previous depression and less common in people with previous anxiety; however, independence from confounding factors could not be concluded.
While the literature frequently highlighted an association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), few studies investigated the overlapping features of these conditions. The presented work evaluated the relationship between SAD and OCD spectrum in a clinical population and in healthy controls (HC).
Fifty-six patients with OCD, 51 with SAD, 43 with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 59 HC (N = 209) were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Social Phobia Spectrum (SCI-SHY), and the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum (SCI-OBS).
SAD patients scored significantly higher than other groups on all SCI-SHY domains and total score; OCD patients scored significantly higher than HC. MDD patients scored significantly higher than HC on the SCI-SHY total, Behavioral inhibition, and Interpersonal sensitivity domains. OCD patients scored significantly higher than other groups on all SCI-OBS domains except Doubt, for which OCD and SAD scored equally high. SAD patients scored significantly higher than HC on the SCI-OBS total, Childhood/adolescence, Doubt, and Hypercontrol domains. MDD patients scored significantly higher than HC on the Hypercontrol domain. SCI-OBS and SCI-SHY were widely correlated among groups, although lower correlations were found among OCD patients. Stronger correlations were observed between SCI-SHY Interpersonal sensitivity and SCI-OBS Doubt, Obsessive-compulsive themes, and Hypercontrol; between SCI-SHY Specific anxieties/phobic features and SCI-OBS Obsessive-compulsive themes; and between SCI-SHY Behavioral inhibition and SCI-OBS Doubt, with slightly different patterns among groups.
OCD and SAD spectrums widely overlap in clinical samples and in the general population. Interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive doubts might represent a common cognitive core for these conditions.
There are few topics that divide public opinion as sharply as the use of psychoactive substances and it is easy to see why. Substance use is complex and can be examined from numerous perspectives, including legal, health, economic, cultural and ethical. These varying approaches can lead to a range of different conclusions. Here we explore some of the common approaches adopted towards drug policy and suggest a number of principles, which may inform a psychiatrist's own view.
Declaration of interest
A.L.-H. has received honoraria paid into her institutional funds for speaking and chairing engagements from Lundbeck, Lundbeck Institute UK, Janssen-Cilag, Pfizer and Servier; received research grants or support from Lundbeck and GSK; consulted for Silence, NET Device Corps and Sanofi-Aventis; and also consulted for, but received no monies from, Britannia Pharmaceuticals, GLG, Opiant, Lightlake and Dobrin. O.B.-J. and J.S. have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
It is increasingly recognised that the preconception period is a window of opportunity to intervene to improve outcomes for women and the next generation. The importance of preconception mental health and comorbidity problems has not traditionally been taken into account by policy makers or mental health service providers. We argue that by addressing preconception physical and mental health in men and women, medical health professionals could improve health outcomes across the whole life course.
Despite knowing for many decades that depressive psychopathology is common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FES), there is limited knowledge regarding the extent and nature of such psychopathology (degree of comorbidity, caseness, severity) and its demographic, clinical, functional and treatment correlates. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of depressive disorder and caseness, and the pooled mean severity of depressive symptoms, as well as the demographic, illness, functional and treatment correlates of depressive psychopathology in FES.
This systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression was prospectively registered (CRD42018084856) and conducted in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines.
Forty studies comprising 4041 participants were included. The pooled prevalence of depressive disorder and caseness was 26.0% (seven samples, N = 855, 95% CI 22.1–30.3) and 43.9% (11 samples, N = 1312, 95% CI 30.3–58.4), respectively. The pooled mean percentage of maximum depressive symptom severity was 25.1 (38 samples, N = 3180, 95% CI 21.49–28.68). Correlates of depressive psychopathology were also found.
At least one-quarter of individuals with FES will experience, and therefore require treatment for, a full-threshold depressive disorder. Nearly half will experience levels of depressive symptoms that are severe enough to warrant diagnostic investigation and therefore clinical intervention – regardless of whether they actually fulfil diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. Depressive psychopathology is prominent in FES, manifesting not only as superimposed comorbidity, but also as an inextricable symptom domain.
The purpose of this study was to assess the associations of comorbid opioid use disorders and psychiatric disorders with suicide attempts among veterans seeking pain care.
The cohort (N = 226 444) was selected by identifying pain care initiation from 2012 to 2014 using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) data. Data on opioid use disorders (OUD), psychiatric disorders, medical comorbidity, demographics at baseline, and suicide attempts in the year following the initiation of pain care were extracted from VHA databases. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was used to assess departure from additivity of effects.
