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Chapter 2 looks in detail at the economics of paper and its value. Starting from the vexed question of cost, it untangles a number of threads regarding other economic concerns relating to the journey of paper to England. England was not at the periphery of paper use, because it was a leading producer of wool. This flourishing market attracted the mercantile community which elected to use paper as the tool of their trade. This chapter also suggests that the great success that paper enjoyed as technology and craft was in direct proportion to its multiple uses, of which book making is only one aspect of that story. This chapter discusses the availability of Italian paper and its distribution from Italy to Europe more widely and thinks more carefully about the quality of paper, different types of paper, and the evidence for its arrival in England. This chapter reconsiders the papermaking process from the point of view of its many products and how these products then circulated within international and English markets. Building on the first chapter, I argue that the spread of paper to England and its use in administrative and book production is not dissimilar from that of other European countries.
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of participation in the land rental market on smallholder farmers’ commercialization using farm household panel data in Tigrai, Ethiopia. Regression results reveal that 1 hectare increase in area rented in by tenant households leads to a 60% increase in the likelihood of participation in the output market as a crop seller and increases the marketed output sold by tenant households by US$ 200/year. The results appear to indicate that land rental market in the land secrecy economy to some extent contributes positively in the facilitation of transformation toward smallholders’ commercialization.
Chapter 10 takes a broader look at IP protection as an incentive to innovate. Patent protection gaps brought about by 3D printing technology must be viewed in conjunction with how the technology dramatically lowers the costs of innovation (and imitation) for 3D printable goods. Moreover, although patents serve as a primary incentive to innovate, they are not the only incentive. The chapter looks at other IP rights, contracts, and extra-legal appropriability mechanisms, as well as nonmonetary incentives to innovate, to determine how the IP regime should respond to 3D printing technology. I describe the need for a better empirical understanding of 3D printing’s effects on innovation incentives, but I argue that current evidence does not suggest a need for stronger IP incentives for 3D printable goods. Therefore, radical changes to patent law are not necessary even in the face of de facto weakened patents. In addition, because copyright protection is not needed as an extra incentive for utilitarian innovation, copyright law should not protect DMFs of primarily utilitarian objects.
The Institute of Medicine recommended the advance of innovation and entrepreneurship training programs within the Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) program; however, there remains a gap in adoption by CTSA institutes. The University of Michigan’s Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research and Fast Forward Medical Innovation (FFMI) partnered to develop a pilot program designed to teach CTSA hubs how to implement innovation and entrepreneurship programs at their home institutions.
Materials and methods
The program provided a 2-day onsite training experience combined with observation of an ongoing course focused on providing biomedical innovation, commercialization and entrepreneurial training to a medical academician audience (FFMI fastPACE).
All 9 participating CTSA institutes reported a greater connection to biomedical research commercialization resources. Six launched their own version of the FFMI fastPACE course or modified existing programs. Two reported greater collaboration with their technology transfer offices.
The FFMI fastPACE course and training program may be suitable for CTSA hubs looking to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship within their institutions and across their innovation ecosystems.
The Institute of Translational Health Sciences (ITHS), a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA)-funded program at the University of Washington (UW), established the Drug and Device Advisory Committee (DDAC) to provide product-specific scientific and regulatory mentoring to investigators seeking to translate their discoveries into medical products. An 8-year retrospective analysis was undertaken to evaluate the impact of the DDAC programs on commercialization metrics.
Tracked metrics included the number of teams who consulted with the DDAC, initiated a clinical trial, formed a startup, or were successful obtaining federal small business innovation awards or venture capital. The review includes historical comparisons of the startup rates for the UW School of Medicine and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, two ITHS-affiliated institutions that have had different DDAC utilization rates.
Between 2008 and 2016, the DDAC supported 161 unique project teams, 28% of which went on to form a startup. The commercialization rates for the UW School of Medicine increased significantly following integration of the DDAC into the commercialization programs offered by the UW technology transfer office.
A formalized partnership between preclinical consulting and the technology transfer programs provides an efficient use of limited development funds and a more in-depth vetting of the business opportunity and regulatory path to development.
Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have sparked a frantic excitement in the scientific community because they can achieve high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) even when fabricated by low-cost solution-processing technologies. However, the poor stability of PSCs has seriously hindered their commercialization. Among various kinds of PSCs, carbon-based PSCs without hole transport materials (C-PSCs) seem to be the most promising for addressing the stability issue because carbon materials are stable, inert to ion migration, and inherently water-resistant. Concurrent with the steady rise in PCE of C-PSCs, great progresses have also been attained on the device stability and scaling-up fabrication of C-PSCs, which have well signified the possible commercialization of PSCs in the near future. In this review, we will summarize these progresses with a view of exposing the promising prospect. We start by collating recent stability testing results of C-PSCs with reference to those of HTM-PSCs. Then, we update the research status on large-scale C-PSCs and their associated scalable fabrication technologies. Finally, we identify main issues to be addressed alongside future research directions.
In 2014, the Japanese government amended the laws concerning regenerative medicine. This reform aimed to contribute to the appropriate promotion of regenerative medicine and new drug discovery for intractable diseases using stem cells. It also helped restrict stem cell tourism, that is, provision of stem cell therapy of unclear efficacy and safety to tourists from abroad, and its relaxed regulations may even lead to the resolution of the drug lag problem. Stem cell medicine is positioned as a part of a national growth strategy that requires cooperation among the industry, government, healthcare field, and academia. It can be characterized as a “mesoscopic strategy,” in that it aims to achieve high-level technological developments that would allow results from human-induced pluripotent stem cell and traditional stem cell research to contribute to regenerative medicine and drug development for intractable diseases, while attempting to strike a balance with commercialization and improved access of citizens to cutting-edge medical care.
This paper examines the contribution of products derived from baobab (Adansonia digitata), shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré (Parkia biglobosa) to rural livelihoods in Burkina Faso. A survey was conducted in northern and southern regions to identify and understand the social and environmental factors influencing the utilization of tree products by rural households for home consumption and commercialization, and to explore the contribution of tree products to food security. Emphasis was placed on the roles and responsibilities of women for tree product utilization. Inter- and intra-household relationships governing tree foods were found to vary between regions and tree species, and with gender and household composition. Collection and utilization of tree products differed between north and south because of contrasting ecological contexts and evolving social mores. Household decision making processes were negotiated and consensual in both regions. The results suggest that domestication and dissemination of planting and regeneration technologies, and product processing and marketing initiatives, need a gendered and tree-specific approach in order to build on local norms and capacities. Measures for the conservation and management of tree resources are most important where ecological constraints are most severe but dependence is greatest for sustaining food security.
By considering monetization across the Iron Age and Roman periods and across the whole of Temperate Europe some major developments become apparent. The spread of coinage in the Iron Age bears some relationship to the eventual extent of the Roman Empire. Coins stand in the archaeological record for systems of doing things, for ways people relate to each other and to things, and for ways of conceptualizing the world. They provide a useful way to approach the meeting of the worlds of the Iron Age and of Rome. Material forms of being Roman became increasingly important as a dimension of Roman identity. The commercialization implicit in Rome's ‘Cultural Revolution’ was underpinned by the extension of Roman-style monetization. In this light the monetization of Temperate Europe emerges as a process of considerable importance.
Food security is a problem in many developing and less developed countries due to increase in human population and decrease in crop productivity and food availability. Edible insects are a natural renewable resource of food providing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. As such, entomophagy is common in ethnic groups in South America, Mexico, Africa and Asia, where indigenous insects are easily available and are consumed in various forms (raw/processed) or used as an ingredient or supplement in modern recipes. Entomophagy therefore offers an opportunity to bridge the protein gap of human foods irrespective of a few constraints that are discussed. Concerning food security, more attention is needed to assess and revalidate entomophagy in the context of modern life. Further research would be necessary to exploit insect biodiversity and ethno-entomophagy, stop overexploitation of these insects, and initiate actions for insect conservation.
