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This brief Epilogue maps out the implications of the findings of this book on the various branches of the “science of eloquence” (ʿilm al-balāgha) and their role in poetic beauty. While faṣāḥa comes to refer to the correct, clear, and articulate way of conveying ideas, balāgha comes to refer to the conveying of ideas in a beautiful way after securing its faṣāḥa. Nevertheless, clarity often remains part of the definition of balāgha in Arabic criticism. The Epilogue concludes that this call for clarity is included in classical sources not as a determining feature of eloquence, but as a limit to the obscuring aspects of indirectness, implicitness, and unexpectedness necessary for rendering language beautiful.
This chapter explores the relevance of the sociolinguistic study of transnationalism for research on World Englishes (WEs) via a review of core literature and examples of metatheoretical and empirical scholarship in sociolinguistics. In doing so, the chapter integrates discussion of research on transnationalism, which explicitly positions itself within a WEs framework, as well as research on transnationalism with a focus on English that has implications for WEs research. Before delineating a series of research trajectories, the chapter argues for the need to first recognize and attempt to do justice to the polysemy of transnationalism. Against this backdrop, it then addresses implications for WEs research of a shift away from “methodological nationalism” to transnationalism, particularly given the similarities between criticisms of “methodological nationalism” and criticisms of WEs research. Turning then to metatheoretical and empirical research on language and transnationalism from a sociolinguistic perspective, the bulk of the chapter reflects on how a transnational perspective might inform WEs research.
Government cohesiveness is known to moderate retrospective voting. While previous work on this topic has focused on characteristics of the government, we build on the literature on clarity of responsibility and the literature on valence to argue that the extent to which government and opposition are ideologically distinct also moderates retrospective voting. Two alternative expectations follow from these two theoretical perspectives. While the clarity of responsibility framework leads to the expectation that a larger difference between government and opposition will strengthen retrospective voting, the valence literature presumes that retrospective voting is stronger when ideological differences are small. Using the data of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) project, we find evidence that is in line with the clarity of responsibility framework: the higher the degree of ideological polarization between government and opposition, the larger the effect of retrospective performance evaluations on the vote.
Electoral accountability is typically identified with retrospective economic voting even though it is widely recognized that explaining electors’ assignment of responsibility also implies considering issues other than the economy. Recently, scholars have also stressed the role of election quality in contributing to democratic legitimacy of elected authorities. In this perspective, electoral integrity as a valence issue would influence voters’ behaviour, structuring attitudes about accountability in substantial ways. This effect would also be moderated by individual- and country-level factors. I test these assumptions in 23 countries worldwide using a multilevel analysis of data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey. Results indicate that the strength of the link between perceptions of electoral integrity and vote for the incumbent seems to be affected by individual characteristics such as partisanship, while it is also moderated by specific contextual characteristics such as government clarity of responsibility and pluralism of the media.
In this article, I argue that in the sense of greatest epistemological concern for Kant, empirical cognition is ‘rational sensory discrimination’: the identification or differentiation of sensory objects from each other (whether correctly or not), occurring through a capacity of forming judgements (whether correct or not). With this account of empirical cognition, I show how the Transcendental Deduction of the first Critique is most plausibly read as having as its fundamental assumption the thesis that we have empirical cognition, and I provide evidence that Kant understood Hume as granting this assumption.
The ‘rule of law’ is a concept at the very heart of the United Nations (UN) mission declared its Secretary-General, Kofi Annan. What does the concept mean internationally? The paper considers its role in international adjudication; in the UN more generally; in terms of the acceptances of the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ); the difference between thick and thin definitions of the concept; equality before the law; the requirement of clarity and certainty by reference to interpretation of treaties and maritime delimitation; compliance by Governments with international law; and the peaceful settlement of international disputes; and concludes with the importance of personal qualities and professional qualities.
Philosophers should express their ideas clearly. They should do this in any field of specialization, but especially when they address issues of practical consequence, as they do in bioethics. This article dissects a recent and much-debated contribution to philosophical bioethics by Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva, examines how exactly it fails to meet the requirement of clarity, and maps a way forward by outlining the ways in which philosophical argumentation could validly and soundly proceed in bioethics.
There is a tendency in contemporary contract law for judges to “never say never” and permit an open-ended exception from the rule. This nebulous exception is designed to cater for the rare instance where application of the rule would be undesirable in the interests of justice. However, this kind of imprecise exception is deleterious in terms of the unpredictability it generates, as well as the attendant increases in time and costs that result. The “never say never” approach is to be discouraged in contract law where commercial predictability, while certainly not inviolable, nonetheless remains a weighty goal deserving of continued deference.