Adjusted models indicated that both comorbid OUD and depression (RERI = 1.07) and comorbid OUD and AUD (RERI = 1.23) were significantly associated with additive risk of suicide attempt. In adjusted multiplicative interaction models, only comorbid OUD and bipolar disorder was significantly associated with suicide attempts; however, this association was protective (HR = 0.54).
The current findings highlight the importance of addressing opioid use disorders and alcohol use disorders and depression together to mitigate the risk of suicidal behavior.
Although behavior therapy reduces tic severity, it is unknown whether it improves co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes for adults with Tourette's disorder (TD). This information is essential for effective treatment planning. This study examined the effects of behavior therapy on psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes in older adolescents and adults with TD.
A total of 122 individuals with TD or a chronic tic disorder participated in a clinical trial comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy. At baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up visits, participants completed assessments of tic severity, co-occurring symptoms (inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, anger, anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions), and psychosocial functioning. We compared changes in tic severity, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes using repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance.
At posttreatment, participants receiving behavior therapy reported greater reductions in obsessions compared to participants in supportive therapy (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.04, p = 0.04). Across treatments, a positive treatment response on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale was associated with a reduced disruption in family life (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.05, p = 0.02) and improved functioning in a parental role (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.37, p = 0.02). Participants who responded positively to eight sessions of behavior therapy had an improvement in tic severity (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.75, p < 0.001), inattention (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.48, p < 0.02), and functioning (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.39–0.42, p < 0.03–0.04) at the 6-month follow-up.
Behavior therapy has a therapeutic benefit for co-occurring obsessive symptoms in the short-term, and reduces tic severity and disability in adults with TD over time. Additional treatments may be necessary to address co-occurring symptoms and improve functional outcomes.
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for suicidal ideation and behaviors during adolescence. Elevations in internalizing and externalizing symptomology have been identified as two distinct developmental pathways linking child maltreatment and adolescent risk for suicide. However, recent research suggests that the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing symptomology may form a distinct etiological pathway for adolescent risk behaviors. Using the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) sample (N = 1,314), the present study employed a person-centered approach to identify patterns of concurrent change in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology over five time points from early childhood to adolescence in relation to previous experiences of child maltreatment and subsequent suicidal ideation and behaviors. Results indicated four distinct bivariate externalizing and internalizing growth trajectories. Group membership in a heightened comorbid internalizing and externalizing symptom trajectory mediated the association between childhood abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors. These findings suggest that the concurrent development of externalizing and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence may constitute a unique developmental trajectory that confers risk for suicide-related outcomes.
Mounting evidence shows genetic overlap between multiple psychiatric disorders. However, the biological underpinnings of shared risk for psychiatric disorders are not yet fully uncovered. The identification of underlying biological mechanisms is crucial for the progress in the treatment of these disorders.
We applied gene-set analysis including 7372 gene sets, and 53 tissue-type specific gene-expression profiles to identify sets of genes that are involved in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. We included genome-wide meta-association data of the five psychiatric disorders schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The total dataset contained 159 219 cases and 262 481 controls.
We identified 19 gene sets that were significantly associated with the five psychiatric disorders combined, of which we excluded five sets because their associations were likely driven by schizophrenia only. Conditional analyses showed independent effects of several gene sets that in particular relate to the synapse. In addition, we found independent effects of gene expression levels in the cerebellum and frontal cortex.
We obtained novel evidence for shared biological mechanisms that act across psychiatric disorders and we showed that several gene sets that have been related to individual disorders play a role in a broader range of psychiatric disorders.
Time-limited psychotherapy for depression is effective. However, comorbid personality disorders affect therapy outcomes negatively. Studies of follow-up effects and results relating to the influence of comorbid personality disorder and treatment modality are scarce.
To determine the influence of comorbid personality disorder and treatment modality on outcomes after cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) for depression.
This study draws on data from a previously published randomised clinical trial contrasting SPSP and CBT for depression (both 16 sessions). We compared the effectiveness of these psychotherapies for patients with and without personality disorder (n = 196). The primary measure was depression outcome; the secondary measurements were interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Collected data were analysed using multilevel analysis. Trial registration: ISRCTN31263312 (http://www.controlled-trials.com).
Although participants with and without comorbid personality disorder improved at treatment termination (d = 1.04, 95% CI 0.77–1.31 and d = 1.36, 95% CI 0.97–1.76, respectively) and at follow-up (d = 1.15, 95% CI 0.87–1.43 and d = 2.12, 95% CI 1.65–2.59 respectively), personality disorder had a negative effect on depression outcome at both measurement points (P < 0.05). A similar negative effect on interpersonal functioning was no longer apparent at follow-up. Comorbid personality disorder had no influence on social functioning or quality of life outcomes, irrespective of treatment modality.