During the 20th century, US agriculture underwent vast transformations. The number of farmers has decreased, more farmers are relying on off-farm income, agriculture's proportion of the US GDP has declined, and a minority of non-metro counties in the US are farming dependent. Agriculture's evolution will continue and we have identified key trends and future challenges to effectively manage our changing agricultural system. Eight current trends in US agriculture were identified. These included: (1) increased land degradation; (2) competing land uses; (3) focus on single ecosystem service; (4) increase in farm size; (5) movement toward commercialization; (6) genetic engineering; (7) global markets; and (8) changing social structure. Future trends likely to affect agriculture include: (1) diminishing and increasingly volatile farm incomes; (2) reduced government involvement in food regulation; (3) continued transition from farming to agribusiness; (4) land-use will become a major issue; (5) increasing animal protein consumption in the US; (6) increased public input on livestock production practices; (7) increasing urbanization of historically rural US counties; (8) increased public concern over food safety; (9) increased medicinal production from agriculture; (10) new tastes, markets and opportunities will emerge. We further postulated that future challenges facing US agriculture might include: (1) competitive pressures; (2) sustainable development; (3) resource conservation; and (4) research and development. Integrated agricultural systems may be flexible enough to address these challenges. However, robust principles will be needed to design adaptable integrated agricultural systems. We present a nonexclusive list of preliminary principles under the four general categories of (1) economics and economic policies; (2) environmental; (3) social and political; and (4) technological.
Objectives: In the United States, medical devices represent an eighty-billion dollar a year market. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration rejects a significant number of applications of devices that reach the investigational stage. The prospects of improving patient condition, as well as firms' profits, are thus substantial, but fraught with uncertainties at the time when investments and design decisions are made. This study presents a quantitative model focused on the risk aspects of early technology assessment, designed to support the decisions of medical device firms in the investment and development stages.
Methods: The model is based on the engineering risk analysis method involving systems analysis and probability. It assumes use of all evidence available (both direct and indirect) and integrates the information through a linear formula of aggregation of probability distributions. The model is illustrated by a schematic version of the case of the AtrialShaper, a device for the reduction of stroke risk that is currently in the preprototype stage.
Results: The results of the modeling provide a more complete description of the evidence base available to support early-stage decisions, thus allowing comparison of alternative designs and management alternatives.
Conclusions: The model presented here provides early-stage decision-support to industry, but also benefits regulators and payers in their later assessment of new devices and associated procedures.
The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a “managed competition” delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of “health care” over “social care” through changes to which types of home care and home support services receive public funding. It addresses the effects of these reforms on the state–non-profit relationship, and the shifting balance between public funding of health and social care. At a program level, and with few exceptions, homemaking services have been cut from home care, and home support services are more medicalized. With these changes, growing numbers of people no longer eligible to receive publicly funded home care services look for other alternatives: they draw available resources from home support, they draw on family and friend networks, they hire privately and pay out of pocket, they leave home and enter an institution, or they do without.
If vaccines are to reliably prevent disease, they must be developed, produced and quality-controlled according to very strict regulations and procedures. Veterinary viral vaccine registrations are governed by different rules in different countries, but these rules all emphasize that the quality of the raw materials—the cells, eggs, animals or plants that are used in production—need to be carefully controlled. The veterinary vaccine business is also very cost-conscious. Emphasis over the last 5–10 years has therefore been to develop culture systems that minimize labor and sterility problems and thus provide for reliable and cost-effective production. Implementing these often more complex systems in a production environment takes considerable effort, first in scale-up trials and further down the line in convincing production personnel to change their familiar system for something new and possibly untried. To complete scale-up trials successfully, it is absolutely necessary to understand the biochemistry of the cells and the influence of the virus on the cells under scale-up and later production conditions. Once a viral product can be produced on a large scale, it is imperative that the quality of the end-product is controlled in an intelligent way. One needs to know whether the end-product performs in the animal as was intended during its conception in the research and development department. The development of the appropriate tests to demonstrate this plays an important role in the successful development of a vaccine.
The benefits of using plant-based oral vaccines are discussed. Transgenic maize expressing an antigen of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is reported as a model to demonstrate efficacy. Young pigs that were fed the TGEV corn orally were protected against challenge with virulent TGEV. Additional parameters important in providing a reliable and consistent supply of plant-based vaccines are discussed. Finally, vaccines developed in maize are evaluated for their potential to contaminate either the food supply or the environment.
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