In the Australian healthcare sector, many changes in the public sector have affected nurse management and thereby, nurses. Yet it is unclear whether such efficiency measures, based on private sector business models, have impacted private sector nurses in similar ways. This paper examines four important issues for nurses: supervisor–subordinate relationships; perceptions of autonomy; role clarity in relation to patients; and job satisfaction. The paper uses an embedded mixed methods research design to examine the four issues and then compares similarities and differences between public and private sector nurses. The findings suggest supervisor–subordinate relationships, patient role clarity and autonomy significantly predict job satisfaction. The private sector nurses reported more satisfaction than public sector nurses with their supervisor–subordinate relationships, plus higher perceptions of patient role clarity and autonomy, and hence, higher levels of job satisfaction. The findings raise questions about whether present management practices (especially public sector) optimise service delivery productivity.
This chapter reviews the mechanism of action of cladribine, summarizes data from clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and provides guidance on the management of these patients in clinical practice. The study of parenteral cladribine showed encouraging results, which lead to the development of an oral tablet formulation. Cladribine is rapidly absorbed with Cmax within 30- 50 minutes after oral administration. CLARITY, a 96-week, placebo-controlled Phase 3 study of cladribine tablets as an annual short-course oral monotherapy in RRMS, was recently completed and the principal results published. Benefit of doses of cladribine over placebo was demonstrated for a variety of clinical and imaging end-points. The most common adverse events in the patients were lymphopenia, headache, nasopharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The outcomes observed during the CLARITY study were associated with a reduced consumption of health care resources and a decreased need for medical and societal support.
Plato's famous comparison of the different forms of human awareness with a line divided into four parts contains many puzzling features. This chapter talks about Socrates' most puzzling claim, namely that the different line segments provide a measure of the relative degrees of sapheneia and asapheia- usually translated into English as "clarity" and "obscurity"- available to human beings. It argues that none of the usual translations of sapheneia provides us with a satisfactory understanding of this remark. The chapter reviews the use of saphes and its cognates from the time of the Homeric poems down to the fourth century BCE and argues that the relevant sense of sapheneia in this setting is "full, accurate and sure awareness of an object". Socrates concludes that justice exists in the individual when each of the elements in the soul does its own and avoids meddling in the business of the others.
With the increasing focus on collaborative, interprofessional models of service delivery in many parts of the world, it is crucial that nurses be able to demonstrate confidence in the value they add to the health system. As the largest group of health professionals, nurses must serve as change agents in strengthening health systems and influencing the development of appropriate health policy. This requires that nurses have a solid understanding of what is their unique role in contributing to attainment of desired health outcomes in the populations they serve. In this article, the role of nurses in health care is reviewed, with commentary on some areas in which nurses are currently underutilized in health care delivery, whether employed in community or institutional settings. Data from research conducted in Canada suggest that nurses have a tendency to define themselves by the tasks or activities they perform and seem unable to clearly articulate their special role in health care. Strong leadership and a willingness by nurses to re-orient their practice will be required to ensure that the potential for harnessing the knowledge, experience, capabilities and commitment of nurses in advancing health care reform shifts from rhetoric to reality.
Policy makers often face the problem of evaluating how water quality affects a region's economic well-being. Using water clarity as a measure of the degree of eutrophication levels (as a lake becomes inundated with nutrients, water clarity decreases markedly), analysis is performed on sales data collected over a six-year period. Our results indicate that water clarity has a significant effect on prices paid for residential properties. Effects of a one-meter change in clarity on property value are also estimated for an average lake in four real estate market areas in New Hampshire, with effects differing substantially by area. Our findings provide state and local policy makers a measure of the cost of water quality degradation as measured by changes in water clarity, and demonstrate that protecting water quality may have a positive effect on property tax revenues.
The clarity of 39 meltwater ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf was determined as the horizontal viewing range of a black disc. Visual ranges varied widely from pond to pond from 0.14–5 m; so did the concentrations of optically-active constituents, including the suspended particulates, phytoplankton (10-fold variation) and inorganic suspensoids (> 100-fold), and dissolved yellow substance (10-fold). In six of the ponds the ratio of beam attenuation coefficient to total suspended solids concentration was low (< 0.6 m2 g−1) compared to that in the others (0.7–2.0 m2 g−1, suggesting that generally larger particles were present suspended in the water in these ponds. In both groups, relationships between beam attenuation and constituent concentrations indicated that much of the attenuation was due to inorganic suspensoids. Organic detritus also appeared to be important in many ponds, while phytoplankton and dissolved yellow substance were generally less important. Even though the clarity of many of the ponds was poor, their relative shallowness meant levels of underwater light were probably generally adequate for benthic plant growth.