CBT and SPSP contribute to the improvement of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed patients with and without comorbid personality disorder. Both treatments are an effective first step in a stepped care approach, but – given remaining levels of depression in patients with personality disorder – they are probably inadequate for large numbers of patients with this comorbidity.
It is becoming clear that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not simply a psychiatric disorder, but one that involves pervasive physiological impairments as well. These physiological disturbances deserve attention in any attempt at integrative treatment of PTSD that requires a focus beyond the PTSD symptoms themselves. The physiological disturbances in PTSD range over many systems, but a common thread thought to underlie them is that the chronic effects of PTSD involve problems with allostatic control mechanisms that result in an excess in what has been termed “allostatic load” (AL). A pharmacological approach to reducing AL would be valuable, but, because of the large range of physiological issues involved – including metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular systems – it is unclear whether there exists a simple comprehensive way to address the AL landscape. In this paper, we propose that the cannabinoid system may offer just such an approach, and we outline evidence for the potential utility of cannabinoids in reducing many of the chronic physiological abnormalities seen in PTSD which are thought to be related to excess AL.
Depression and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are common diseases and associated in a bidirectional manner.
To examine whether a bidirectional association between CVD and depression could be explained by shared risk factors, misclassification of disease measures or non-response.
A total of 10 population-based cohorts including 93 076 men and women (mean age 54.4 years, s.d. = 9.2) and an additional 10 510 men (mean age 51.2 years, s.d. = 0.3) were followed for subsequent depression, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in the Danish National Patient Registry from health examinations between 1982 and 2015 and until end of follow-up in 2017–2018. Exposures were physicians’ diagnoses of IHD, stroke, depression or self-reported chest pain, depression, use of antidepressant medication and the Major Depression Inventory at the time of study entry in the Metropolit study. Associations were analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression with disease as time-dependent variables.
IHD and stroke were associated with subsequent depression (hazard ratio (HR) for IHD: 1.79, 95% CI 1.43–2.23 and HR for stroke: 2.62, 95% CI 2.09–3.29) and the associations were present in both men and women. Adjustment for the shared risk factors socioeconomic status, lifestyle, body mass index, statin use and serum lipids did not change the risk estimates. Furthermore, depression was associated with higher risk of subsequent IHD (HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.36–1.95) and stroke (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.63–2.30). The associations were also present when the analyses were based on self-reported disease measures or restricted to include non-responders.
The bidirectional association between CVD and depression was not explained by shared risk factors, misclassification or non-response.
Bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are prevalent, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often characterized by early onset and chronic course. When comorbid, OCD and BD can determine a more pernicious course of illness, posing therapeutic challenges for clinicians. Available reports on prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbidity between BD and OCD showed mixed results, likely depending on the primary diagnosis of analyzed samples.
We assessed prevalence and clinical characteristics of BD comorbidity in a large international sample of patients with primary OCD (n = 401), through the International College of Obsessive–Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) snapshot database, by comparing OCD subjects with vs without BD comorbidity.
Among primary OCD patients, 6.2% showed comorbidity with BD. OCD patients with vs without BD comorbidity more frequently had a previous hospitalization (p < 0.001) and current augmentation therapies (p < 0.001). They also showed greater severity of OCD (p < 0.001), as measured by the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).
These findings from a large international sample indicate that approximately 1 out of 16 patients with primary OCD may additionally have BD comorbidity along with other specific clinical characteristics, including more frequent previous hospitalizations, more complex therapeutic regimens, and a greater severity of OCD. Prospective international studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency. This study aimed to assess one-year mortality rates in patients admitted to a large teaching hospital.
This study was a retrospective case note analysis of all patients admitted to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow with epistaxis over a 12-month period.
The one-year overall mortality for a patient admitted with epistaxis was 9.8 per cent. The patients who died were older (mean age 77.2 vs 68.8 years; p = 0.002), had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric score (9.9 vs 6.7; p < 0.001) and had a higher performance status score (2 or higher vs less than 2; p < 0.001). Other risk factors were a low admission haemoglobin level (less than 128 g/dl vs 128 g/dl or higher; p = 0.025), abnormal coagulation (p = 0.004), low albumin (less than 36 g/l vs more than 36 g/l; p < 0.001) and longer length of stay (p = 0.046).
There are a number of risk factors associated with increased mortality after admission with epistaxis. This information could help with risk stratification of patients at admission and enable the appropriate patient support to be arranged.
The clinical and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for improving outcomes in people with mental and physical comorbidities is well established. However, translating these models into enduring change in routine care has proved difficult. In this editorial we outline how to shift the conversation on collaborative care from ‘what are we supposed to do?’ to ‘how we can do this’.
Declaration of interest
P.P.R. has received honoraria from Publicis LifeBrands and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement outside of the submitted work. H.A.P. reports personal fees from the BIND Health Plan outside of the submitted work; and is a Member of the Council on Quality of Care of the American Psychiatric Association.
To investigate if sleep disturbances may affect treatment outcomes of patients with panic disorder (PD).
Eighty-five PD outpatients with no Axis I comorbidity for mood disorders completed a baseline assessment (T1) and were evaluated after 3 (T2), 6 (T3) and 12 months (T4), with the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) total score as outcome measure during a 12-month naturalistic follow-up. Patients were assessed with the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR, Lifetime Version), and the PDSS.
Forty-three patients (50.5%) met criteria for remission (PDSS<5) and 42 (49.5%) for no remission. In a logistic regression model with remission as the dependent variable, MOODS-SR sleep disturbances was the only determinant for a lower likelihood of PD remission. The items accounting for this result were the following: Repeated difficulty falling asleep (chi-square = 4.4; df = 1; p = 0.036), and Repeatedly waking up in the middle of the night (chi-square = 5.2; df = 1; p = 0.022).
Lifetime sleep disturbances would represent a cue of mood spectrum (in absence of overt affective comorbidity) that may impair remission in PD.
This review examines whether the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID) could be used to support a defence of ‘not guilty by reason of insanity’ (NGRI, or the insanity defence). The problem is that DID has doubtful validity and can easily be malingered. However, the diagnosis is listed in standard psychiatric manuals. If accepted as valid, DID would have problematic forensic implications.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•understand the history of the DID diagnosis
•evaluate the validity of the DID diagnosis
•appreciate, from case law, use of DID in support of an insanity defence.
Somatization is known to be more prevalent in Asian than in Western populations. Using a South Korean adolescent and young adult twin sample (N = 1754; 367 monozygotic male, 173 dizygotic male, 681 monozygotic female, 274 dizygotic female and 259 opposite-sex dizygotic twins), the present study aimed to estimate heritability of somatization and to determine common genetic and environmental influences on somatization and hwabyung (HB: anger syndrome). Twins completed self-report questionnaires of the HB symptoms scale and the somatization scale via a telephone interview. The results of the general sex-limitation model showed that 43% (95% CI [36, 50]) of the total variance of somatization was attributable to additive genetic factors, with the remaining variance, 57% (95% CI [50, 64]), being due to individual-specific environmental influences, including measurement error. These estimates were not significantly different between the two sexes. The phenotypic correlation between HB and somatization was .53 (p < .001). The bivariate model-fitting analyses revealed that the genetic correlation between the two symptoms was .68 (95% CI [.59, .77]), while the individual-specific environmental correlation, including correlated measurement error, was .41 (95% CI [.34, .48]). Of the additive genetic factors of 43% that influence somatization, approximately half (20%) were associated with those related to HB, with the remainder being due to genes unique to somatization. A substantial part (48%) of individual environmental variance in somatization was unrelated to HB; only 9% of the environmental variance was shared with HB. Our findings suggest that HB and somatization have shared genetic etiology, but environmental factors that precipitate the development of HB and somatization may be largely independent from each other.
Bipolar disorder is less prevalent in older people but accounts for 8–10% of psychiatric admissions. Treating and managing bipolar disorder in older people is challenging because of medical comorbidity. We review the cognitive problems observed in older people, explore why these are important and consider current treatment options. There are very few studies examining the cognitive profiles of older people with bipolar disorder and symptomatic depression and mania, and these show significant impairments in executive function. Most studies have focused on cognitive impairment in euthymic older people: as in euthymic adults of working age, significant impairments are observed in tests of attention, memory and executive function/processing speeds. Screening tests are not always helpful in euthymic older people as the impairment can be relatively subtle, and more in-depth neuropsychological testing may be needed to show impairments. Cognitive impairment may be more pronounced in older people with ‘late-onset’ bipolar disorder than in those with ‘early-onset’ disorder. Strategies to address symptomatic cognitive impairment in older people include assertive treatment of the mood disorder, minimising drugs that can adversely affect cognition, optimising physical healthcare and reducing relapse rates.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•understand that cognitive impairment in euthymic older people with bipolar disorder is similar to that in working-age adults with the disorder, affecting attention, memory and executive function/processing speeds
•recognise that cognitive impairment in older people is likely to be a major determinant of functional outcomes
•Implement approaches to treat cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.
DECLARATION OF INTEREST
B.J.S. consults for Cambridge Cognition, PEAK (www.peak.net) and Mundipharma.